The Factors that Cause Hangovers and their Societal Impact –



Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More


“Many people favour the (unproven) popular belief that dehydration is the main cause of alcohol hangover symptoms. However, taking a closer look at the present research on biological changes during alcohol hangovers suggests otherwise. A limited number of experiments have studied biological changes that are present the day after excessive drinking (for a review, see Ylikahri and Huttunen, 1977). Significant changes were reported on endocrine parameters (increased concentrations of vasopressin, aldosterone, and renin) and metabolic acidosis (reduced blood pH values due to increased concentrations of lactate, ketone bodies, and free fatty acids). These effects are related to dehydration and cause symptoms such as dry mouth and thirst. In addition, changes in immune system parameters (increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokine [IL-12] and interferon-gamma [IFNγ]) have been reported (Kim et al., 2003). It is likely that these changes in immune system parameters cause the more ‘cognitive’ alcohol hangover effects such as memory impairment and mood changes. Moreover, these findings suggest that alcohol hangover and dehydration are two independent yet co-occurring processes that have different underlying mechanisms. The idea that alcohol hangover symptoms (i.e. memory impairment) are related to immune system activation is strengthened by a relatively new discovery that the immune system and central nervous system (CNS) operate in close communication with each other (Maier and Watkins, 1998; Maier, 2003).”

MLA Citation:

Verster, Joris. “The alcohol hangover–a puzzling phenomenon.” Alcohol and Alcoholism 43.2 (Mar. 2008): 124-126. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <>.

In-Text: (Verster)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Verster, J. (2008, Mar.). The alcohol hangover–a puzzling phenomenon. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 43(2), 124-126. DOI: 10.1093/alcalc/agm163

In-Text: (Verster, 2008)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Need More Help?

Chegg's tutors will help you get a better grade. Get your first 30 mins FREE.


The 8th edition of MLA has resulted in changes to the citation format. Correcting the citations on our website will take some time. Until then, please reference the guidelines below to correct the citation format. You will still be using the information provided here, but you may need to adjust the format for MLA 8.

Most MLA citations on our site should follow this format:

Author, A. Title of Source. Publisher, Date, URL. Accessed, 1 Jan 2050.
"Web." removed
  • Medium of publication does not need to be stated if obvious.
  • Listing the "name of the site" is not necessary if it is the same as the name of the publisher.
No brackets around URLs
  • URLs should be placed after the publication date, separated by a comma, and before the date accessed, with a period at the end.

For citing an article in a scholarly journal you will use the journal title instead of publisher, and retain any volume, issue, and page numbers. Use a DOI in place of URL if one is available.

Leave a Reply