The Factors that Cause Hangovers and their Societal Impact – oxfordjournals.org

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http://alcalc.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/2/124

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Sample:

“Many people favour the (unproven) popular belief that dehydration is the main cause of alcohol hangover symptoms. However, taking a closer look at the present research on biological changes during alcohol hangovers suggests otherwise. A limited number of experiments have studied biological changes that are present the day after excessive drinking (for a review, see Ylikahri and Huttunen, 1977). Significant changes were reported on endocrine parameters (increased concentrations of vasopressin, aldosterone, and renin) and metabolic acidosis (reduced blood pH values due to increased concentrations of lactate, ketone bodies, and free fatty acids). These effects are related to dehydration and cause symptoms such as dry mouth and thirst. In addition, changes in immune system parameters (increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokine [IL-12] and interferon-gamma [IFNγ]) have been reported (Kim et al., 2003). It is likely that these changes in immune system parameters cause the more ‘cognitive’ alcohol hangover effects such as memory impairment and mood changes. Moreover, these findings suggest that alcohol hangover and dehydration are two independent yet co-occurring processes that have different underlying mechanisms. The idea that alcohol hangover symptoms (i.e. memory impairment) are related to immune system activation is strengthened by a relatively new discovery that the immune system and central nervous system (CNS) operate in close communication with each other (Maier and Watkins, 1998; Maier, 2003).”

MLA Citation:

Verster, Joris. “The alcohol hangover–a puzzling phenomenon.” Alcohol and Alcoholism 43.2 (Mar. 2008): 124-126. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://alcalc.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/2/124>.

In-Text: (Verster)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Verster, J. (2008, Mar.). The alcohol hangover–a puzzling phenomenon. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 43(2), 124-126. DOI: 10.1093/alcalc/agm163

In-Text: (Verster, 2008)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

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