Credible Sources for Murder

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.thetrace.org/2015/08/gun-deaths-charleston-chattanooga-lafayette/

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Sample:

“In the 37 days between the shootings in Charleston and Lafayette, at least 1,433 people were killed with a gun in the United States. On July 23, when a man with a checkered history opened fire in a Louisiana movie theater with a legally-purchased handgun, there were a total of 67 shooting incidents. Twenty-eight people died.

In the wake of this year’s most recent mass shootings, the daily tally of gun violence victims continues to rise, particularly in our nation’s urban centers. In Baltimore — which in July suffered the deadliest month in more than four decades, with 45 homicides — 11 people were shot last weekend, three of them fatally. In New York City, where the number of gun injuries and deaths has dropped dramatically since a period of violence spanning the 1970s through the 1990s, as many as 22 people were shot from Friday to Sunday.”

Description:

This article analyzes data showing a high-frequency of gun-related violence and deaths during a short period in 2015 between the high-profile Charleston and Lafayette shootings.

Author(s):

  • Jennifer Mascia and Emily Fuhrman

Title:

  • At Least 1,433 People Were Killed With a Gun in the U.S. Between the Charleston and Lafayette Shootings

Publisher:

  • The Trace

Date:

  • August 4, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/trump-signs-bill-revoking-obama-era-gun-checks-people-mental-n727221

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Sample:

“President Donald Trump quietly signed a bill into law Tuesday rolling back an Obama-era regulation that made it harder for people with mental illnesses to purchase a gun.

The rule, which was finalized in December, added people receiving Social Security checks for mental illnesses and people deemed unfit to handle their own financial affairs to the national background check database.

Had the rule fully taken effect, the Obama administration predicted it would have added about 75,000 names to that database.

President Barack Obama recommended the now-nullified regulation in a 2013 memo following the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, which left 20 first graders and six others dead. The measure sought to block some people with severe mental health problems from buying guns.”

Description:

Article detailing the repeal of an Obama-era rule that requires background checks including data on individuals with mental disabilities.

Author(s):

  • Ali Vitali

Title:

  • Trump Signs Bill Revoking Obama-Era Gun Checks for People With Mental Illnesses

Publisher:

  • NBC News

Date:

  • February 28, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/the-cost-of-punishment.aspx

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Sample:

“Many state-initiated analyses—including reports from Michigan, New Mexico and South Dakota—have found administering capital punishment is significantly more expensive than housing prisoners for life without parole.

A study released last month found California has spent more than $4 billion on capital punishment since 1978, executing 13 criminals. That’s about $184 million more a year than life sentences would have cost.

Much of the cost results from litigating numerous appeals during the convict’s time on death row, where the average inmate spends 13 years prior to execution.

This lengthy process also influenced Bateman’s decision to sponsor an abolishment bill. “I spoke to many families who went through trying emotional times during the appeals for death row inmates,” he says. “Transferring an inmate from death row to life without parole allows for the aggrieved families to have a sense of calmness in their life without having to relive the tragic events over and over again.” “

Description:

Article from the National Conference of State Legislatures examining the cost of the death penalty and situations where states have stopped its use.

Author(s):

  • Richard Williams

Title:

  • The Cost of Punishment: July/August 2011

Publisher:

  • National Conference of State Legislatures

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/

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Sample:

“Roughly four-in-ten Americans support the Black Lives Matter movement. All told, 43% support the movement, including 18% who strongly support it. About one-in-five Americans (22%) oppose the movement, and a sizable share (30%) said they have not heard anything about the Black Lives Matter movement or did not offer an opinion.”

MLA Citation:

Horowitz, Juliana Menasce and Gretchen Livingston. “How Americans view the Black Lives Matter movement.” pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center, 8 July 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/>.

In-Text: (Horowitz and Livingston)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Horowitz, J.M. & Livingston, G. (2016, July 8). How Americans view the Black Lives Matter movement. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/

In-Text: (Horowitz & Livingston, 2016)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800748/

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Sample:

“This paper provides historical context for considering the connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the US; reviews erosions to the 4th Amendment to the US Constitution (which protects against unreasonable search and seizure) and the Posse Comitatus Act (which prohibits the Armed Forces from performing law enforcement functions) that helped set the groundwork for two vital War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams; and describes how stop and frisk and SWAT teams create conditions conducive to police brutality, particularly brutality that targets Black communities. While many laws and policies have created the foundations for police brutality, I have chosen to focus exclusively on the 4th Amendment and the Posse Comitatus Act in order to delve into detail on both, rather than present brief summaries of several policies. Additionally, the rich literature on the intertwined nature of racism, social control, and decisions about which substances should be classified as “illegal” is beyond the purview of this paper. Readers interested in these topics could review David Musto’s “The American Disease: The Origins of Narcotic Control” and David Courtwright’s “Dark Paradise: The History of Opiate Addiction in America” to learn more about this important topic.”

MLA Citation:

Cooper, Hannah LF. “War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.” Substance Use and Misuse 50.8 (2015): 1188-1194.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800748/>.

In-Text: (Cooper)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Cooper, H. L.F. (2015). War on Drugs policing and police brutality. Substance Use and Misuse, 50(8), 1188-1194. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2015.1007669

In-Text: (Cooper, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx

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Sample:

“The deaths of five police officers in Dallas, along with the recent deaths of two black men in Louisiana and Minnesota at the hands of police, highlighted — again — the importance of understanding attitudes of the American public, including blacks and whites, toward the police and criminal justice system.

A review of Gallup data, all collected prior to these most recent incidents, provides a social and cultural context for these issues.”

MLA Citation:

Newport, Frank. “Public Opinion Context: Americans, Race and Police.” gallup.com. Gallup, Inc. 8 Jul. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx>.

In-Text: (Newport)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Newport, F. (2016, Jul. 8). Public opinion context: Americans, race and police. Gallup, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx

In-Text: (Newport, 2016)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/

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Sample:

“In a year-long study, The Washington Post found that the kind of incidents that have ignited protests in many U.S. communities — most often, white police officers killing unarmed black men — represent less than 4 percent of fatal police shootings. Meanwhile, The Post found that the great majority of people who died at the hands of the police fit at least one of three categories: they were wielding weapons, they were suicidal or mentally troubled, or they ran when officers told them to halt.”

MLA Citation:

Kindy, Kimberly, Marc Fisher, Julie Tate, and Jennifer Jenkins. “A year of reckoning: Police fatally shoot nearly 1,000.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 26 Dec. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/>.

In-Text: (Kindy, FIsher, Tate, and Jenkins)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Kindy, K., Fisher, M., Tate, J., Jenkins, J. (2015, Dec. 26). A year of reckoning: Police fatally shoot nearly 1,000. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/

In-Text: (Kindy, Fisher, Tate, and Jenkins, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/21/gun-homicides-steady-after-decline-in-90s-suicide-rate-edges-up/

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Sample:

“The nation’s overall gun death rate has declined 31% since 1993. This total includes homicides and suicides, in addition to a smaller number of fatal police shootings, accidental shooting deaths and those of undetermined intent. For example, in 2014 there were 464 fatal police shootings, up from 333 in 2009. (Government data on fatal police shootings are also collected and reported by the FBI, though the agency acknowledges there are discrepancies between federal and local law enforcement counts.)”

MLA Citation:

Krongstad, Jens Manuel. “Gun homicides steady after decline in ’90s; suicide rate edges up.” pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center, 21 Oct. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/21/gun-homicides-steady-after-decline-in-90s-suicide-rate-edges-up/>.

In-Text: (Krongstad)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Krongstad, J.M. (2015, Oct. 21). Gun homicides steady after decline in ’90s; suicide rate edges up. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/21/gun-homicides-steady-after-decline-in-90s-suicide-rate-edges-up/

In-Text: (Krongstad, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/united-states-machine-gun-ban/

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Sample:

“Consider the situation: Gun crimes are on the rise, and the guns that criminals use are military-style weapons, capable of firing rounds with unprecedented speed and ferocity. Cities—where more people live than ever before—are becoming unsafe. The United States leads other industrialized countries in gun-related deaths. And scores of citizens, including the liberal president, are calling for action.

But this isn’t 2016. It’s 1934—a year in which the United States faced unprecedented challenges from a new kind of gun and a new kind of criminal, and the country responded with new laws.”

MLA Citation:

Bullard, Gabe. “Gun Control in America.” news.nationalgeographic.com. National Geographic, 14 Jun. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/united-states-machine-gun-ban/>.

In-Text: (Bullard)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Bullard, G. Gun control in America. National Geographic. Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/united-states-machine-gun-ban/

In-Text: (Bullard, 2016)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCES

1.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

This link leads to an article covering a study that showed implementation of 3 specific laws can drastically reduce gun-related crimes. The study analyzed state crime and gun data from all over the U.S. and found a larger group of laws that have a positive impact on gun-related crimes, but narrows it down to the 3 most effective laws – which, according to the study, can reduce gun-related deaths by 80%. Click here for MLA/APA citations. 

2.

http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext

Referenced here is a scholarly journal article that reveals the U.S. homicide rate is 7 times higher than other high income countries, while the gun-homicide rate is 25 times higher. Also of importance, the gun homicide rate in the U.S. for ages 15 through 24 was 49 times higher than other high-income countries. There is much more data on many different demographics, including that 90% of all women, children under 14, and 82% of total gun-related deaths in high-income countries occurred in the U.S. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

3.

http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/

Above is a link to a frequently updated page with information on gun-lobbying and U.S. politicians. This article provides background on the gun control debate in legislation along with data on amount of funding received by politicians and presidential candidates. The data shows a heavy proportion of these funds go to republican candidates, and that the National Rifle Association is a large proponent of such funding and other forms of support. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

4.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

This is a great article from the Washington Post that provides data on the most popular gun control talking points from this ongoing debate. This article covers the frequency of mass-shootings and other gun violence, as well as support for gun ownership in the U.S. There is some very compelling data in this article, most prominently that “states with stricter gun control laws have fewer deaths from gun-related violence” (emphasis ours, this would be key to a research assignment on this topic) and that “active shooter events have become more common” since 2000. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

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CREDIBLE SOURCES

1.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

This is a Washington Post article which actually provides insight into both sides of the gun control argument – both for and against – around 5 commonly discussed aspects of this increasingly relevant debate. This article provides an argument for either side supported with data and research. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

2.

http://www.constitution.org/2ll/2ndschol/57mich.pdf

The above link leads to a PDF of an article titled “Handgun Prohibition and The Original Meaning of the Second Amendment” published in Michigan Law Review by Don B. Kates, Jr., who is a prominent legal scholar. It was published in 1983 but is still useful as Kates uses extensive research and references to discuss how the second amendment is being interpreted by those involved in the debate (yes, this debate was happening over 30 years ago). Click here for MLA/APA citations.

3.

http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/gun-debate-culture-debate

This links to an article on the Cato Institute’s website by one of their constitutional researchers. The Cato Institute is a “Think Tank” which does research around government, public policy, and law, among many other things (you will likely find more articles on this topic there). The purpose of this article is to change the perspective of how one views the gun control debate – not gun control itself, but the debate surrounding it. The author argues that the debate is not around whether or not banning guns is constitutional, or whether increased gun control will reduce the amount of gun-related violence in the U.S., but that this debate is actually between two different view points on the role of government. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

4.

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-22288564

According to this article, the country of Iceland “ranks 15th in the world in terms of legal per capita gun ownership.” Yet, the purpose of this article is to examine Iceland’s astonishingly low crime rate – and more specifically the low rate of gun violence. A large portion of their population owns guns, yet they experience a fraction of gun-related crimes we do here in the U.S. There are major differences between Iceland and the U.S., but this article will be useful to any argument against gun control. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

5.

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/

Much of what you need to know for this one is in the title, “Gun Homicide Rate Down 49% Since 1993 Peak; Public Unaware.” This is a link to a Pew Research Center study done comparing the public’s thoughts on gun homicide rates and the actual data available. As explained in the title, the public perception of this hot-button issue is inaccurate, and there are many ways that could have an impact on the gun control debate. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

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Sample:

“Gun-related deaths in the U.S. could be reduced by more than 80 percent if three laws implemented in some states were extended nationally, an analysis led by Boston University researchers shows. In a study published in The Lancet, a research team analyzing state-level data from 2010 on gun-related deaths and 25 state-specific gun laws identified three laws that were most strongly associated with reductions in overall gun-related mortality. Laws requiring firearm identification through ballistic imprinting or microstamping were found to reduce the projected mortality risk by 84 percent; ammunition background checks, by 82 percent; and universal background checks for all gun purchases, by 61 percent.”

MLA Citation:

“Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 March 2016. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm>.

In-Text: (“Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths. (2016, Mar. 10). ScienceDaily. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

In-Text: (“Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

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Sample:

“In this post… we explore America’s unique role among advanced countries as a place where support for guns is widespread — and violence involving firearms is equally widespread. There are some perhaps surprising findings — gun ownership in the United States is declining overall, for instance. But despite mass killings — which have occurred with increasing frequency in recent years — support for gun rights is still resolute in America.”

MLA Citation:

Ehrenfreund, Max and Zachary A. Goldfarb. “11 essential facts about guns and mass shootings in the United States.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 18 Jun. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/>.

In-Text: (Ehrenfreund and Goldfarb)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Ehrenfreund, M. & Goldfarb, Z. A. (2015, Jun. 18). 11 essential facts about guns and mass shootings in the United States. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

In-Text: (Ehrenfreund & Goldfarb, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext

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Sample:

“US homicide rates were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher. For 15- to 24-year-olds, the gun homicide rate in the United States was 49.0 times higher. Firearm-related suicide rates were 8.0 times higher in the United States, but the overall suicide rates were average. Unintentional firearm deaths were 6.2 times higher in the United States. The overall firearm death rate in the United States from all causes was 10.0 times higher. Ninety percent of women, 91% of children aged 0 to 14 years, 92% of youth aged 15 to 24 years, and 82% of all people killed by firearms were from the United States.”

MLA Citation:

Grinshteyn, Erin and David Hemenway. “Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010.” The American Journal of Medicine (2015): n.p.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext>.

In-Text: (Grinshteyn and Hemenway)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Grinshteyn, E. & Hemenway, D. (2015, Nov. 6). Violent death rates: The US compared with other high-income OECD countries, 2010. The American Journal of Medicine, n.p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025

In-Text: (Grinshteyn & Hemenway, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment

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Sample:

“What exactly constitutes “cruel and unusual” punishment? The U.S. Supreme Court has struggled to establish a conclusive answer to this question. A few Supreme Court justices subscribe to the idea that what was considered “cruel and unusual” at the time of our nation’s founding more than 200 years ago should still shape our idea of what is considered “cruel and unusual” today. A majority of the Court, however, has determined that what constitutes “cruel and unusual” should be dependent on the “evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.”

Given such a benchmark as “evolving standards of decency,” one might think that Americans are safe from being subjected to punishment that the average person would consider cruel and unusual. Yet that is not so. It should be noted that while the Supreme Court has determined that executing mentally retarded people is “cruel and unusual,” it has left it up to the states to determine whether a particular inmate qualifies as “mentally retarded.” Consequently, mentally retarded inmates are still being executed for lack of uniform guidelines and standards.”

MLA Citation:

“Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment.” The Rutherford Institute. The Rutherford Institute, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment>.

In-Text: (“Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment. (n.d.). The Rutherford Institute. Retrieved from https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment

In-Text: (Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“Next let’s turn to Justice Breyer, who argues that it is “highly likely” that the death penalty as a whole violates the Eighth Amendment, because it is unreliable, arbitrary, slow and rare. This argument went well beyond the specific challenge to the use of the midazolam that was the focus of the case. Rather, Justice Breyer explained that he would stop trying “to patch up the death penalty’s legal wounds one at a time” and likely bury the whole thing. Justice Breyer (whose opinion was joined here by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg) is the first member of the current court to call for such a radical step.”

MLA Citation:

Baude, William. “Is the Death Penalty Unconstitutional?” The New York Times. The New York Times Compnay, July 7. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (Baude)

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APA Citation:

Baude, W. (2015, July 7). Is the death penalty unconstitutional? The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0

In-Text: (Baude, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://time.com/2994922/california-death-penalty-unconstitutional/

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Sample:

“Uncertainties and delays over executions violate the Eighth Amendment’s ban on cruel and unusual punishment, says federal judge”

“‘The dysfunctional administration of California’s death penalty system has resulted, and will continue to result, in an inordinate and unpredictable period of delay preceding their actual execution,” Judge Carney wrote. “Indeed, for most, systemic delay has made their execution so unlikely that the death sentence carefully and deliberately imposed by the jury has been quietly transformed into one no rational jury or legislature could ever impose: life in prison, with the remote possibility of death.'”

MLA Citation:

Sanburn, Josh. “California Judge Rules Death Penalty Unconstitutional.” Time. Time Inc., July 7. 2014.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://time.com/2994922/california-death-penalty-unconstitutional>.

In-Text: (Sanburn)

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APA Citation:

Sanburn, J. (2014, July 7). California judge rules death penalty unconstitutional. Time Inc. Retrieved from http://time.com/2994922/california-death-penalty-unconstitutional/

In-Text: (Sanburn, 2014)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/

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Sample:

“National rates of gun homicide and other violent gun crimes are strikingly lower now than during their peak in the mid-1990s, paralleling a general decline in violent crime, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of government data. Beneath the long-term trend, though, are big differences by decade: Violence plunged through the 1990s, but has declined less dramatically since 2000.”

MLA Citation:

Cohn, D’Vera, Paul Taylor, Mark Hugo Lopez, Catherine A. Gallagher, Kim Parker, and Kevin T. Maas. “Gun Homicide Rate Down 49% Since 1993 Peak; Public Unaware.” pewsocialtrends.org. Pew Research Center, May 7. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/>.

In-Text: (Cohn et al. ) Because there are multiple pages, you should include the page number for this in-text citation

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APA Citation:

Cohn, D., Taylor, P., Lopez, M. H., Gallagher, C. A., Parker, K., & Maass, K. T (2013, May 7). Gun homicide rate down 49% since 1993 peak; public unaware. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/

In-Text: (Cohn et al., 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2012/12/14/schoo-shooting-how-do-u-s-gun-homicides-compare-with-the-rest-of-the-world/

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Sample:

“When a person kills another in the United States, though, he or she generally uses a gun: 60 percent of U.S. homicides occur using a firearm, which is the 26th-highest rate in the world. (In other gun-permeated countries, such as Finland (45.3 guns per 100 people), only about 19 percent of homicides involve a firearm.”

MLA Citation:

Khazan, Olga. “Here’s how U.S. gun violence compares with the rest of the world.” The Washington Post. The Washington Post, Dec 14. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2012/12/14/schoo-shooting-how-do-u-s-gun-homicides-compare-with-the-rest-of-the-world/>.

In-Text: (Khazan)

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APA Citation:

Khazan, O. (2012, Dec 14). Here’s how U.S. gun violence compares with the rest of the world. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2012/12/14/schoo-shooting-how-do-u-s-gun-homicides-compare-with-the-rest-of-the-world/

In-Text: (Khazan, 2012)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/03/us/chris-harper-mercer-umpqua-community-college-shooting.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“ROSEBURG, Ore. — Christopher Harper-Mercer was withdrawn and quiet as he grew up in southern California, spending most of his time indoors at his mother’s apartment and deflecting neighbors when they asked him how he was doing, or why he always wore the same outfit of combat boots and green Army pants. But there was one subject that got him to open up: guns.”

MLA Citation:

Healy, Jack, and Ian Lovett. “Oregon Killer Described as Man of Few Words, Except on Topic of Guns.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, Oct 10. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/03/us/chris-harper-mercer-umpqua-community-college-shooting.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (Healy and Lovett)

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APA Citation:

Healy, J., & Lovett, J. (2015, Oct 10). Oregon killer described as man of few words, except on topic of guns. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/03/us/chris-harper-mercer-umpqua-community-college-shooting.html?_r=0

In-Text: (Healy & Lovett, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/

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Sample:

“According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 467,321 persons were victims of a crime committed with a firearm in 2011.[1] In the same year, data collected by the FBI show that firearms were used in 68 percent of murders, 41 percent of robbery offenses and 21 percent of aggravated assaults nationwide.[2]”

MLA Citation:

“Gun Violence”. nij.gov. National Institute of Justice, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/>.

In-Text: (“Gun Violence”)

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APA Citation:

Gun Violence. (n.d.).  Retrieved from http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/

In-Text: (Gun Violence)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

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Sample:

“We don’t have the highest crime rate among developed nations, according to that 2012 U.N. survey, but we do have the highest firearm-homicide rate, according to a Council on Foreign Relations analysis of that study and the Small Arms Survey.”

MLA Citation:

Phillips, Amber. “The gun control debate, explained in 5 questions.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 3 Dec. 2015. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). < https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/>.

In-Text: (Phillips)

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APA Citation:

Phillips, A. (3 Dec, 2015). The gun control debate, explained in 5 questions. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE) from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

In-Text: (Phillips, 2015)

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Read More Comments Off on Arguments For and Against Gun Control

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/

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Sample:

47% Percentage of Americans who say they have a gun in their home or elsewhere on their property, according to Gallup, the highest reported number in two decades

$6 billion Estimated revenue generated by the gun and ammunition industry in the U.S., according to an analysis by business research firm Hoovers

310 million Estimated number of firearms in the U.S., according to the federal government, which includes 114 million handguns, 110 million rifles, and 86 million shotguns”

MLA Citation:

Sanburn, Josh. “America’s Gun Economy, By the Numbers”. Time Inc., 18 Dec. 2012. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/>.

In-Text: (Sanburn)

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APA Citation:

Sanburn, J. (18 Dec, 2012). America’s Gun Economy, By the Numbers. Retrieved from http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/

In-Text: (Sanburn)

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Read More Comments Off on Gun Ownership, Spending, and Lobbying Statistics in the US

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gun%20control

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Sample:

: regulation of the selling, owning, and use of guns”

MLA Citation:

“Gun Control”.  merriam-webster.com. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 2013. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE) < http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gun%20control>.

In-Text: (merriam-webster.com)

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APA Citation:

Gun Control. (2013). Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gun%20control

In-Text: (merriam-webster.com, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.kensingtonandchelseatoday.co.uk/business-and-finance/b1ix929au8.html

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Sample:

  • London boroughs make up 18 of the 20 most violent local authorities (LA) in the UK
  • Richmond-upon-Thames is the most peaceful LA in London, Lewisham is the least peaceful
  • Violence linked to poverty – introduction of a London Living Wage could increase peacefulness
  • London is 4x more peaceful than New York City, and has a homicide rate lower than Moscow, Amsterdam, Glasgow and even Brussels
  • Fear of crime is greater than the reality: 17% of Britons think they will be a victim of violent crime, but less than  4% will experience violent crime
  • Whilst peacefulness has increased across all English regions in the last ten years, the change has not been as great in London.
  • Violence is unequally distributed in London, with most boroughs improving but others becoming less peaceful in the past ten years. “

MLA Citation:

“Violence impacts the UK by £124 billion annually”. kensingtonandchelseatoday.com. Kensington and Chelsea Today, 24 Apr. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.kensingtonandchelseatoday.co.uk/business-and-finance/b1ix929au8.html>.

In-Text: (“Violence impacts the UK by £124 billion annually”)

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APA Citation:

Violence impacts the UK by £124 billion annually. (24 Apr, 2013). Retrieved from http://www.kensingtonandchelseatoday.co.uk/business-and-finance/b1ix929au8.html

In-Text: (Violence impacts the UK by £124 billion annually)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/12/17/some-observations-on-the-gun-control-debate/

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Sample:

“Instead, I’ll just make a few general observations. First, I doubt the level of gun violence in the United States has much to do with the kinds of gun laws that are in effect. This country would have a high rate of gun violence regardless of the laws on the books, just because of our culture. “

MLA Citation:

Carson, Kevin. counterpunch.org. CounterPunch, 17 Dec. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/12/17/some-observations-on-the-gun-control-debate/>.

In-Text: (Carson)

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APA Citation:

Carson, K. (17 Dec, 2012). Some Observations on the Gun Control Debate. Retrieved from http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/12/17/some-observations-on-the-gun-control-debate/

In-Text: (Carson, 2012)

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Read More Comments Off on Gun Violence in US is a Cultural Issue

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/gun-debate-culture-debate?gclid=CMeyjor_-rcCFbNQOgodMDYA8A

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Sample:

“The National Academy of Sciences found that gun-control laws have had no measurable effect on gun violence rates. The study was not written by gun-rights advocates—in fact, all but one member of the committee were gun-control advocates. Programs ranging from gun buybacks, to the famous “assault weapons” ban, to “gun-free zones,” were all found to be ineffective at curbing gun crime.”

MLA Citation:

Burrus, Trevor. cato.org. Cato Institute, 19 Mar. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/gun-debate-culture-debate?gclid=CMeyjor_-rcCFbNQOgodMDYA8A>.

In-Text: (Burrus)

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APA Citation:

Burrus, T. (19 Mar, 2013). The Gun Debate is a Culture Debate. Retrieved from http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/gun-debate-culture-debate?gclid=CMeyjor_-rcCFbNQOgodMDYA8A

In-Text: (Burrus, 2013)

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Read More Comments Off on Firearms Ban Argued as Ineffective, Gun Control Cultural Debate

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-22288564

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Sample:

“Crimes in Iceland – when they occur – usually do not involve firearms, though Icelanders own plenty of guns.”

MLA Citation:

“Why is violent crime so rare in Iceland?”. bbc.co.uk. BBC, 16 May. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-22288564>.

In-Text: (“Why is violent crime so rare in Iceland?”)

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APA Citation:

Why is violent crime so rare in Iceland?. (16 May, 2013). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-22288564

In-Text: (Why is violent crime so rare in Iceland?)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

Samples:

“The Dec. 14, 2012 shootings in Newtown, Conn., which resulted in 28 deaths, including that of the gunman, Adam Lanza, once again turned the spotlight on the debate over gun ownership in the U.S. It has been a political hot potato for years, and one that Congress has dealt with gingerly — too gingerly, in the view of groups favoring tighter regulation of firearms.”

“The last major piece of gun control legislation to make it into the U.S. Code was the assault weapons ban, which passed in 1994 as part of a larger crime bill passed by Congress and signed by then-President Bill Clinton. The ban applied to the manufacture of 19 specific models of semi-automatic firearms and to other guns with assault-weapons features. But the ban expired in 2004, and repeated attempts to renew it have failed.”

“Several new groups on the scene could alter the balance a bit. New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg started a pro-gun control super PAC, Independence USA PAC, in 2012; it spent more than $8.3 million in several congressional races that year, with mixed results. Former Rep. Giffords started a super PAC in January, 2013, to counter the NRA’s influence; it set a fundraising goal of $16 million to $20 million to spend in the 2014 House and Senate elections. And another anti-NRA PAC launched in February, calling itself Americans for the Protection of Children.”

MLA Citation:

“Gun Control vs. Gun Rights.” opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics, March. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/>.

In-Text: (“Gun Control vs. Gun Rights”)

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APA Citation:

Gun Control vs. Gun Rights. (March, 2013). Retrieved from http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/

In-Text: (“Gun Control vs. Gun Rights”, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://science.time.com/2013/05/03/evil-brain/

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

Samples:

“Homicidal madmen don’t have much of a capacity for gratitude, but if they did, they’d offer a word of thanks to Charles Whitman. Whitman was the 25-year-old engineering student and former Marine who, in 1966, killed 17 people and wounded 32 in a mass shooting at the University of Texas, before being shot and killed himself by police. Earlier that day, he also murdered his wife and mother. Criminal investigators looking for a reason for the rampage got what seemed to be their answer quickly, in the form of a suicide note Whitman left at his home:”

“For as long as evil has existed, people have wondered about its source, and you don’t have to be too much of a scientific reductionist to conclude that the first place to look is the brain. There’s not a thing you’ve ever done, thought or felt in your life that isn’t ultimately traceable to a particular webwork of nerve cells firing in a particular way, allowing the machine that is you to function as it does. So if the machine is busted — if the operating system in your head fires in crazy ways — are you fully responsible for the behavior that follows?”

“Even before Whitman made it into the medical texts, scientists were already familiar with the case of Phineas Gage, the 25-year-old railroad worker who, in 1848, was helping to blast a path for a new rail line in Vermont when an errant explosion drove an iron rod into the top of his head, through his left frontal lobe and out his cheekbone. Gage, incredibly, didn’t die and nor did he even exhibit much loss of function. But after the bar was removed, there was a sudden change in his personality. Always a peaceable man, he become volatile, combative and, after a lifetime of polite speaking, wildly profane. It was science’s first glimpse at the seemingly direct cause-and-effect connection between trauma to the brain and the very essence of personality. As our ability to image and repair the brain has improved, we’ve been able to detect far less obvious damage than a railroad spike through the skull — damage that nonetheless has every bit as great an effect.”

MLA Citation:

Kluger, Jeffrey. “The Evil Brain: What Lurks Inside a Killer’s Mind.” Time.com. Time Inc, 3 May. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://science.time.com/2013/05/03/evil-brain/?xid=rss-topstories&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+time%2Ftopstories+%28TIME%3A+Top+Stories%29>.

In-Text: (Kluger)

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APA Citation:

Kluger, J. (3 May, 2013). The Evil Brain: What Lurks Inside a Killer’s Mind. Retrieved from http://science.time.com/2013/05/03/evil-brain/?xid=rss-topstories&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+time%2Ftopstories+%28TIME%3A+Top+Stories%29

In-Text: (Kluger, 2013)

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Read More Comments Off on Killer Minds, the Psychology and Brains of Mass Murderers – Time Magazine