Credible Sources for Social Issues

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2709326/

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Sample:

“Every year, worldwide, about 42 million women with unintended pregnancies choose abortion, and nearly half of these procedures, 20 million, are unsafe. Some 68,000 women die of unsafe abortion annually, making it one of the leading causes of maternal mortality (13%). Of the women who survive unsafe abortion, 5 million will suffer long-term health complications. Unsafe abortion is thus a pressing issue. Both of the primary methods for preventing unsafe abortion—less restrictive abortion laws and greater contraceptive use—face social, religious, and political obstacles, particularly in developing nations, where most unsafe abortions (97%) occur. Even where these obstacles are overcome, women and health care providers need to be educated about contraception and the availability of legal and safe abortion, and women need better access to safe abortion and postabortion services. Otherwise, desperate women, facing the financial burdens and social stigma of unintended pregnancy and believing they have no other option, will continue to risk their lives by undergoing unsafe abortions.”

Description:

Study reviewing data of unsafe abortions by region, as well as the effect of things like abortion laws, access to contraception, and the health consequences.

Author(s):

  • Lisa B Haddad and Nawal M Nour

Title:

  • Unsafe Abortion: Unnecessary Maternal Mortality

Publisher:

  • Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Date:

  • 2009

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3395931/

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Sample:

Objective

Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study.

Method

278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study.

Results

The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively.

Conclusion

Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women’s health impact on family and population health.”

Description:

Study on the psychological consequences of having an abortion and analysis of the data.

Author(s):

  • Abolghasem Pourreza and Aziz Batebi

Title:

  • Psychological Consequences of Abortion among the Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

Publisher:

  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 6, No. 1

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.guttmacher.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/journals/3711005.pdf

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Sample:

“CONTEXT:Understanding women’s reasons for having abortions can inform public debate and policy regarding abortion and unwanted pregnancy. Demographic changes over the last two decades highlight the need for a reassessment of why women decide to have abortions. METHODS: In 2004, a structured survey was completed by 1,209 abortion patients at 11 large providers, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 38 women at four sites. Bivariate analyses examined differences in the reasons for abortion across subgroups, and multivariate logistic regression models assessed associations between respondent characteristics and reported reasons. RESULTS: The reasons most frequently cited were that having a child would interfere with a woman’s education, work or ability to care for dependents (74%); that she could not afford a baby now (73%); and that she did not want to be a single mother or was having relationship problems (48%). Nearly four in 10 women said they had completed their childbearing, and almost one-third were not ready to have a child. Fewer than 1% said their parents’ or partners’ desire for them to have an abortion was the most important reason. Younger women often reported that they were unprepared for the transition to motherhood, while older women regularly cited their responsibility to dependents. CONCLUSIONS: The decision to have an abortion is typically motivated by multiple, diverse and interrelated reasons. The themes of responsibility to others and resource limitations, such as financial constraints and lack of partner support, recurred throughout the study.”

Description:

Article on studies conducted on why women in the U.S. have abortions in 1987 and 2004, using quantitative and qualitative analysis.

Author(s):

  •  Lawrence B. Finer, Lori F. Frohwirth, Lindsay A. Dauphinee, Susheela Singh and Ann M. Moore

Title:

  • Reasons U.S. Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives

Publisher:

  • Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Volume 37, Number 3

Date:

  • September 2005

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5402385/

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Sample:

“Induced abortion accounts for 1 in 8 of approximately 600000 maternal deaths that occur annually worldwide (1, 2).

According to the WHO estimation, each year about 44 million induced abortions occur globally. About fifty percent of these abortions are unsafe, contributing substantially to maternal morbidity and approximately leading to 13 % of maternal mortality (3, 4).

The induced abortion rate varies considerably. It was approximated 12 per 1000 women aged 15-44 years old in Western Europe, comparing to 43 in Eastern Europe (5). The induced abortion rate is even higher in countries like Uganda, where there were 54 induced abortions per 1000 women in 2003 (6). Evidence shows the induced abortions are more likely in countries in which abortion is illegal or restricted compared to those liberated (5). The majority (98 %) of unsafe abortions occur in developing countries with low level socio-economic state (1, 4, 7). Induced abortion rate can be considered as one of the indicators for assessing availability of the appropriate reproductive health plans for women (5) and to identify needs for appropriate related health policies and programs (1). Aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on induced abortion rate worldwide.”

Description:

Detailed meta-analysis of induced abortion rates recorded in 38 studies at local, national, and continental levels. Study provides information on induced abortion rates by country and demographic.

Author(s):

  • Saeed Dastgiri, Maryam Yoosefian, Mehraveh Garjani, and Leila R Kalankesh

Title:

  • Induced Abortion: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Publisher:

  • Materia Socio-Medica

Date:

  • March 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.thetrace.org/2015/08/gun-deaths-charleston-chattanooga-lafayette/

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Sample:

“In the 37 days between the shootings in Charleston and Lafayette, at least 1,433 people were killed with a gun in the United States. On July 23, when a man with a checkered history opened fire in a Louisiana movie theater with a legally-purchased handgun, there were a total of 67 shooting incidents. Twenty-eight people died.

In the wake of this year’s most recent mass shootings, the daily tally of gun violence victims continues to rise, particularly in our nation’s urban centers. In Baltimore — which in July suffered the deadliest month in more than four decades, with 45 homicides — 11 people were shot last weekend, three of them fatally. In New York City, where the number of gun injuries and deaths has dropped dramatically since a period of violence spanning the 1970s through the 1990s, as many as 22 people were shot from Friday to Sunday.”

Description:

This article analyzes data showing a high-frequency of gun-related violence and deaths during a short period in 2015 between the high-profile Charleston and Lafayette shootings.

Author(s):

  • Jennifer Mascia and Emily Fuhrman

Title:

  • At Least 1,433 People Were Killed With a Gun in the U.S. Between the Charleston and Lafayette Shootings

Publisher:

  • The Trace

Date:

  • August 4, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/trump-signs-bill-revoking-obama-era-gun-checks-people-mental-n727221

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Sample:

“President Donald Trump quietly signed a bill into law Tuesday rolling back an Obama-era regulation that made it harder for people with mental illnesses to purchase a gun.

The rule, which was finalized in December, added people receiving Social Security checks for mental illnesses and people deemed unfit to handle their own financial affairs to the national background check database.

Had the rule fully taken effect, the Obama administration predicted it would have added about 75,000 names to that database.

President Barack Obama recommended the now-nullified regulation in a 2013 memo following the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, which left 20 first graders and six others dead. The measure sought to block some people with severe mental health problems from buying guns.”

Description:

Article detailing the repeal of an Obama-era rule that requires background checks including data on individuals with mental disabilities.

Author(s):

  • Ali Vitali

Title:

  • Trump Signs Bill Revoking Obama-Era Gun Checks for People With Mental Illnesses

Publisher:

  • NBC News

Date:

  • February 28, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2017/04/27/peds.2016-2615

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Sample:

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bullying is a significant public health concern, and it has received considerable attention from the media and policymakers over the past decade, which has led some to believe that it is increasing. However, there are limited surveillance data on bullying to inform our understanding of such trends over the course of multiple years. The current study examined the prevalence of bullying and related behaviors between 2005 and 2014 and explored whether any such changes varied across schools or as a function of school-level covariates.”

CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of bullying and related behaviors generally decreased over this 10-year period with the most recent years showing the greatest improvements in school climate and reductions in bullying. Additional research is needed to identify factors that contributed to this declining trend.”

Description:

Results from a 10-year study conducted in Maryland schools shows a decrease in bullying behaviors and increase in school environment for grades 4-12.

Author(s):

  • Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Elise T. Pas, Benjamin Zablotsky, Catherine P. Bradshaw

Title:

  • Ten-Year Trends in Bullying and Related Attitudes Among 4th- to 12th-Graders

Publisher:

  • Pediatrics

Date:

  • May, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/the-cost-of-punishment.aspx

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Sample:

“Many state-initiated analyses—including reports from Michigan, New Mexico and South Dakota—have found administering capital punishment is significantly more expensive than housing prisoners for life without parole.

A study released last month found California has spent more than $4 billion on capital punishment since 1978, executing 13 criminals. That’s about $184 million more a year than life sentences would have cost.

Much of the cost results from litigating numerous appeals during the convict’s time on death row, where the average inmate spends 13 years prior to execution.

This lengthy process also influenced Bateman’s decision to sponsor an abolishment bill. “I spoke to many families who went through trying emotional times during the appeals for death row inmates,” he says. “Transferring an inmate from death row to life without parole allows for the aggrieved families to have a sense of calmness in their life without having to relive the tragic events over and over again.” “

Description:

Article from the National Conference of State Legislatures examining the cost of the death penalty and situations where states have stopped its use.

Author(s):

  • Richard Williams

Title:

  • The Cost of Punishment: July/August 2011

Publisher:

  • National Conference of State Legislatures

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/16/executions-state-by-state/

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Sample:

 

StateExecutions in 1991Total
Utah03
Florida227
Nevada05
Indiana02
Texas542
Virginia213
Alabama08
Georgia115
Louisiana120
Mississippi04
North Carolina14
South Carolina14
Missouri16
Oklahoma01
Arkansas02
Illinois01

Description:

Interactive chart showing the number of executions in each state by year, provided by Pew Research Center.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Number of Executions in Each State Since 1977

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • April 16, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/racial-discrimination-and-capital-punishment-the-indefensible-death-sentence-of-duane-buck

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Sample:

“Racial discrimination is unavoidable in considering the Texas death-penalty case of Duane Buck. In the campaign to reduce his punishment from execution to life in prison, the Inc. Fund has been prominent and tenacious, because the discrimination in his case is blatant. Buck was convicted of murdering two women in 1996. He was sentenced to death in 1997. To sentence an offender to death under Texas law, a jury must unanimously conclude that the defendant is likely to commit future criminal acts of violence. In the Buck case, a psychologist named Walter Quijano provided evidence to that effect. Before trial, he claimed in a report that Buck was more likely to be dangerous because he is black. He wrote, “Race. Black. Increased probability.”

Major studies have disproved the long-standing, prejudicial assumption of a link between race and dangerousness. In 2000, the Texas attorney general said that asserting that connection was both false and unconstitutional. In the case of Victor Hugo Saldaño, who was found guilty of murder, the Supreme Court vacated his death sentence and sent the matter back to a Texas court for a new sentencing hearing at the request of the attorney general. “My position in this matter is taken with full respect and empathy for the suffering experienced by victims of crime and their families,” he said. “But the public cannot have confidence in a criminal justice system if race is going to be considered at all in determining whether the ultimate penalty will be given.” He pledged that in the Buck case and six others, “in which testimony was offered by Dr. Quijano that race should be a factor for the jury to consider in making its determination about the sentence in a capital murder trial,” there would be new and fair sentencing hearings.”

Description:

Piece from The New Yorker which details through multiple criminal cases that the U.S. justice system unfairly favored the death penalty for black men.

Author(s):

  • Lincoln Caplan

Title:

  • Racial Discrimination and Capital Punishment: The Indefensible Death Sentence of Duane Buck

Publisher:

  • The New Yorker

Date:

  • April 20, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/09/29/support-for-death-penalty-lowest-in-more-than-four-decades/

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Sample:

“Only about half of Americans (49%) now favor the death penalty for people convicted of murder, while 42% oppose it. Support has dropped 7 percentage points since March 2015, from 56%. Public support for capital punishment peaked in the mid-1990s, when eight-in-ten Americans (80% in 1994) favored the death penalty and fewer than two-in-ten were opposed (16%). Opposition to the death penalty is now the highest it has been since 1972.

Though support for the death penalty has declined across most groups, a Pew Research Center survey conducted Aug. 23-Sept. 2 among 1,201 adults finds that most Republicans continue to largely favor its use in cases of murder, while most Democrats oppose it. By more than two-to-one, more Republicans (72%) than Democrats (34%) currently favor the death penalty.”

Description:

Survey data showing Americans’ support for the death penalty in 2016 is lower than any other time since 1970, and among lowest in history.

Author(s):

  • Baxter Oliphant

Title:

  • Support for death penalty lowest in more than four decades

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • September 29, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-trends/global-obesity-trends-in-children/

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Sample:

“Obesity rates are higher in adults than in children. But in relative terms, the U.S., Brazil, China, and other countries have seen the problem escalate more rapidly in children than in adults. (5)

Of course, some regions still struggle mightily with child hunger, such as Southeastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. (6) But globalization has made the world wealthier, and wealth and weight are linked.

As poor countries move up the income scale and switch from traditional diets to Western food ways, obesity rates rise. (7) One result of this so-called “nutrition transition” is that low- and middle-income countries often face a dual burden: the infectious diseases that accompany malnutrition, especially in childhood, and, increasingly, the debilitating chronic diseases linked to obesity and Western lifestyles.”

Description:

Report from Harvard with Childhood Obesity data from various countries in every continent and discussing the different effects obesity has in each region.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Child Obesity

Publisher:

  • Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123518/

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Sample:

“Those against, contend that the benefit to humans does not justify the harm to animals. Many people also believe that animals are inferior to humans and very different from them, hence results from animals cannot be applied to humans. Those in favor of animal testing argue that experiments on animals are necessary to advance medical and biological knowledge. Claude Bernard, known as the father of physiology, stated that “experiments on animals are entirely conclusive for the toxicology and hygiene of man. The effects of these substances are the same on man as on animals, save for differences in degree”. Bernard established animal experimentation as part of the standard scientific method.

Drug testing using animals became important in the twentieth century. In 1937, a pharmaceutical company in the USA created a preparation of sulfanilamide, using diethylene glycol (DEG) as a solvent, and called the preparation ‘Elixir Sulfanilamide’. DEG was poisonous to humans, but the company’s chief pharmacist and chemist was not aware of this. He simply added raspberry flavoring to the sulfa drug, which he had dissolved in DEG, and the company marketed the product. The preparation led to mass poisoning causing the deaths of more than a hundred people. No animal testing was done. The public outcry caused by this incident and other similar disasters led to the passing of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requiring safety testing of drugs on animals before they could be marketed.”

Description:

Article discussing the importance of animal test subjects to medicinal research and current efforts to limit such tests and make them safer.

Author(s):

  • Rachel Hajar

Title:

  • Animal Testing and Medicine

Publisher:

  • Heart Views

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2254450/

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Sample:

“Animal models are widely recognized as being essential to the progress of medical science. In countering the critics’ arguments of the use of animals in medicine, one statement has acquired almost talismanic importance:

‘Virtually every medical achievement of the last century has depended directly or indirectly on research with animals.’

In this essay, the origins and justification of this oft-repeated statement are examined. Despite its endorsement by leading academic bodies, it is far from clear that the statement has been, or even could be, formally validated.”

Description:

In this article the author decides to examine the claim that “Virtually every medical achievement of the last century has depended directly or indirectly on research with animals,” which is often cited when justifying the continued use of animal models in science.

Author(s):

  • Robert AJ Matthews

Title:

  • Medical progress depends on animal models – doesn’t it?

Publisher:

  • Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine

Date:

  • February 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/experiments_1.shtml

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Sample:

“Animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products.

Many of these experiments cause pain to the animals involved or reduce their quality of life in other ways.

If it is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer then experimenting on animals produces serious moral problems.

Animal experimenters are very aware of this ethical problem and acknowledge that experiments should be made as humane as possible.

They also agree that it’s wrong to use animals if alternative testing methods would produce equally valid results.”

Description:

BBC article exploring the ethics of animal experimenting to determine if it is actually humane or effective to conduct experiments on animals.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Experimenting on animals

Publisher:

  • BBC

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594046/

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Sample:

“Nonhuman animal (“animal”) experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.”

Description:

Scholarly article discussing what merit there is to using animal testing for healthcare treatment, concluding it can be dangerous due to misleading results.

Author(s):

  • Aysha Akhtar

Title:

  • The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation

Publisher:

  • Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics

Date:

  • October 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/15/magazine/the-dream-and-the-myth-of-the-womens-vote.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“When Victoria Woodhull ran for president of the United States, she couldn’t even vote for herself. “If the women can be allowed to vote,” The New York Herald claimed when Woodhull announced her bid in 1870, “Mrs. Woodhull may rely on rolling up the heaviest majority ever polled in this or any other nation.” After all, the paper said, “women always take the part of each other.” The Herald called for passage of a women’s suffrage amendment, and then “victory for Victoria in 1872.”

That was before the sex scandal hit. Woodhull was a divorced woman, and sexual history was already a point of controversy. But soon the papers dredged up a truly salacious item: She once shared her home with both her first and second husbands. Woodhull defended herself in the press. She explained that her family had taken in her alcoholic, disabled ex-husband as an act of charity, not bigamy. But the headlines branded her “disgraced” and called her career “BUSTED.” Woodhull was evicted from her home and forced to withdraw her 11-year-old daughter from school. The cartoonist Thomas Nast literally drew her as the Devil.”

Description:

Article discussing the discrepancy between the idea of the ‘Women’s Vote’ – that will women will vote together – and the reality in the 2016 election.

Author(s):

  • Amanda Hess

Title:

  • The Dream — and the Myth — of the ‘Women’s Vote’

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • November 15, 2016

Citations:

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RESEARCH GUIDE

URL:

http://guides.library.harvard.edu/schlesinger/suffrage

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Sample:

Description:

Thorough and detailed research guide provided by Harvard’s Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, with dozens of links to more useful information.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Women’s Suffrage

Publisher:

  • Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in the America

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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PRIMARY SOURCES

URL:

http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/womens-suffrage/

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What You’ll Find:

Description:

Collection of primary sources from the Women’s Suffrage movement provided by the Library of Congress, including original texts, photos, and an audio file.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Women’s Suffrage

Publisher:

  • Library of Congress

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nps.gov/wori/learn/historyculture/susan-b-anthony.htm

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Sample:

“In 1848 Susan B. Anthony was working as a teacher in Canajoharie, New York and became involved with the teacher’s union when she discovered that male teachers had a monthly salary of $10.00, while the female teachers earned $2.50 a month. Her parents and sister Marry attended the 1848 Rochester Woman’s Rights Convention held August 2.

Anthony’s experience with the teacher’s union, temperance and antislavery reforms, and Quaker upbringing, laid fertile ground for a career in women’s rights reform to grow. The career would begin with an introduction to Elizabeth Cady Stanton.”

Description:

Biography of Susan B. Anthony from the National Parks Service detailing how she discovered disproportionate pay for men and women.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Susan B. Anthony

Publisher:

  • National Parks Service

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/biography/biographies/susan-brownell-anthony/

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Sample:

“At age 26 Anthony began working as a teacher. Over the next 15 years, Anthony would not only teach, but advocate for equal pay between male and female teachers and equal access to education regardless of race or gender. She continued her call for equal pay, and in 1870 Anthony helped form and was elected president of the Workingwomen’s Central Association. This organization evaluated working conditions and created educational opportunities for working women. Anthony was also active in the anti-slavery movement, working as an agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society, often making speeches for the cause. Anthony and fellow activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a Women’s National Loyal League in support of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1863. “

Description:

Biography of Susan B. Anthony from the National Women’s History Museum, chronicling her leadership in various advocacy groups and women’s suffrage movement.

Author(s):

  • Jeanette Patrick

Title:

  • Susan Brownell Anthony (1820-1906)

Publisher:

  • National Women’s History Museum

Date:

  • 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4489037/

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Sample:

“Recent research suggests that social networking sites (SNSs: Facebook and Instagram) are increasingly used by college-aged females as the preferred social resource over conventional media forms, for example magazines and television [19]. Moreover, a growing literature suggests that SNSs have addictive properties [20]. Social comparison theory postulates that individuals are more likely to engage in comparisons with similar (peer groups) rather than dissimilar (others) personal attributes [21]. Accordingly, the relationship between AC and BID should be enhanced in SNSs where portrayed females are perceived as real, age- and status-related, and thus more personally identified with in contrast to professional models in conventional media [22].

Studies of self-presentation within SNSs have consistently found that users strategically manipulate their profiles in accordance with societal ideals of attractiveness [23–25]. Women viewing images of professional models represented in conventional forms of media remain aware that these have been digitally enhanced [26] thereby reducing the likelihood of self- comparison and propensity for BID [27]. In contrast, SNS images of ‘real’ women are assumed to be digitally unaltered and, hence accepted as more accurate and personally relevant [28].

Facebook is a popular SNS [29], with more than a billion active users [30]. Fifty eight percent of users are women [31] with users spending around an average of 16 h accessing Facebook per month [30]. In Australia there are currently 11,489,580 Facebook users, with the largest age group being 25–34 year-olds, followed by 18–24 year-olds [31].

Social media, unlike conventional media, also provides a virtual forum for fat talk, conversational threads about one’s own and other’s eating and exercise habits, weight concerns and ideal body shapes [32], thus serving to intensify the influence of AC on BID [33]. Typical Facebook profiles contain strategically selected thin photos of peers coupled with complimentary comments on appearance; for example “you look so skinny and beautiful” [24]. One study [34] found that 70.2 % of profiles of American undergraduate students referenced exercise and 12.3 %, eating habits with comments like “just did my morning work-out, feeling great!”. Of 600 Facebook users aged 16 to 40, 50 % reported that Facebook content made them more body-conscious; 31 % feeling “sad” as a result of comparing photos of themselves to those of Facebook friends, and 44 % reported desiring the same body or weight as Facebook friends [35].”

Description:

Article in the Journal of Eating Disorders analyzing the effect of social media, like Facebook and Instagram, have on body image satisfaction.

Author(s):

  • Rachel Cohen and Alex Blaszczynski

Title:

  • Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction

Publisher:

  • Journal of Eating Disorders

Date:

  • July 2, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4504294/

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Sample:

““I can’t breathe.” “Hands up.” “Black lives matter.” These statements developed in reaction to the recent deaths of Eric Garner, an unarmed Black man strangled to death by police in Staten Island, New York, and Michael Brown, an unarmed Black adolescent shot to death by police in Ferguson, Missouri. To racial scholars, activists, and many community members, these preventable deaths were only two recent examples of the stark racial injustices that have plagued our country’s history. In both instances, the White police officers responsible for the deaths were neither charged with any crime, nor taken to trial. However, despite the national and international media attention these cases drew, they are by no means isolated incidents. Moreover, despite the media’s disproportionate focus on cases involving men, intersectional analyses demonstrate that racialized police violence and misconduct are inflicted upon women and transgendered persons of color as well.

These cases bring to light how racism, defined as a “system of structuring opportunity and assigning value based on race, that unfairly disadvantages some individuals and communities,” and advantages others, affects the daily realities in communities of color. As public health professionals, we are committed to achieving optimal health for all. Thus, these violent, premature deaths of people of color should enrage us because they directly oppose the vision of Healthy People 2020, “A society in which all people live long, healthy lives.” Therefore, our commentary calls upon our field to recognize the pervasive role of racism in public health and to reshape our discourse and agenda so that we all actively engage in racial justice work.

Our position is not a new one. In 1998, the American Public Health Association (APHA) released a policy statement on the disproportionate impact of police violence on people of color. This statement recommended strategies for reversing the trends; however, to date, there has been no record whether these policy recommendations have been implemented. The relevance of the 1998 APHA statement to the most recent incidents of racialized police violence is chilling. Yet, almost two decades later, explicit conversations about racism remain glaringly absent from most mainstream public health discourse.”

Description:

Article published in the American Journal of Public Health providing analysis of the Black Lives  Matter movement from a public health perspective.

Author(s):

  • Jennifer Jee-Lynn Garcia and Mienah Zulfacar Sharif

Title:

  • Black Lives Matter: A Commentary on Racism and Public Health

Publisher:

  • American Journal of Public Health

Date:

  • August 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/black-tweets-matter-180960117/

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Sample:

“In July 2013, a 32-year-old writer named Alicia Garza was sipping bourbon in an Oakland bar, eyes on the television screen as the news came through: George Zimmerman had been acquitted by a Florida jury in the killing of Trayvon Martin, an African-American teenager. As the decision sank in, Garza logged onto Facebook and wrote, “Black people. I love you. I love us. Our lives matter.” Garza’s friend Patrisse Cullors wrote back, closing her post with the hashtag “#blacklivesmatter.”

Though it began on Facebook, the phrase exploded on Twitter, electrifying digital avenues where black users were already congregating to discuss the issues and narratives that are often absent from the national conversation. A year later Black Lives Matter had become a series of organized activist movements, with Twitter its lifeblood. Since that first utterance, the phrase “Black Lives Matter” has been tweeted 30 million times on Twitter, the company says. Twitter, it can be said, completely changed the way activism is done, who can participate and even how we define it.”

Description:

Article from Smithsonian Magazine about the origin of the term “Black Lives Matter” and how Twitter has been an important tool for the movement.

Author(s):

  • Jenna Wortham

Title:

  • Black Tweets Matter

Publisher:

  • Smithsonian Magazine

Date:

  • September 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/10/22/black-lives-matter-should-also-take-on-black-on-black-crime/?utm_term=.761aeb006c44

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Sample:

“Black Lives Matter has done the nation a service by forcing Americans to reckon with a horrifying spate of police killings of unarmed African Americans. Without the movement, the names Eric Garner and Walter Scott wouldn’t resonate. Nor would Sandra Bland, who died in police custody and whose name was invoked during the most recent presidential debate. Despite this, Black Lives Matter has been severely taken to task, if not outright scorned, for its focus on police killings when, as its critics readily note, people in black neighborhoods are often at much more danger of being killed by other black people.

Why, they ask, hasn’t the Black Lives Matter movement been more concerned with — in wording sometimes fraught with condescension — “black-on-black crime?”

It’s a criticism typically associated with the political right, frequently thought (and frankly, frequently meant) to suggest that what black people need is to simply comport themselves differently, rather than endlessly complain about the depredations of (presumably) white police. However, even without such acrid, tribalistic intent, it’s possible to think BLM’s mission is currently incomplete.”

Description:

Article from the Washington Post about the Black Lives Matter movement and whether or not it should address the issue of ‘black-on-black’ violence.

Author(s):

  • John McWhorter

Title:

  • Black Lives Matter should also take on ‘black-on-black crime’

Publisher:

  • The Washington Post

Date:

  • October 22, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2016/06/27/on-views-of-race-and-inequality-blacks-and-whites-are-worlds-apart/

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Sample:

“Almost eight years after Barack Obama’s election as the nation’s first black president –an event that engendered a sense of optimism among many Americans about the future of race relations1 – a series of flashpoints around the U.S. has exposed deep racial divides and reignited a national conversation about race. A new Pew Research Center survey finds profound differences between black and white adults in their views on racial discrimination, barriers to black progress and the prospects for change. Blacks, far more than whites, say black people are treated unfairly across different realms of life, from dealing with the police to applying for a loan or mortgage. And, for many blacks, racial equality remains an elusive goal.

An overwhelming majority of blacks (88%) say the country needs to continue making changes for blacks to have equal rights with whites, but 43% are skeptical that such changes will ever occur. An additional 42% of blacks believe that the country will eventually make the changes needed for blacks to have equal rights with whites, and just 8% say the country has already made the necessary changes.

A much lower share of whites (53%) say the country still has work to do for blacks to achieve equal rights with whites, and only 11% express doubt that these changes will come. Four-in-ten whites believe the country will eventually make the changes needed for blacks to have equal rights, and about the same share (38%) say enough changes have already been made.”

Description:

Data from Pew Research Center showing great disparity between blacks and whites on racial equality and race relations broken down by demographics.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • On Views of Race and Inequality, Blacks and Whites Are Worlds Apart

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • June 27, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/02/23/support-for-2010-health-care-law-reaches-new-high/

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Sample:

“With congressional Republicans discussing proposals to replace the Affordable Care Act, public support for the 2010 health care law has reached its highest level on record.

Currently, 54% approve of the health care law passed seven years ago by Barack Obama and Congress, while 43% disapprove, according to a national Pew Research Center survey conducted Feb. 7-12 among 1,503 adults.

Throughout the law’s history, opinions about the Affordable Care Act have tended to be more negative than positive — or, less frequently, divided. As recently as December, about as many approved (48%) as disapproved (47%) of the law.

The new survey finds that when those who disapprove of the law are asked about what should happen to it now, more want GOP congressional leaders to focus their efforts on modifying the law than on getting rid of it. One-in-four adults want Republican leaders to modify the law, while 17% want them to get rid of it entirely.”

Description:

According to Pew Research Center, Obamacare reaches highest levels of support amidst political discussions of it being replaced.

Author(s):

  • Hannah Fingerhut

Title:

  • Support for 2010 health care law reaches new high

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • February 23, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/11/a-same-sex-domestic-violence-epidemic-is-silent/281131/

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Sample:

“Data on the rates of same-sex partner abuse have only become available in recent years. Even today, many of the statistics and materials on domestic violence put out by organizations like the Center for Disease Control and the Department of Justice still focus exclusively on heterosexual relationships, and specifically heterosexual women. While the CDC does provide some resources on its website for the LGBT population, the vast majority of the information is targeted at women. Materials provided by the CDC for violence prevention and survivor empowerment prominently feature women in their statistics and photographs.

In 2013, the CDC released the results of a 2010 study on victimization by sexual orientation, and admitted that “little is known about the national prevalence of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual women and men in the United States.” The report found that bisexual women had an overwhelming prevalence of violent partners in their lives: 75 percent had been with a violent partner, as opposed to 46 percent of lesbian women and 43 percent of straight women. For bisexual men, that number was 47 percent. For gay men, it was 40 percent, and 21 percent for straight men.”

MLA Citation:

Shwayder, Maya. “A Same-Sex Domestic Violence Epidemic Is Silent.” The Atlantic Monthly Group, 5 Nov. 2013, http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/11/a-same-sex-domestic-violence-epidemic-is-silent/281131/. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Shwayder)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Shwayder, M. (2013, Nov. 5). A same-sex domestic violence epidemic is silent. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/11/a-same-sex-domestic-violence-epidemic-is-silent/281131/

In-Text: (Shwayder, 2013)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://time.com/3313343/ray-rice-black-women-domestic-violence/

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Sample:

“And for Black women, it’s an even bigger problem: Black women are almost three times as likely to experience death as a result of DV/IPV than White women. And while Black women only make up 8% of the population, 22% of homicides that result from DV/IPV happen to Black Women and 29% of all victimized women, making it one of the leading causes of death for Black women ages 15 to 35. Statistically, we experience sexual assault and DV/IPV at disproportionate rates and have the highest rates of intra-racial violence against us than any other group. We are also less likely to report or seek help when we are victimized.”

MLA Citation:

Jones, Feminista. “Why Black Women Struggle More With Domestic Violence.” Time Inc., 10 Sept. 2014, http://time.com/3313343/ray-rice-black-women-domestic-violence/. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Jones)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Jones, F. (2014, Sept. 10). Why Black women struggle more with Domestic Violence. Time Inc. Retrieved from http://time.com/3313343/ray-rice-black-women-domestic-violence/

In-Text: (Jones, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.stopvaw.org/Domestic_Violence_and_Housing.html

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Sample:

“For victims of domestic violence, “housing is not a peripheral issue, or an issue that can be postponed for resolution later on. Rather, for women who fear for their safety and for their lives, housing is an immediate and pivotal issue on which the question of escape itself rests.” Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights identifies housing as a necessary part of the right to adequate living conditions. Gender bias in property rights and economic inequalities present women with unique barriers to obtaining adequate housing, as recognized by the United Nations (UN) in the Addendum to 2000 Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women. Housing is an especially important concern for victims of domestic violence. To escape their abusers, women must be able to obtain alternative housing or to evict the abuser from the home.”

MLA Citation:

“Domestic Violence and Housing.” Stop Violence Against Women a project of The Advocates for Human Rights, Aug. 2013, http://www.stopvaw.org/Domestic_Violence_and_Housing.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Domestic Violence and Housing”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Domestic violence and housing. (2013, Aug.). Stop Violence Against Women a project of The Advocates for Human Rights. Retrieved from http://www.stopvaw.org/Domestic_Violence_and_Housing.html

In-Text: (“Domestic violence and housing,” 2013)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/11/upshot/domestic-violence-in-the-times-from-civil-unrest-to-spouse-abuse.html

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Sample:

“Chronicle, the online tool from The Times Research and Development Lab, shows that “domestic violence” has always appeared in Times articles, but that its use substantially increased only recently, from 188 articles in 1990, when congressional hearings were held on the issue, to more than 1,000 last year. Those articles represent a tiny fraction of all Times articles, but occurrences of the phrase soared in 2011, including in coverage of the murder trial of Barbara Sheehan, a Queens school secretary who shot her husband and was acquitted of murder.”

MLA Citation:

Willis, Derek. “Domestic Violence in The Times: From Civil Unrest to Spouse Abuse.” The New York Times, 10 Sept. 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/11/upshot/domestic-violence-in-the-times-from-civil-unrest-to-spouse-abuse.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Willis)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Willis, D. (2014, Sept. 10). Domestic violence in The Times: From civil unrest to spouse abuse. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/11/upshot/domestic-violence-in-the-times-from-civil-unrest-to-spouse-abuse.html

In-Text: (Willis, 2014)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/

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Sample:

“Roughly four-in-ten Americans support the Black Lives Matter movement. All told, 43% support the movement, including 18% who strongly support it. About one-in-five Americans (22%) oppose the movement, and a sizable share (30%) said they have not heard anything about the Black Lives Matter movement or did not offer an opinion.”

MLA Citation:

Horowitz, Juliana Menasce and Gretchen Livingston. “How Americans view the Black Lives Matter movement.” pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center, 8 July 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/>.

In-Text: (Horowitz and Livingston)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Horowitz, J.M. & Livingston, G. (2016, July 8). How Americans view the Black Lives Matter movement. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/

In-Text: (Horowitz & Livingston, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800748/

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Sample:

“This paper provides historical context for considering the connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the US; reviews erosions to the 4th Amendment to the US Constitution (which protects against unreasonable search and seizure) and the Posse Comitatus Act (which prohibits the Armed Forces from performing law enforcement functions) that helped set the groundwork for two vital War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams; and describes how stop and frisk and SWAT teams create conditions conducive to police brutality, particularly brutality that targets Black communities. While many laws and policies have created the foundations for police brutality, I have chosen to focus exclusively on the 4th Amendment and the Posse Comitatus Act in order to delve into detail on both, rather than present brief summaries of several policies. Additionally, the rich literature on the intertwined nature of racism, social control, and decisions about which substances should be classified as “illegal” is beyond the purview of this paper. Readers interested in these topics could review David Musto’s “The American Disease: The Origins of Narcotic Control” and David Courtwright’s “Dark Paradise: The History of Opiate Addiction in America” to learn more about this important topic.”

MLA Citation:

Cooper, Hannah LF. “War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.” Substance Use and Misuse 50.8 (2015): 1188-1194.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800748/>.

In-Text: (Cooper)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Cooper, H. L.F. (2015). War on Drugs policing and police brutality. Substance Use and Misuse, 50(8), 1188-1194. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2015.1007669

In-Text: (Cooper, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx

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Sample:

“The deaths of five police officers in Dallas, along with the recent deaths of two black men in Louisiana and Minnesota at the hands of police, highlighted — again — the importance of understanding attitudes of the American public, including blacks and whites, toward the police and criminal justice system.

A review of Gallup data, all collected prior to these most recent incidents, provides a social and cultural context for these issues.”

MLA Citation:

Newport, Frank. “Public Opinion Context: Americans, Race and Police.” gallup.com. Gallup, Inc. 8 Jul. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx>.

In-Text: (Newport)

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APA Citation:

Newport, F. (2016, Jul. 8). Public opinion context: Americans, race and police. Gallup, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx

In-Text: (Newport, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/

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Sample:

“In a year-long study, The Washington Post found that the kind of incidents that have ignited protests in many U.S. communities — most often, white police officers killing unarmed black men — represent less than 4 percent of fatal police shootings. Meanwhile, The Post found that the great majority of people who died at the hands of the police fit at least one of three categories: they were wielding weapons, they were suicidal or mentally troubled, or they ran when officers told them to halt.”

MLA Citation:

Kindy, Kimberly, Marc Fisher, Julie Tate, and Jennifer Jenkins. “A year of reckoning: Police fatally shoot nearly 1,000.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 26 Dec. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/>.

In-Text: (Kindy, FIsher, Tate, and Jenkins)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Kindy, K., Fisher, M., Tate, J., Jenkins, J. (2015, Dec. 26). A year of reckoning: Police fatally shoot nearly 1,000. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/

In-Text: (Kindy, Fisher, Tate, and Jenkins, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/21/gun-homicides-steady-after-decline-in-90s-suicide-rate-edges-up/

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Sample:

“The nation’s overall gun death rate has declined 31% since 1993. This total includes homicides and suicides, in addition to a smaller number of fatal police shootings, accidental shooting deaths and those of undetermined intent. For example, in 2014 there were 464 fatal police shootings, up from 333 in 2009. (Government data on fatal police shootings are also collected and reported by the FBI, though the agency acknowledges there are discrepancies between federal and local law enforcement counts.)”

MLA Citation:

Krongstad, Jens Manuel. “Gun homicides steady after decline in ’90s; suicide rate edges up.” pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center, 21 Oct. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/21/gun-homicides-steady-after-decline-in-90s-suicide-rate-edges-up/>.

In-Text: (Krongstad)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Krongstad, J.M. (2015, Oct. 21). Gun homicides steady after decline in ’90s; suicide rate edges up. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/21/gun-homicides-steady-after-decline-in-90s-suicide-rate-edges-up/

In-Text: (Krongstad, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/united-states-machine-gun-ban/

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Sample:

“Consider the situation: Gun crimes are on the rise, and the guns that criminals use are military-style weapons, capable of firing rounds with unprecedented speed and ferocity. Cities—where more people live than ever before—are becoming unsafe. The United States leads other industrialized countries in gun-related deaths. And scores of citizens, including the liberal president, are calling for action.

But this isn’t 2016. It’s 1934—a year in which the United States faced unprecedented challenges from a new kind of gun and a new kind of criminal, and the country responded with new laws.”

MLA Citation:

Bullard, Gabe. “Gun Control in America.” news.nationalgeographic.com. National Geographic, 14 Jun. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/united-states-machine-gun-ban/>.

In-Text: (Bullard)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Bullard, G. Gun control in America. National Geographic. Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/united-states-machine-gun-ban/

In-Text: (Bullard, 2016)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCES

1.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

This link leads to an article covering a study that showed implementation of 3 specific laws can drastically reduce gun-related crimes. The study analyzed state crime and gun data from all over the U.S. and found a larger group of laws that have a positive impact on gun-related crimes, but narrows it down to the 3 most effective laws – which, according to the study, can reduce gun-related deaths by 80%. Click here for MLA/APA citations. 

2.

http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext

Referenced here is a scholarly journal article that reveals the U.S. homicide rate is 7 times higher than other high income countries, while the gun-homicide rate is 25 times higher. Also of importance, the gun homicide rate in the U.S. for ages 15 through 24 was 49 times higher than other high-income countries. There is much more data on many different demographics, including that 90% of all women, children under 14, and 82% of total gun-related deaths in high-income countries occurred in the U.S. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

3.

http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/

Above is a link to a frequently updated page with information on gun-lobbying and U.S. politicians. This article provides background on the gun control debate in legislation along with data on amount of funding received by politicians and presidential candidates. The data shows a heavy proportion of these funds go to republican candidates, and that the National Rifle Association is a large proponent of such funding and other forms of support. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

4.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

This is a great article from the Washington Post that provides data on the most popular gun control talking points from this ongoing debate. This article covers the frequency of mass-shootings and other gun violence, as well as support for gun ownership in the U.S. There is some very compelling data in this article, most prominently that “states with stricter gun control laws have fewer deaths from gun-related violence” (emphasis ours, this would be key to a research assignment on this topic) and that “active shooter events have become more common” since 2000. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

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CREDIBLE SOURCES

1.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

This is a Washington Post article which actually provides insight into both sides of the gun control argument – both for and against – around 5 commonly discussed aspects of this increasingly relevant debate. This article provides an argument for either side supported with data and research. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

2.

http://www.constitution.org/2ll/2ndschol/57mich.pdf

The above link leads to a PDF of an article titled “Handgun Prohibition and The Original Meaning of the Second Amendment” published in Michigan Law Review by Don B. Kates, Jr., who is a prominent legal scholar. It was published in 1983 but is still useful as Kates uses extensive research and references to discuss how the second amendment is being interpreted by those involved in the debate (yes, this debate was happening over 30 years ago). Click here for MLA/APA citations.

3.

http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/gun-debate-culture-debate

This links to an article on the Cato Institute’s website by one of their constitutional researchers. The Cato Institute is a “Think Tank” which does research around government, public policy, and law, among many other things (you will likely find more articles on this topic there). The purpose of this article is to change the perspective of how one views the gun control debate – not gun control itself, but the debate surrounding it. The author argues that the debate is not around whether or not banning guns is constitutional, or whether increased gun control will reduce the amount of gun-related violence in the U.S., but that this debate is actually between two different view points on the role of government. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

4.

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-22288564

According to this article, the country of Iceland “ranks 15th in the world in terms of legal per capita gun ownership.” Yet, the purpose of this article is to examine Iceland’s astonishingly low crime rate – and more specifically the low rate of gun violence. A large portion of their population owns guns, yet they experience a fraction of gun-related crimes we do here in the U.S. There are major differences between Iceland and the U.S., but this article will be useful to any argument against gun control. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

5.

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/

Much of what you need to know for this one is in the title, “Gun Homicide Rate Down 49% Since 1993 Peak; Public Unaware.” This is a link to a Pew Research Center study done comparing the public’s thoughts on gun homicide rates and the actual data available. As explained in the title, the public perception of this hot-button issue is inaccurate, and there are many ways that could have an impact on the gun control debate. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/factsheet/pdf/childhoodSexualAbuseFactSheet.pdf

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Sample:

“There are widely varying estimates of oneyear incidence rates of victimization. The National Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway and Thrownaway Children (NISMART-2)[4], with a specific Congressional mandate to make a count of sexual offenses against children, estimated that 320,400 children had experienced a sexual assault or other sexual offense in 1999. This is an annual rate of 4.6 per 1,000 children. This rate is higher than another government study, the National Crime Victimization Survey, which only covers youth 12-17, but estimates the rate as 1.9 per 1,000[5]. On the other hand, a national telephone survey of a broad range of victimizations of children aged 2-17 estimated a sexual assault rate nearly 7 times that of the NISMART-2 (32 per 1000 or over 2 million children for 2002).”

MLA Citation:

Douglas, Emily M. and David Finkelhor. “Childhood Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet.” unh.edu. Crimes Against Children Research Center, May 2005.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/factsheet/pdf/childhoodSexualAbuseFactSheet.pdf>.

In-Text: (Douglas and Finkelhor)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Douglas, E.M. & Finkelhor, D. (2005, May). Childhood sexual abuse fact sheet. Crimes Against Children Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/factsheet/pdf/childhoodSexualAbuseFactSheet.pdf

In-Text: (Douglas & Finkelhor, 2005)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/emerging_practices_report.pdf

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Sample:

“Recognition of the need to reduce the risks faced by vulnerable children can be found in current public and private efforts aimed at strengthening families and building capacities and resilience. The Healthy Marriage and Responsible Fatherhood initiatives from the Administration for Children and Families are both designed to protect children through approaches that encourage the enrichment of relationships between parents, and between parents and their children. In one-parent households, new initiatives are focusing on increasing access and visitation, developing the nurturing capabilities of noncustodial parents, and improving the relationship between custodial and noncustodial parents. Other important initiatives are focusing on reducing teen pregnancy and out-ofwedlock births, addressing substance use and abuse among parents, improving opportunities for adoption, increasing child support compliance, ensuring safe and adequate child care, promoting safe and stable families, and providing work opportunities for ex-offenders who are parents.”

MLA Citation:

Thomas, David, Christine Lecht, Candy Hughes, Amy Hadigan, and Kathy Dowell. “Emerging Practices In the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect.” U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/emerging_practices_report.pdf>.

In-Text: (Thomas et al.)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Thomas, D., Lecht, C., Hughes, C., Hadigan, A., & Dowell, K. (n.d.). Emerging practices in the prevention of child abuse and neglect. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/emerging_practices_report.pdf

In-Text: (Thomas, Lecht, Hughes, Hadigan, Dowell)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/child-abuse/basics/symptoms/con-20033789

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Sample:

“Sometimes a parent’s demeanor or behavior sends red flags about child abuse. Warning signs include a parent who:

  • Shows little concern for the child
  • Appears unable to recognize physical or emotional distress in the child
  • Denies that any problems exist at home or school, or blames the child for the problems
  • Consistently blames, belittles or berates the child and describes the child with negative terms, such as “worthless” or “evil”
  • Expects the child to provide him or her with attention and care and seems jealous of other family members getting attention from the child
  • Uses harsh physical discipline or asks teachers to do so
  • Demands an inappropriate level of physical or academic performance
  • Severely limits the child’s contact with others
  • Offers conflicting or unconvincing explanations for a child’s injuries or no explanation at all”

MLA Citation:

“Child Abuse.” Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, n.d. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/child-abuse/basics/symptoms/con-20033789>.

In-Text: (“Child Abuse”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Child abuse. (n.d.). Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/child-abuse/basics/symptoms/con-20033789

In-Text: (“Child abuse”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

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Sample:

“Gun-related deaths in the U.S. could be reduced by more than 80 percent if three laws implemented in some states were extended nationally, an analysis led by Boston University researchers shows. In a study published in The Lancet, a research team analyzing state-level data from 2010 on gun-related deaths and 25 state-specific gun laws identified three laws that were most strongly associated with reductions in overall gun-related mortality. Laws requiring firearm identification through ballistic imprinting or microstamping were found to reduce the projected mortality risk by 84 percent; ammunition background checks, by 82 percent; and universal background checks for all gun purchases, by 61 percent.”

MLA Citation:

“Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 March 2016. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm>.

In-Text: (“Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths. (2016, Mar. 10). ScienceDaily. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

In-Text: (“Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.wfad.se/images/articles/DEA_rescheduling_ruling.pdf

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Sample:

“In accordance with the CSA rescheduling provisions, after gathering the necessary data, DEA requested a scientific and medical evaluation and scheduling recommendation from the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). DHHS concluded that marijuana has a high potential for abuse, has no accepted medical use in the United States, and lacks an acceptable level of safety for use even under medical supervision. Therefore, DHHS recommended that marijuana remain in schedule I. The scientific and medical evaluation and scheduling recommendation that DHHS submitted to DEA is attached hereto.”

Note on Citations: 

The author listed in the following citations drafted the letter at the beginning of the document and enclosed research information with the letter, but the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) conducted the research provided. If you are only citing that research, you may want to adjust the citation.

MLA Citation:

Leonhart, Michele M. “Letter to the Coalition for Rescheduling Cannadis.” U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, 21 Jun. 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.wfad.se/images/articles/DEA_rescheduling_ruling.pdf>.

In-Text: (Leonhart)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Leonhart, M. M. (2011, Jun. 21). Letter to the Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis. U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved from http://www.wfad.se/images/articles/DEA_rescheduling_ruling.pdf

In-Text: (Leonhart, 2011)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.gallup.com/poll/19561/who-supports-marijuana-legalization.aspx

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Sample:

“Americans with some college education — from those who have attended at least one college course to those who have postgraduate degrees — are somewhat more likely than those without a college degree to say marijuana should be legal in the country. Thirty-seven percent of adults with a college education support legalization, compared with 31% of those with no college education.

The differences between these two groups were much more pronounced in 1973. At that time, 29% of college-educated adults supported legalization, compared with just 11% of those with no college.”

MLA Citation:

Carroll, Joseph. “Who Supports Marijuana Legalization?” gallup.com. Gallup Inc., 1 Nov. 2005.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.gallup.com/poll/19561/who-supports-marijuana-legalization.aspx>.

In-Text: (Carroll)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Carroll, J. (2005, Nov. 1). Who supports marijuana legalization. Gallup Inc. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/19561/who-supports-marijuana-legalization.aspx

In-Text: (Carroll, 2005)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm

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Sample:

“Clear, accurate definitions of medical conditions and disorders are important for research and clinical practice. The most widely used definitions for alcohol use disorders are found in two major classification systems of disease: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals of Mental Disorders (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Research on treatment, human genetics, and epidemiology relies on these sets of criteria to define alcohol abuse and dependence diagnoses. For example, alcoholism treatment studies often use definitions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM–IV) (APA 1994) to define inclusion criteria for subjects. Genetics studies use definitions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM–III–R) (APA 1987); the DSM–IV; or the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) (WHO 1993) to define sets of alcohol–related characteristics (i.e., phenotypes) under study. Epidemiologic research relies on DSM–IV definitions to define the alcohol use disorders enumerated in the general population and in various population subgroups. In addition, clinicians use DSM or ICD definitions as a common language in their communication about patients. DSM and ICD systems also serve an important educational function because they are used as introductory material on alcoholism for students and trainees from a variety of disciplines. As such, the concepts and definitions of DSM and ICD alcohol diagnoses form a unifying framework that underlies research and discussion of alcoholism in the United States and in other countries.”

MLA Citation:

Hasin, Deborah. “Classification of Alcohol Use Disorders.” pubs.niaaa.nih.gov. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Dec. 2003.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm>.

In-Text: (Hasin)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Hasin, D. (2003, Dec.). Classification of alcohol use and disorders. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm

In-Text: (Hasin)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/articles_papers_reports/766

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Sample:

“Most research across disciplines unanimously agrees that it is immoral to detonate an atomic weapon due to both short and long-term catastrophic effects. Therefore, this piece shall not focus on the actual use of nuclear weapons, but instead analyze the latter question. Using various philosophical concepts, it will explore the fundamental question as to whether any implementation of nuclear deterrence that involves a risk to civilians is morally acceptable. The models, though differing in origin and rationale, provide a unique lens from which to view this ethical dilemma.”

MLA Citation:

Giampaolo, Kayla. “Deterrence or Disarmament?: The Ethics of Nuclear Warfare.” carnegiecouncil.org. Carnegie Council, 4 Feb. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/articles_papers_reports/766>.

In-Text: (Giampaolo)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Giampaolo, K. (2016, Feb. 4). Deterrence or disarmament?: The ethics of nuclear warfare. Carnegie Council. Retrieved from http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/articles_papers_reports/766

In-Text: (Giampaolo)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2013/#section=country-profiles-unitedstates

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Sample:

“Key Demographic and Economic Indicators Total population (millions) ………………………………………………………………………………. 311.59 Population growth (%) ………………………………………………………………………………………. 0.72 Fertility rate (births per woman)………………………………………………………………………….. 1.99 Overall population sex ratio (male/female) ……………………………………………………………. 0.98 GDP (US$ billions)…………………………………………………………………………………….. 11,744.22 GDP (PPP) per capita (constant 2005, international $)…………………………………………. 42,486 Female adult unemployment rate (% of female labour force)……………………………………….. 9 Male adult unemployment rate (% of male labour force)……………………………………………… 9”

MLA Citation:

Bekhouche, Yasmina, and Laura D’Andrea Tyson, Ricardo Hausmann, Saadia Zahidi. “Global Gender Gap Report 2013.” reports.weforum.org. World Economic Forum, 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2013/#section=country-profiles-unitedstates>.

In-Text: (Berkhouche et al.)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Berkhouche, Y., Tyson, L.D., Hausmann, R., Zahidi, S. (2013). World Economic Forum. Retrieved from http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2013/#section=country-profiles-unitedstates

In-Text: (Berkhouche, Tyson, Hausmann, Zahidi, 2013)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm

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Sample:

“Only 7% of U.S. parents are worried about cyberbullying, even though 33% of teenagers have been victims of cyberbullying ”

“95% of social media-using teens who have witnessed cruel behavior on social networking sites say they have seen others ignoring the mean behavior; 55% witness this frequently”

MLA Citation:

“Cyberbullying Statistics.” internetsafety101.org. Enough is Enough, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm>.

In-Text: (“Cyberbullying Statistics”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Cyberbullying statistics. (n.d.). Enough is Enough. Retrieved from http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm

In-Text: (Cyberbullying statistics)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf

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Sample:

“This document reports data from the 2011 School Crime Supplement (SCS) of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The Web Tables show the extent to which students with different personal characteristics report bullying and cyberbullying. Estimates include responses by student characteristics: student sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and household income. The U.S. Census Bureau (Census) appended additional data from the 2009–10 Common Core of Data (CCD) and the 2009–10 Private School Universe Survey (PSS) to generate tables showing the extent to which bullying and cyber-bullying are reported by students in schools with different characteristics. School characteristics examined are region; sector (public or private); locale; level; enrollment size; student-to-full-time-equivalent (FTE) teacher ratio; percentage of combined American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/ Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and students of two or more races; and percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-priced lunch.”

MLA Citation:

“Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results From the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey.” nces.ed.gov. U.S. Department of Education, Aug. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf>.

In-Text: (“Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Student reports of bullying and cyber-bullying: Results from the 2011 school crime supplement to the national crime victimization survey. (2013, Aug.). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf

In-Text: (Student reports of bullying and cyber-bullying)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***