Credible Sources for Racism

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/racial-discrimination-and-capital-punishment-the-indefensible-death-sentence-of-duane-buck

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Sample:

“Racial discrimination is unavoidable in considering the Texas death-penalty case of Duane Buck. In the campaign to reduce his punishment from execution to life in prison, the Inc. Fund has been prominent and tenacious, because the discrimination in his case is blatant. Buck was convicted of murdering two women in 1996. He was sentenced to death in 1997. To sentence an offender to death under Texas law, a jury must unanimously conclude that the defendant is likely to commit future criminal acts of violence. In the Buck case, a psychologist named Walter Quijano provided evidence to that effect. Before trial, he claimed in a report that Buck was more likely to be dangerous because he is black. He wrote, “Race. Black. Increased probability.”

Major studies have disproved the long-standing, prejudicial assumption of a link between race and dangerousness. In 2000, the Texas attorney general said that asserting that connection was both false and unconstitutional. In the case of Victor Hugo Saldaño, who was found guilty of murder, the Supreme Court vacated his death sentence and sent the matter back to a Texas court for a new sentencing hearing at the request of the attorney general. “My position in this matter is taken with full respect and empathy for the suffering experienced by victims of crime and their families,” he said. “But the public cannot have confidence in a criminal justice system if race is going to be considered at all in determining whether the ultimate penalty will be given.” He pledged that in the Buck case and six others, “in which testimony was offered by Dr. Quijano that race should be a factor for the jury to consider in making its determination about the sentence in a capital murder trial,” there would be new and fair sentencing hearings.”

Description:

Piece from The New Yorker which details through multiple criminal cases that the U.S. justice system unfairly favored the death penalty for black men.

Author(s):

  • Lincoln Caplan

Title:

  • Racial Discrimination and Capital Punishment: The Indefensible Death Sentence of Duane Buck

Publisher:

  • The New Yorker

Date:

  • April 20, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4504294/

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Sample:

““I can’t breathe.” “Hands up.” “Black lives matter.” These statements developed in reaction to the recent deaths of Eric Garner, an unarmed Black man strangled to death by police in Staten Island, New York, and Michael Brown, an unarmed Black adolescent shot to death by police in Ferguson, Missouri. To racial scholars, activists, and many community members, these preventable deaths were only two recent examples of the stark racial injustices that have plagued our country’s history. In both instances, the White police officers responsible for the deaths were neither charged with any crime, nor taken to trial. However, despite the national and international media attention these cases drew, they are by no means isolated incidents. Moreover, despite the media’s disproportionate focus on cases involving men, intersectional analyses demonstrate that racialized police violence and misconduct are inflicted upon women and transgendered persons of color as well.

These cases bring to light how racism, defined as a “system of structuring opportunity and assigning value based on race, that unfairly disadvantages some individuals and communities,” and advantages others, affects the daily realities in communities of color. As public health professionals, we are committed to achieving optimal health for all. Thus, these violent, premature deaths of people of color should enrage us because they directly oppose the vision of Healthy People 2020, “A society in which all people live long, healthy lives.” Therefore, our commentary calls upon our field to recognize the pervasive role of racism in public health and to reshape our discourse and agenda so that we all actively engage in racial justice work.

Our position is not a new one. In 1998, the American Public Health Association (APHA) released a policy statement on the disproportionate impact of police violence on people of color. This statement recommended strategies for reversing the trends; however, to date, there has been no record whether these policy recommendations have been implemented. The relevance of the 1998 APHA statement to the most recent incidents of racialized police violence is chilling. Yet, almost two decades later, explicit conversations about racism remain glaringly absent from most mainstream public health discourse.”

Description:

Article published in the American Journal of Public Health providing analysis of the Black Lives  Matter movement from a public health perspective.

Author(s):

  • Jennifer Jee-Lynn Garcia and Mienah Zulfacar Sharif

Title:

  • Black Lives Matter: A Commentary on Racism and Public Health

Publisher:

  • American Journal of Public Health

Date:

  • August 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/black-tweets-matter-180960117/

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Sample:

“In July 2013, a 32-year-old writer named Alicia Garza was sipping bourbon in an Oakland bar, eyes on the television screen as the news came through: George Zimmerman had been acquitted by a Florida jury in the killing of Trayvon Martin, an African-American teenager. As the decision sank in, Garza logged onto Facebook and wrote, “Black people. I love you. I love us. Our lives matter.” Garza’s friend Patrisse Cullors wrote back, closing her post with the hashtag “#blacklivesmatter.”

Though it began on Facebook, the phrase exploded on Twitter, electrifying digital avenues where black users were already congregating to discuss the issues and narratives that are often absent from the national conversation. A year later Black Lives Matter had become a series of organized activist movements, with Twitter its lifeblood. Since that first utterance, the phrase “Black Lives Matter” has been tweeted 30 million times on Twitter, the company says. Twitter, it can be said, completely changed the way activism is done, who can participate and even how we define it.”

Description:

Article from Smithsonian Magazine about the origin of the term “Black Lives Matter” and how Twitter has been an important tool for the movement.

Author(s):

  • Jenna Wortham

Title:

  • Black Tweets Matter

Publisher:

  • Smithsonian Magazine

Date:

  • September 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/10/22/black-lives-matter-should-also-take-on-black-on-black-crime/?utm_term=.761aeb006c44

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Sample:

“Black Lives Matter has done the nation a service by forcing Americans to reckon with a horrifying spate of police killings of unarmed African Americans. Without the movement, the names Eric Garner and Walter Scott wouldn’t resonate. Nor would Sandra Bland, who died in police custody and whose name was invoked during the most recent presidential debate. Despite this, Black Lives Matter has been severely taken to task, if not outright scorned, for its focus on police killings when, as its critics readily note, people in black neighborhoods are often at much more danger of being killed by other black people.

Why, they ask, hasn’t the Black Lives Matter movement been more concerned with — in wording sometimes fraught with condescension — “black-on-black crime?”

It’s a criticism typically associated with the political right, frequently thought (and frankly, frequently meant) to suggest that what black people need is to simply comport themselves differently, rather than endlessly complain about the depredations of (presumably) white police. However, even without such acrid, tribalistic intent, it’s possible to think BLM’s mission is currently incomplete.”

Description:

Article from the Washington Post about the Black Lives Matter movement and whether or not it should address the issue of ‘black-on-black’ violence.

Author(s):

  • John McWhorter

Title:

  • Black Lives Matter should also take on ‘black-on-black crime’

Publisher:

  • The Washington Post

Date:

  • October 22, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2016/06/27/on-views-of-race-and-inequality-blacks-and-whites-are-worlds-apart/

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Sample:

“Almost eight years after Barack Obama’s election as the nation’s first black president –an event that engendered a sense of optimism among many Americans about the future of race relations1 – a series of flashpoints around the U.S. has exposed deep racial divides and reignited a national conversation about race. A new Pew Research Center survey finds profound differences between black and white adults in their views on racial discrimination, barriers to black progress and the prospects for change. Blacks, far more than whites, say black people are treated unfairly across different realms of life, from dealing with the police to applying for a loan or mortgage. And, for many blacks, racial equality remains an elusive goal.

An overwhelming majority of blacks (88%) say the country needs to continue making changes for blacks to have equal rights with whites, but 43% are skeptical that such changes will ever occur. An additional 42% of blacks believe that the country will eventually make the changes needed for blacks to have equal rights with whites, and just 8% say the country has already made the necessary changes.

A much lower share of whites (53%) say the country still has work to do for blacks to achieve equal rights with whites, and only 11% express doubt that these changes will come. Four-in-ten whites believe the country will eventually make the changes needed for blacks to have equal rights, and about the same share (38%) say enough changes have already been made.”

Description:

Data from Pew Research Center showing great disparity between blacks and whites on racial equality and race relations broken down by demographics.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • On Views of Race and Inequality, Blacks and Whites Are Worlds Apart

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • June 27, 2016

Citations:

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