Credible Sources for Shakespeare

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/macbeth-and-shakespeares-linguistic-innovation

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Sample:

“When Shakespeare began writing Macbeth (probably in 1605), there seem not to have been enough words in the English language to deal with his protagonist’s state of mind and the events relating to it. We find a surprisingly large number of ‘Williamisms’ (first recorded usages in the Oxford English Dictionary) – 62 of them – most of which feel like genuine coinages on Shakespeare’s part, for they clearly relate to the themes and actions of the play.

For a start, there’s the word needed for the central event:

If the assassination Could trammel up the consequence (1.7.2)

Assassin and assassinate were already in use, and other attempts had been or were being made to find a noun for the ‘act of assassinating’, such as assassinment, assassinacy, and assassinay. But Shakespeare either hadn’t come across these or didn’t like them. And it is his usage which remained in the language.

Other murder-related words had to be coined. Macbeth says of Banquo and Fleance:

They are assailable (3.2.29, ‘open to assault’)

And we find two new verbs capturing the redness of blood:

The multitudinous seas incarnadine, Making the green one red. (2.2.62, ‘dye with incarnadine’)

Go prick thy face and over-red thy fear (5.3.14, ‘cover with red’)

Incarnadine (‘flesh-coloured, carnation’) had already been used as an adjective and a noun, but this was the first time it had been used as a verb.”

Description:

Author(s):

  • David Crystal

Title:

  • Macbeth and Shakespeare’s linguistic innovation

Publisher:

  • British Library

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/witchcraft-in-shakespeares-england

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Sample:

“In Shakespeare’s England, anxiety about witchcraft and belief in magic and the supernatural were not limited to the lower or uneducated classes. Macbeth is a powerful man of high estate, and though at times he questions the validity of the three witches and their prophecies, he ultimately accepts the potential of witchcraft and magic. One of Queen Elizabeth’s courtiers, Sir Walter Ralegh, described witches as women controlled by the Devil. But others, such as Reginald Scot, author of The Discoverie of Witchcraft, were far more sceptical; Scot argued against the existence of supernatural witchcraft and claimed that some accused witches were women with mental illness while others may have been con artists. Indeed, at the height of the witchcraft trials almost all of those accused were women, and many of them poor or economically vulnerable who, like the witches of Macbeth, might beg their neighbours for something to eat. But unlike the stage witches, who, in Act 4, Scene 1, truly can conjure powerful magic, while some of those accused were convinced they were able to do so, ability to perform such magic was only on stage.”

Description:

Article discussing how witchcraft trials in the 16th century influenced England’s culture and Shakespeare’s writing in Macbeth. This piece argues that King James I certainty in the existence of witchcraft and interest in it led Shakespeare to craft the story of Macbeth to “please his new king.”

Author(s):

  • Carole Levin

Title:

  • Witchcraft in Shakespeare’s England

Publisher:

  • British Library

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2007/04/12/shakespeare-and-the-uses-of-power/

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Sample:

“Macbeth himself seems tormented by the question. To be sure, his anxiety derives in part from a straightforward prudential concern, a fear that what he metes out will inevitably be meted out to him, measure for measure. But his queasiness has deeper roots in his sense of ethical obligation, in this case the obligation to obey and serve the king his master. His wife, who knows her husband’s character all too well, has already cannily anticipated his inner struggle:

Thou wouldst be great,

Art not without ambition, but without

The illness should attend it.

(1.5.16–18)

Hence faced with the perfect opportunity to seize the crown—King Duncan is a guest in his castle—Macbeth holds back. He is, he reflects, Duncan’s kinsman and subject, and at this moment he is also the king’s host, “who should against his murderer shut the door,/ Not bear the knife myself.” Above all, there has been nothing in the king’s comportment that would make his murder a remotely justifiable act. (Shakespeare characteristically altered his source in order to eliminate evidence of Duncan’s incompetence and thus to eliminate a rational basis for his assassination.) On the contrary, Macbeth broods,

this Duncan Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been

So clear in his great office, that his virtues

Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued against

The deep damnation of his taking-off.

(1.7.16–120)

“Meek” is a strange word to describe a king whom we have just seen conducting a bloody military campaign and ordering the summary execution of his enemy, the Thane of Cawdor. But it serves to intensify Macbeth’s brooding on the deep damnation that will befall Duncan’s assassin.”

Description:

Long-form review of Shakespeare’s use of political power or status in his stories, including detailed analysis of Macbeth.

Author(s):

  • Stephen Greenblatt

Title:

  • Shakespeare and the Uses of Power

Publisher:

  • New York Review of Books

Date:

  • April 12, 2007

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/manhood-and-the-milk-of-human-kindness-in-macbeth

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Sample:

Macbeth is the tragedy of a man torn apart and destroyed by the conflicting conceptions of masculinity at war within him. But it’s also a tragedy that glimpses beyond that conflict the prospect of humanity’s liberation from the destructive male fantasies that still plague it and threaten its survival.

In case the play’s obsession with manhood escapes us, Shakespeare enlists that scurrilous wise fool the Porter to bring it into focus. In the immediate aftermath of Duncan’s murder and its traumatic impact on Macbeth, as the dreadful knocking at the gate subsides, the self-styled ‘porter of Hell Gate’ (2.3.2) treats Macduff to an incongruous comic lecture on the fate booze has in store for the sexually aroused male:

Lechery, sir, it provokes and unprovokes: it provokes the desire, but it takes away the performance. Therefore much drink may be said to be an equivocator with lechery: it makes him and it mars him; it sets him on, and it takes him off; it persuades him, and disheartens him; makes him stand to, and not stand too; in conclusion, equivocates him in a sleep, and giving him the lie, leaves him. (2.3.29–36)

But on closer inspection the Porter’s lewd gag turns out to be anything but incongruous. What it provides, in the guise of light relief from the tension of the preceding scenes, is a vulgar comic version of Macbeth’s tragic plight. In a sly plebeian parody of the play’s ‘imperial theme’ (1.3.129) Macbeth’s disabling agonies of conscience before and after killing his king are reduced to the embarrassment of impotent lust. This covert caricature of Macbeth’s ‘Thriftless ambition’ (2.4.28), which fails to be satisfied by regicide, as a failure to translate desire into deed by maintaining an erection, pinpoints what’s ultimately at stake in this tragedy: male power and masculinity itself.”

Description:

Article from the British Library exploring the role “manhood” and “conceptions of masculinity” play in Shakespeare’s tragedy, Macbeth.

Author(s):

  • Kiernan Ryan

Title:

  • Manhood and the ‘milk of human kindness’ in Macbeth

Publisher:

  • British Library

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/unsex-me-here-lady-macbeths-hell-broth

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Sample:

“Throughout most of literary history, Lady Macbeth – the scheming spouse who plots the villainy at the centre of Shakespeare’s devastating ‘Scottish play’ – has been seen as a figure of ‘almost peerless malevolence’. Monstrous and murderous, she was based on a woman described in Holinshed’s Chronicles as ‘burning in unquenchable desire to beare the name of a queene’. Yet actors who played this part have often debated her character. Writing in the early 19th century, the great Sarah Siddons declared that this infamous heroine was ‘a woman in whose bosom the passion of ambition has almost obliterated all the characteristics of human nature’, and recalled that she first learned the part ‘in a paroxysm of terror’, so fearful that the rustling of her own silk dress seemed ‘like the movement of a spectre pursuing me’. But later in the century the charismatic actor Ellen Terry thought it ‘strange’ that Lady Macbeth should be seen ‘as a sort of monster’, claiming that ‘I conceive [her] as a small, slight woman of acute nervous sensibility’, who was perhaps ‘not good, but not much worse than many women you know – me for instance’. The critic Anna Jameson similarly declared that ‘the woman herself remains a woman to the last’.”

Description:

Literary analysis of Lady Macbeth with respect to gender roles, as well as her motivations and how they lead her on a murderous quest to be queen.

Author(s):

  • Sandra Gilbert

Title:

  • ‘Unsex Me Here’: Lady Macbeth’s ‘Hell Broth’

Publisher:

  • British Library

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699175/

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Sample:

“Sleep themes of insomnia, somnambulism, and nightmares are obvious in Hamlet and Macbeth; however they are evident throughout his work. This paper focuses on sleep references in Othello. First performed 400 years ago, Othello is one of Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies. The plot line of love and jealousy is deeply compelling, but there are a surprising number of sleep references embedded in the play that may not be immediately apparent to the casual reader. Instead, we understandably get caught up in the immense drama of the play, but sleep themes are there, lurking in every act. It’s not just references to insomnia but to other sleep problems—themes of domination through sleep deprivation, themes of sexual parasomnias, and themes of adverse effects of stress on sleep and the difficulty of treating insomnia. This paper will examine these passages and place them in the context of contemporary sleep medicine research.”

Description:

Article analyzing the themes and use of sleep and sleep deprivation by Shakespeare and his well-known play, Othello, in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. According to this article, sleep themes are apparent in much of Shakespeare’s work, like Hamlet and Macbeth, but also important in Othello.

Author(s):

  • Joel E. Dimsdale

Title:

  • Sleep in Othello

Publisher:

  • Journal: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 3

Date:

  • June 15 2009

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/critical-approaches-to-othello

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Sample:

“Othello was crafted at the dawn of the 17th century, shaped by complex social and geopolitical issues that new historicist critics, who seek to place literary works within a historical framework, have recently sought to unravel. Yet from its first staging to the present, Othello has also been among the few Shakespearean plays to be repeatedly staged to enthusiastic audiences, not only in England, but across the globe. This continuing appeal suggests that the tragedy transcends the time and location in which it was written, provoking new interpretations from generation to generation, place to place. In order to fully appreciate Othello, we need to see it in its multifaceted historical context – then – and consider the myriad ways it speaks to audiences now.”

Description:

Professor and Author Virginia Mason Vaughan looks at 4 recent critical approaches to Othello: feminist, new historicist, marxist and post-colonial. This source is published by the British Library, an excellent resource for analysis of English literature.

Author(s):

  • Virginia Mason Vaughan

Title:

  • Critical approaches to Othello

Publisher:

  • British Library

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ells/article/view/64746/34906

DOI: 10.5539/ells.v6n4p75

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Sample:

“The concept of evil has been researched since the Medieval era, leading to the conclusion that human beings have the freedom to choose good from bad, or evil from good. The origin of evil based on the religious teachings is Satan, who is described as the Rebel Angel, as explained by Dante in The Divine Comedy (Alighieri, 1957). Satan tempts human beings into sinning, as revenge against God for placing him in Hell. Based on the psychological point of view developed by Sigmund Freud, the source of evil is id which is distinctive (Freud, 1966). Villain motivations are driven by the tendency of the ego to make realistic decisions about meeting the unrealistic and unreasonable desires by the id. The other aspect that motivates villain actions include jealousy, anger and revenge, as indicated in the play. Shakespeare presents the villain character perfectly in his play Othello (1604) through Iago, whose main focus in life is to destroy others “So will I turn her virtue into pitch And out of her own goodness make the net That shall enmesh them all” (Shakespeare, 1993, p. 99). Through his manipulative skills, he makes the other characters trust him “Iago most honest” (Shakespeare, 1993, p. 75) and then fuel conflicts among them. Iago is motivated by anger, revenge and jealousy to commit the evil acts.”

Description:

Article on the concept of the ‘villain’ in Othello through the antagonist, Iago, who is “motivated by anger, revenge and jealousy to commit the evil acts.”

Author(s):

  • Marwan Alqaryouti and Ala Eddin Sadeq.

Title:

  • The Concept of Villain in Shakespeare’s Othello

Publisher:

  • Journal: English Language and Literature Studies, Vol. 6, No. 4

Date:

  • 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/racism-misogyny-and-motiveless-malignity-in-othello

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Sample:

“Anyone who doubts that Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies were written from an imaginative standpoint far ahead of his time need only think of Othello. The basic idea of the play is so well known that it’s easy to forget the startling boldness of Shakespeare’s decision to take Cinthio’s brief tale of a doomed mixed-race marriage and transform it into a heart-breaking tragedy. In a country where few people outside London would ever have seen a black person, and centuries before the problems that fuel the tragedy became as ubiquitous and pressing as they are today, Shakespeare produced in Othello a searing critique of racial and sexual injustice, which is more powerful now in the 21st century than it could ever have been at the dawn of the 17th.

The tragic sequence of events is triggered by the elopement of Othello and Desdemona. The fact that they are obliged to elope makes the illicit nature of their relationship in the eyes of Venice immediately clear. But in their eyes and in Shakespeare’s there’s nothing illicit about their love, to which they regard themselves, and the play regards them, as fully entitled. Undeterred by the paternal wrath and widespread disapproval they are bound to incur, Othello and Desdemona act as if a black man from Africa and an upper-class white woman from Venice have every right to fall in love, marry and be left to live happily together. They act, in other words, as if they were already free citizens of a truly civilized future, instead of prisoners of a time when racial prejudice and sexual inequality are so ingrained that even their heroic hearts are tainted by them.”

Description:

Article from the British Library exploring the themes of racism and misogyny in Shakespeare’s well-known and ahead-of-its-time play, Othello. This article discusses how much of a force racism was in Othello as well as the society and time it is set in, as well as discussing how progressive Shakespeare was in presenting the love between an interracial couple at that time.

Author:

Kiernan Ryan

Title:

Racism, misogyny and ‘motiveless malignity’ in Othello

Publisher:

British Library

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/daughters-in-shakespeare-dreams-duty-and-defiance

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Sample:

“A number of Shakespeare’s plays show daughters negotiating the demands of their fathers, often trying to reconcile duty with a desire for independence. Kim Ballard considers five of Shakespeare’s most memorable literary daughters: Juliet, Desdemona, Portia, Katherina and Cordelia.

When we consider that Shakespeare lived in an age when all actors were male and the subject matter of serious drama focused heavily on the exploits of men, it’s hardly surprising that female characters are in a minority in his plays. And yet Shakespeare created many complex and engaging female roles for his young male actors to perform. Parent-child relationships feature heavily, and a significant number of these involve fathers and daughters. Interestingly, mothers are often absent from the drama, throwing the daughter/father relationship into sharp relief. A father of two daughters himself, Shakespeare’s dramatic daughters make a formidable line-up of young women, most of them at a transitional stage between the protection of their childhood home and an adult life beyond it. The transition is rarely a smooth one: in both comedies and tragedies, tension rises as daughters go in search of love, adventure and independence. “

MLA Citation:

Ballard, Kim. “Daughters in Shakespeare: dreams, duty and defiance.” British Library, n.d., https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/daughters-in-shakespeare-dreams-duty-and-defiance. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Ballard)

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APA Citation:

Ballard, K. (n.d.). Daughters in Shakespeare: dreams, duty and defiance. British Library. Retrieved from https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/daughters-in-shakespeare-dreams-duty-and-defiance

In-Text: (Ballard)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/juliets-eloquence

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Sample:

“That most famous Shakespearean scene, the balcony scene (Act 2, Scene 1), must have been an extraordinary surprise to the play’s first audience – not only because of its dramatic daring but because Juliet speaks again, and now with even richer eloquence. At first she seems to be talking only to herself – but we ‘overhear’ her (as Romeo does) actually arguing a complex philosophical case:

’Tis but thy name that is my enemy. Thou art thyself, though not a Montague. … What’s in a name? That which we call a rose By any other word would smell as sweet. (2.1.80–81, 85–86)

Juliet displays the greater emotional realism in this famous scene of young love. Not for her Romeo’s reaching for poetical clichés, swearing by ‘yonder blessed moon’; rather, she says,

do not swear. Although I joy in thee, I have no joy in this contract tonight. It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden … (2.1.158–60)”

MLA Citation:

Gay, Penny. “Juliet’s eloquence.” British Library, n.d., https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/juliets-eloquence. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Gay)

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APA Citation:

Gay, P. (n.d.). Juliet’s eloquence. British Library. Retrieved from https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/juliets-eloquence

In-Text: (Gay)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/new-mutiny-the-violence-of-romeo-and-juliet

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Sample:

“And while Romeo and Juliet has barely been off stage or screen since – it may well be Shakespeare’s most performed and adapted play – it takes on a particular intensity in places and periods where violence is more than a mere literary device. In communist Czechoslovakia in 1963, Czech director Otomar Krejča directed it at the Prague National Theatre in a famous version that, drawing heavily upon its Cold War context, made it into a parable of disaffected youth versus negligent age (seeing it in Paris the following year, Peter Brook declared this ‘the best production of the tragedy he had ever seen’). Indeed, according to some theatre historians Romeo and Juliet was one of the most popular plays behind the Iron Curtain; at Moscow’s Vakhtangov Theatre in 1956, Josef Rapoport offered an image of the lovers crushed by violent social forces, an approach echoed by Tamás Major’s Hungarian production of 1971, which played the feud as an outright civil war, put down by an overbearing military regime.”

MLA Citation:

Dickson, Andrew. “The violence of Romeo and Juliet.” British Library, n.d., http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/new-mutiny-the-violence-of-romeo-and-juliet. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Dickson)

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APA Citation:

Dickson, A. (n.d.). The violence of Romeo and Juliet. British Library. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/new-mutiny-the-violence-of-romeo-and-juliet

In-Text: (Dickson)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0305/hamlet.html

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Sample:

“Bloom dismissed the notion that Hamlet, goaded by his father’s ghost, was motivated by revenge to kill his uncle Claudius, who had ascended the throne and married the queen, Gertrude, Hamlet’s mother. He also said Freud’s attempt “to fasten the Oedipus complex on Hamlet … will not stick.”

“Something in Hamlet dies before the play opens, and I set aside the prevalent judgment that the deepest cause of his melancholia is his mourning for the dead father and his outrage at his mother’s sexuality,” Bloom said. “The only vital relationship Hamlet has ever had was with Yorick, the King Hamlet’s jester, who died, the Grave-digger tells us, when the prince was seven. … Yorick the jester was Hamlet’s true father and mother.””

MLA Citation:

French, Yvonne. “Harold Bloom Interprets ‘Hamlet’.” Library of Congress, May 2013, https://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0305/hamlet.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (French)

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APA Citation:

French, Y. (2013, May). Harold Bloom interprets ‘Hamlet’. Library of Congress. Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0305/hamlet.html

In-Text: (French, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-and-revenge

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Sample:

“For centuries critics have tied themselves in knots trying to solve the baffling problem Hamlet appears to pose. Commanded by his father’s ghost in Act 1 to ‘Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder’ by his brother Claudius, who has robbed him of his wife and throne as well as his life, Hamlet swears that ‘with wings as swift / As meditation, or the thoughts of love,’ he will ‘sweep to [his] revenge’ (1.5.25, 29–31). He then spends almost the entire play spectacularly failing to keep his oath, despite the ghost’s reappearance in Act 3 to remind him: ‘Do not forget! This visitation / Is but to whet thy almost blunted purpose’ (3.4.110–11). Indeed after his departure for England, Hamlet’s obligation to avenge his father seems all but forgotten, and on his return he shows no sign of planning to take his uncle’s life. When he does at last kill Claudius in the dying moments of Act 5, he does so suddenly, without forethought, poisoning the King in revenge for conniving to poison him and for accidentally poisoning Gertrude.”

MLA Citation:

Ryan, Kiernan. “Hamlet and revenge.” www.bl.uk. British Library Board, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-and-revenge>.

In-Text: (Ryan)

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APA Citation:

Ryan, Kiernan. (n.d.). Hamlet and revenge. British Library Board. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-and-revenge

In-Text: (Ryan)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-the-play-within-the-play

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Sample:

“Outward displays of emotion are untrustworthy, Hamlet reasons, because a person could ‘play’ or mimic them. Indeed, even his own sincere demonstrations of sadness are compromised because it would be easy to feign them. So while Hamlet’s mourning clothes, sighs and tears ‘seem’ to express his grief, Hamlet insists they are not significant: his inner feelings are his true meaning. This relationship between ‘show’ and ‘authenticity’, ‘performance’ and ‘reality’, preoccupies Hamlet throughout the play. When he discovers that his uncle has murdered his father, Hamlet interprets the news as a lesson in deceitful appearances: ‘meet it is I set it down / That one may smile, and smile, and be a villain!’ (1.5.107–08). However, the tragedy complicates any easy moral distinctions between acting and authenticity. Hamlet himself, despite his petulant outburst against ‘seeming’, cannot escape the human impulse to perform. Not only does he successfully adopt an ‘antic disposition’ (1.5.172) to deflect attention from his revenge plot, but his endless soliloquising makes him all the more theatrical, even as he meditates on ‘that within which passes show’. At the very moment Hamlet insists that his mourning is authentic and internal, he seems deliberately to parade his grief for all to see. In this tragedy, Shakespeare explores the ways in which performance exists in and shapes reality.”

MLA Citation:

Woods, Gillian. “Hamlet: the play within the play.” www.bl.uk. British Library Board, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-the-play-within-the-play>.

In-Text: (Woods)

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APA Citation:

Woods, G. (n.d.). Hamlet: the play within the play. British Library Board. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-the-play-within-the-play

In-Text: (Woods)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-looking-backwards

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Sample:

“Hamlet’s personal situation reflects the political concerns of the period. For some reason the play never fully explains, this adult male heir does not inherit the throne from his father. The play is thus obliquely concerned with the great but unspeakable topical preoccupation of the end of the 16th century: the question of who would succeed the unmarried Queen Elizabeth. It was a crime to discuss the succession directly, but the theatre was able to glance at it through parallel, and in this way Hamlet has close affinities with Shakespeare’s plays on English historical subjects which rehearse similar issues.”

MLA Citation:

Smith, Emma. “Hamlet: looking backwards.” www.bl.uk. British Library Board, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-looking-backwards>.

In-Text: (Smith)

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APA Citation:

Smith, E. (n.d.). Hamlet: looking backwards. British Library Board. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-looking-backwards

In-Text: (Smith)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/hamlet-a-love-story

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Sample:

“The idea of love as something tied to emptiness or nothingness is central to psychoanalysis. Often, Webster and Critchley write, we’re inclined to think of love as the opposite of emptiness—we see it as “a system of mutual favors” that acts as a kind of bonus to life, a surplus. Instead, we love because we lack. Inside each of us there’s an emptiness, and that emptiness can never be filled. None of us can ever be loved enough—by our parents, by our children, by our husbands or wives. The bottomlessness of our need for love means that, even in our most stable, permanent, and healthy relationships, love “can only be renewed and invented anew, again and again. I love you. I love you. I love you.” Each time you declare your love, you admit that there’s a lack in yourself. And when two people are in love with one another, they’re offering up their equivalent emptinesses. When love works, it makes something out of nothing.”

MLA Citation:

Rothman, Joshua. “Hamlet: A Love Story.” newyorker.com. Conde Nast, 14 Aug. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/hamlet-a-love-story>.

In-Text: (Rothman)

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APA Citation:

Rothman, J. (2013, Aug. 14). Hamlet: A love story. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/hamlet-a-love-story

In-Text: (Rothman, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.uwlax.edu/urc/JUR-online/PDF/1999/C_Bailey.pdf

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“In the twelfth century, an obscure historian named Saxo Grammaticus recounted the tale of “Amleth.” That Shakespeare later borrowed the idea for his Hamlet from Saxo is not in dispute. What is intriguing to scholars, however, is the origin of Saxo’s noble Dane. Thus the focus of my research is an investigation into whether Amleth is an actual historical figure or simply a literary construct. Histories and legends from various parts of Europe include characters with elements similar to Saxo’s protagonist; however, no one character embodies all the elements that form the essence of Amleth. After critical analysis of primary sources from Scandinavia, England, Ireland and the Mediterranean region, it is my conclusion that Amleth is an amalgamation of both history and legend—that the historical character of Anlaf Cuaran, tenth century Danish conqueror of parts of Britain and Ireland, begins to be associated with legendary figures from the classical world and, through Saxo, is reborn as Amleth, heroic Fool of Denmark. This research is important not only for illuminating the origins of the renowned dramatic figure, but also for its contributions to the historiography of medieval Europe.”

MLA Citation:

Bailey, Christopher. “The Hamlet Mythos.” uwlax.edu. University of Wisconsin La Crosse, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.uwlax.edu/urc/JUR-online/PDF/1999/C_Bailey.pdf>.

In-Text: (Bailey)

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APA Citation:

Bailey, C. (n.d.). The Hamlet mythos. University of Wisconsin La Crosse. Retrieved from https://www.uwlax.edu/urc/JUR-online/PDF/1999/C_Bailey.pdf

In-Text: (Bailey)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.rsc.org.uk/hamlet/about-the-play/dates-and-sources

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Sample:

“The immediate source of Hamlet is an earlier play dramatising the same story of Hamlet, the Danish prince who must avenge his father. No printed text of this play survives and it may well have been seen only in performance and never in print. References from the late 1580s through to the mid 1590s testify to its popularity and to the presence of a ghost crying out for revenge. There is general scholarly agreement that the author of this early version of Hamlet was Thomas Kyd, famous as the writer of the revenge drama, The Spanish Tragedy. This play did survive in print and was a huge theatrical hit in the late 1580s and 90s, delighting the contemporary taste for intrigue, bloodshed and ghostly presences.”

MLA Citation:

“Dates and Sources.” rsc.org. Royal Shakespeare Council, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.rsc.org.uk/hamlet/about-the-play/dates-and-sources>.

In-Text: (“Dates and Sources”)

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APA Citation:

Dates and sources. (n.d.). Royal Shakespeare Council. Retrieved from http://www.rsc.org.uk/hamlet/about-the-play/dates-and-sources

In-Text: (Dates and sources)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.shakespeare-literature.com/l_biography.html

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Sample:

“SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM (1564—1616), English poet, player and playwright, was baptized in the parish church of Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire on the 26th of April. Birth 1564. The exact date of his birth is not known. 18th-century antiquaries, William Oldys and Joseph Greene, gave it as April 23, but without quoting authority for their statements, and the fact that April 23 was the day of Shakespeare’s death in 1616 suggests a possible source of error. In any case his birthday cannot have been later than April 23, since the inscription upon his monument is evidence that on April 23, 1616, he had already begun his fifty-third year. His father, John Shakespeare, was a burgess of the recently constituted corporation of Stratford, and had already filled certain minor municipal offices. From 1561 to 1563 he had been one of the two chamberlains to whom the finance of the town was entrusted. By occupation he was a glover, but he also appears to have dealt from time to time in various kinds of agricultural produce, such as barley, timber and wool. Aubrey (Lives, 1680) spoke of him as a butcher, and it is quite possible that he bred and even killed the calves whose skins he manipulated. He is sometimes described in formal documents as a yeoman, and it is highly probable that he combined a certain amount of farming with the practice of his trade. He was living in Stratford as early as 1552, in which year he was fined for having a dunghill in Henley Street, but he does not appear to have been a native of the town, in whose records the name is not found before his time; and be may reasonably be identified with the John Shakespeare of Snitterfield, who administered the goods of his father, Richard Shakespeare, in 1561.”

MLA Citation:

“William Shakespeare Biography”. shakeseare-literature.com. Shakespeare-literature.com, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.shakespeare-literature.com/l_biography.html>.

In-Text: (“William Shakespeare Biography”)

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APA Citation:

William Shakespeare Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.shakespeare-literature.com/l_biography.html

In-Text: (William Shakespeare Biography)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.bardweb.net/man.html

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Sample:

“For all his fame and celebration, William Shakespeare remains a mysterious figure with regards to personal history. There are just two primary sources for information on the Bard: his works, and various legal and church documents that have survived from Elizabethan times. Naturally, there are many gaps in this body of information, which tells us little about Shakespeare the man.”

MLA Citation:

Pressley, J.M. “Shakespeare’s Biography”. barbweb.net. The Shakespeare Resource Center, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bardweb.net/man.html>.

In-Text: (Pressley)

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APA Citation:

Pressley, J. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bardweb.net/man.html

In-Text: (Pressley)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/122

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Sample:

“William Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564, in Stratford-on-Avon. The son of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden, he was probably educated at the King Edward IV Grammar School in Stratford, where he learned Latin and a little Greek and read the Roman dramatists. At eighteen, he married Anne Hathaway, a woman seven or eight years his senior. Together they raised two daughters: Susanna, who was born in 1583, and Judith (whose twin brother died in boyhood), born in 1585.”

MLA Citation:

“William Shakespeare”. poets.org. Academy of American Poets, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/122>.

In-Text: (“William Shakespeare”)

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APA Citation:

William Shakespeare. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/122

In-Text: (William Shakespeare)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://absoluteshakespeare.com/guides/hamlet/characters/characters.htm

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

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Sample:

“Claudius: The present King of Denmark, King Claudius took Queen Gertrude whom he loves as his queen and wife, much to the consternation of Hamlet who believes his mother has betrayed him and his father’s memory by doing so. Cautious and suspicious, Claudius has courtiers Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and Hamlet’s love interest Ophelia spying on Hamlet for him since as he says, the great ones must be watched. Distrustful of Hamlet and his “madness”, King Claudius has Hamlet deported to England to be killed when he fears he has become a threat.”

MLA Citation:

“Hamlet, Prince of Denmark Characters”. absoluteshakespeare.com. AbsoluteShakespeare.com, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://absoluteshakespeare.com/guides/hamlet/characters/characters.htm>.

In-Text: (“Hamlet, Prince of Denmark”)

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APA Citation:

Hamlet, Prince of Denamrk Characters. (n.d.). Absoluteshakespeare.com. Retrieved from http://absoluteshakespeare.com/guides/hamlet/characters/characters.htm

In-Text: (Absoluteshakespeare.com)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://shakespearean.org.uk/ham1-haz.htm

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Sample:

“Hamlet is a name; his speeches and sayings but the idle coinage of the poet’s brain. What then, are they not real? They are as real as our own thoughts. Their reality is in the reader’s mind. It is we who are Hamlet. This play has a prophetic truth, which is above that of history. Whoever has become thoughtful and melancholy through his own mishaps or those of others; whoever has borne about with him the clouded brow of reflection, and thought himself “too much i’ th’ sun;” whoever has seen the golden lamp of day dimmed by envious mists rising in his own breast, and could find in the world before him only a dull blank with nothing left remarkable in it; whoever has known “the pangs of despised love, the insolence of office, or the spurns which patient merit of the unworthy takes;” he who has felt his mind sink within him, and sadness cling to his heart like a malady, who has had his hopes blighted and his youth staggered by the apparitions of strange things; who cannot well be at ease, while he sees evil hovering near him like a spectre; whose powers of action have been eaten up by thought, he to whom the universe seems infinite, and himself nothing; whose bitterness [75] of soul makes him careless of consequences, and who goes to a play as his best resource is to shove off, to a second remove, the evils of life by a mock representation of them – this is the true Hamlet.”

MLA Citation:

Hazlitt, William. “Characters of Shakespeare’s Plays”. shakespearean.org.uk. n.p., n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://shakespearean.org.uk/ham1-haz.htm>.

In-Text: (Hazlitt)

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APA Citation:

Hazlitt, William. (n.d.). Characters of Shakespear’s Plays. Retrieved from http://shakespearean.org.uk/ham1-haz.htm

In-Text: (Hazlitt, n.d.)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.bartleby.com/200/sw9.html

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Sample:

“FEW critics have even admitted that Hamlet the play is the primary problem, and Hamlet the character only secondary. And Hamlet the character has had an especial temptation for that most dangerous type of critic: the critic with a mind which is naturally of the creative order, but which through some weakness in creative power exercises itself in criticism instead. These minds often find in Hamlet a vicarious existence for their own artistic realization. Such a mind had Goethe, who made of Hamlet a Werther; and such had Coleridge, who made of Hamlet a Coleridge; and probably neither of these men in writing about Hamlet remembered that his first business was to study a work of art. The kind of criticism that Goethe and Coleridge produced, in writing of Hamlet, is the most misleading kind possible. For they both possessed unquestionable critical insight, and both make their critical aberrations the more plausible by the substitution—of their own Hamlet for Shakespeare’s—which their creative gift effects. We should be thankful that Walter Pater did not fix his attention on this play.”

MLA Citation:

Eliot, T.S. Hamlet and His Problems (1921). bartleby.com. Bartleby.com, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bartleby.com/200/sw9.html>.

In-Text: (Eliot)

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APA Citation:

Eliot, T.S. (1921). Hamlet and His Problems. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/200/sw9.html

In-Text: (T.S. Eliot, 1921)

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