Credible Sources for Health Information

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2709326/

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Sample:

“Every year, worldwide, about 42 million women with unintended pregnancies choose abortion, and nearly half of these procedures, 20 million, are unsafe. Some 68,000 women die of unsafe abortion annually, making it one of the leading causes of maternal mortality (13%). Of the women who survive unsafe abortion, 5 million will suffer long-term health complications. Unsafe abortion is thus a pressing issue. Both of the primary methods for preventing unsafe abortion—less restrictive abortion laws and greater contraceptive use—face social, religious, and political obstacles, particularly in developing nations, where most unsafe abortions (97%) occur. Even where these obstacles are overcome, women and health care providers need to be educated about contraception and the availability of legal and safe abortion, and women need better access to safe abortion and postabortion services. Otherwise, desperate women, facing the financial burdens and social stigma of unintended pregnancy and believing they have no other option, will continue to risk their lives by undergoing unsafe abortions.”

Description:

Study reviewing data of unsafe abortions by region, as well as the effect of things like abortion laws, access to contraception, and the health consequences.

Author(s):

  • Lisa B Haddad and Nawal M Nour

Title:

  • Unsafe Abortion: Unnecessary Maternal Mortality

Publisher:

  • Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Date:

  • 2009

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3395931/

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Sample:

Objective

Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study.

Method

278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study.

Results

The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively.

Conclusion

Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women’s health impact on family and population health.”

Description:

Study on the psychological consequences of having an abortion and analysis of the data.

Author(s):

  • Abolghasem Pourreza and Aziz Batebi

Title:

  • Psychological Consequences of Abortion among the Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

Publisher:

  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 6, No. 1

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.guttmacher.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/journals/3711005.pdf

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Sample:

“CONTEXT:Understanding women’s reasons for having abortions can inform public debate and policy regarding abortion and unwanted pregnancy. Demographic changes over the last two decades highlight the need for a reassessment of why women decide to have abortions. METHODS: In 2004, a structured survey was completed by 1,209 abortion patients at 11 large providers, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 38 women at four sites. Bivariate analyses examined differences in the reasons for abortion across subgroups, and multivariate logistic regression models assessed associations between respondent characteristics and reported reasons. RESULTS: The reasons most frequently cited were that having a child would interfere with a woman’s education, work or ability to care for dependents (74%); that she could not afford a baby now (73%); and that she did not want to be a single mother or was having relationship problems (48%). Nearly four in 10 women said they had completed their childbearing, and almost one-third were not ready to have a child. Fewer than 1% said their parents’ or partners’ desire for them to have an abortion was the most important reason. Younger women often reported that they were unprepared for the transition to motherhood, while older women regularly cited their responsibility to dependents. CONCLUSIONS: The decision to have an abortion is typically motivated by multiple, diverse and interrelated reasons. The themes of responsibility to others and resource limitations, such as financial constraints and lack of partner support, recurred throughout the study.”

Description:

Article on studies conducted on why women in the U.S. have abortions in 1987 and 2004, using quantitative and qualitative analysis.

Author(s):

  •  Lawrence B. Finer, Lori F. Frohwirth, Lindsay A. Dauphinee, Susheela Singh and Ann M. Moore

Title:

  • Reasons U.S. Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives

Publisher:

  • Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Volume 37, Number 3

Date:

  • September 2005

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5402385/

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Sample:

“Induced abortion accounts for 1 in 8 of approximately 600000 maternal deaths that occur annually worldwide (1, 2).

According to the WHO estimation, each year about 44 million induced abortions occur globally. About fifty percent of these abortions are unsafe, contributing substantially to maternal morbidity and approximately leading to 13 % of maternal mortality (3, 4).

The induced abortion rate varies considerably. It was approximated 12 per 1000 women aged 15-44 years old in Western Europe, comparing to 43 in Eastern Europe (5). The induced abortion rate is even higher in countries like Uganda, where there were 54 induced abortions per 1000 women in 2003 (6). Evidence shows the induced abortions are more likely in countries in which abortion is illegal or restricted compared to those liberated (5). The majority (98 %) of unsafe abortions occur in developing countries with low level socio-economic state (1, 4, 7). Induced abortion rate can be considered as one of the indicators for assessing availability of the appropriate reproductive health plans for women (5) and to identify needs for appropriate related health policies and programs (1). Aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on induced abortion rate worldwide.”

Description:

Detailed meta-analysis of induced abortion rates recorded in 38 studies at local, national, and continental levels. Study provides information on induced abortion rates by country and demographic.

Author(s):

  • Saeed Dastgiri, Maryam Yoosefian, Mehraveh Garjani, and Leila R Kalankesh

Title:

  • Induced Abortion: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Publisher:

  • Materia Socio-Medica

Date:

  • March 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2729620/

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Sample:

“In the past two years alone, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued alerts concerning suicidal ideation linked to the drug varenicline (Chantix®) as well as to numerous antiepileptic drugs. Meanwhile, the antiobesity drug rimonabant (Accomplia®)—not yet available in the US—was given a vote of no confidence by an FDA advisory panel, owing in part to the drug’s association with suicidality. All this occurs against the backdrop of intense controversy surrounding newer antidepressants and their possible association with increased suicidal ideation in a small percentage of younger patients.

The notion of a “depressogenic” drug is hardly new to medical practitioners. More than a half century ago, Freis first reported on “mental depression” in association with the antihypertensive drug, reserpine. And in his classic, Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), the English scholar Robert Burton identified alcohol as one cause of melancholy. Indeed, if alcohol is considered a drug, the concept of drug-induced depression (DID) may be traced to antiquity: In the Old Testament, for example, we read: “Who has woe? Who has sorrow? …Those who tarry long over wine…” (Proverbs 23:29–30).

In our own time, numerous medications and classes of medications have been implicated in DID, sometimes called substance-induced depression or drug-related depression. DID has important medical, medicolegal, and commercial implications. Any physician who has observed steroid-related mood swings—either mania or depression—knows that DID can drastically affect a patient’s clinical course. For example, one of us (R.P.) reported a case in which a young woman appeared to develop persistent bipolar mood swings after a single course of corticosteroids for treatment of ulcerative colitis.”

Description:

Peer-reviewed journal article discussing drug-induced depression, what drugs are typically associated with DID, and how difficult it is to establish DID.

Author(s):

  • Donald Rogers and Ronald Pies

Title:

  • General Medical Drugs Associated with Depression

Publisher:

  • Psychiatry

Date:

  • December 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1446422/pdf/11111261.pdf

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Sample:

“OBJECTIVES: This study examined incidence rates of medically identified suicide acts (self-inflicted injuries, either fatal or nonfatal) and case fatality rates by age, sex, race, and method used. METHODS: The authors analyzed data on 10,892 suicides and 57,439 attempted suicides among hospital-admitted individuals in 8 states, along with 6219 attempted suicides among individuals released from emergency departments in 2 states. RESULTS: The 8 states experienced a mean of 11 suicides and 119 attempted suicides per 100,000 residents each year. Groups with high suicide rates were men, the elderly, and Whites; groups with high attempted suicide rates were teenagers, young adults, women, and Blacks and Whites aged 25 to 44 years. Blacks aged 15 to 44 years evidenced high attempted suicide rates undocumented in previous studies. Poisoning and firearm were the most common methods used among those attempting suicide and those completing suicide acts, respectively. The most lethal method was firearm. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of suicides and attempted suicides differ dramatically. Method used is important in the lethality of the act.”

Description:

Study done on available suicide data from 8 states and broken down by race, sex, age and method of attempt to add to existing data on suicidal behavior.

Author(s):

  • Rebecca S. Spicer and Ted R. Miller

Title:

  • Suicide Acts in 8 States: Incidence and Case Fatality Rates by Demographics and Method

Publisher:

  • American Journal of Public Health

Date:

  • December 2000

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/african-american-mental-health

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Sample:

“According to the US HHS Office of Minority Health [3]:

  • Adult Black/African Americans are 20 percent more likely to report serious psychological distress than adult whites.
  • Adult Black/African Americans living below poverty are three times more likely to report serious psychological distress than those living above poverty.
  • Adult Black/African Americans are more likely to have feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness than are adult whites.
  • And while Black/African Americans are less likely than white people to die from suicide as teenagers, Black/African Americans teenagers are more likely to attempt suicide than are white teenagers (8.3 percent v. 6.2 percent).”

Description:

Article from Mental Health America covering in detail the increased prevalence of depression in African American communities and what the causes are.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Black & African American Communities and Mental Health

Publisher:

  • Mental Health America

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2395346/

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Sample:

“In this article we discuss the traditional behavioral models of depression and some of the challenges analyzing a phenomenon with such complex and varied features. We present the traditional model and suggest that it does not capture the complexity of the phenomenon, nor do syndromal models of depression that dominate the mainstream conceptualization of depression. Instead, we emphasize ideographic analysis and present depression as a maladaptive dysregulation of an ultimately adaptive elicited emotional response. We emphasize environmental factors, specifically aversive control and private verbal events, in terms of relational frame theory, that may transform an adaptive response into a maladaptive disorder. We consider the role of negative thought processes and rumination, common and debilitating aspects of depression that have traditionally been neglected by behavior analysts.”

Description:

Research article discussing the analysis of depression using traditional behavioral models and the difficulty of it due to the complexity of the disorder.

Author(s):

  • Jonathan W Kanter, Andrew M Busch, Cristal E Weeks, and Sara J Landes

Title:

  • The Nature of Clinical Depression: Symptoms, Syndromes, and Behavior Analysis

Publisher:

  • Association for Behavior Analysis International

Date:

  • 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml

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Sample:

“Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the U.S. Current research suggests that depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.

Depression can happen at any age, but often begins in adulthood. Depression is now recognized as occurring in children and adolescents, although it sometimes presents with more prominent irritability than low mood. Many chronic mood and anxiety disorders in adults begin as high levels of anxiety in children.

Depression, especially in midlife or older adults, can co-occur with other serious medical illnesses, such as diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and Parkinson’s disease. These conditions are often worse when depression is present. Sometimes medications taken for these physical illnesses may cause side effects that contribute to depression. A doctor experienced in treating these complicated illnesses can help work out the best treatment strategy.”

Description:

Overview of depression from the National Institutes of Health with information on the effects of depression, what causes it, and how it is treated.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Depression

Publisher:

  • National Institutes of Mental Health

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC474733/

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Sample:

“Millions of Americans suffer from clinical depression each year. Most depressed patients first seek treatment from their primary care providers. Generally, depressed patients treated in primary care settings receive pharmacologic therapy alone. There is evidence to suggest that the addition of cognitive-behavioral therapies, specifically exercise, can improve treatment outcomes for many patients. Exercise is a behavioral intervention that has shown great promise in alleviating symptoms of depression. The current review discusses the growing body of research examining the exercise-depression relationship that supports the efficacy of exercise as an adjunct treatment. Databases searched were Medline, PsycLit, PubMed, and SportsDiscus from the years 1996 through 2003. Terms used in the search were clinical depression, depression, exercise, and physical activity. Further, because primary care physicians deliver important mental health services to the majority of depressed patients, several specific recommendations are made regarding counseling these patients on the adoption and maintenance of exercise programs.

Depression affects roughly 9.5% of the U.S. adult population each year, and it is estimated that approximately 17% of the U.S. population will suffer from a major depressive episode at some point in their lifetime. Depression has been ranked as the leading cause of disability in the United States, with over $40 billion being spent each year on lost work productivity and medical treatment related to this illness. Recent research suggests that between the years of 1987 and 1997, the rate of outpatient treatment for depression in the United States tripled and that health care costs related to this disorder continue to rise.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of studies done on exercise as a treatment for depression showing that, while more research is needed, there is evidence exercise can help.

Author(s):

  • Lynette L. Craft and Frank M. Perna

Title:

  • The Benefits of Exercise for the Clinically Depressed

Publisher:

  • The Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

Date:

  • 2004

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cnn.com/2015/08/25/health/us-canada-obesity-rates/

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Sample:

“Rates of obesity among children and teenagers in the U.S. have increased substantially more than in Canada since the late 1970s, according to a new report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Although the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. is well known, this report shines a light on how we compare to our neighbors to the north, said Cynthia L. Ogden, an epidemiologist at the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics and lead author of the new study.

The report found that, whereas the obesity rate among children between 3 and 19 was about 5% in both the U.S. and Canada in the late 1970s, it rose to 17.5% in the U.S. by 2012 and only 13% in Canada by 2013. However in both countries, the rates have leveled off in the last 10 years.”

Description:

CNN report of a study done on obesity rates in children in the U.S. and Canada, showing rates climbed faster in the U.S. since 1980.

Author(s):

  • Carina Storrs

Title:

  • U.S. kids outweigh Canadian kids, says study

Publisher:

  • CNN

Date:

  • August 25, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-trends/global-obesity-trends-in-children/

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Sample:

“Obesity rates are higher in adults than in children. But in relative terms, the U.S., Brazil, China, and other countries have seen the problem escalate more rapidly in children than in adults. (5)

Of course, some regions still struggle mightily with child hunger, such as Southeastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. (6) But globalization has made the world wealthier, and wealth and weight are linked.

As poor countries move up the income scale and switch from traditional diets to Western food ways, obesity rates rise. (7) One result of this so-called “nutrition transition” is that low- and middle-income countries often face a dual burden: the infectious diseases that accompany malnutrition, especially in childhood, and, increasingly, the debilitating chronic diseases linked to obesity and Western lifestyles.”

Description:

Report from Harvard with Childhood Obesity data from various countries in every continent and discussing the different effects obesity has in each region.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Child Obesity

Publisher:

  • Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-foodlobby-idUSBRE83Q0ED20120427

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Sample:

“After aggressive lobbying, Congress declared pizza a vegetable to protect it from a nutritional overhaul of the school lunch program this year. The White House kept silent last year as Congress killed a plan by four federal agencies to reduce sugar, salt and fat in food marketed to children.

And during the past two years, each of the 24 states and five cities that considered “soda taxes” to discourage consumption of sugary drinks has seen the efforts dropped or defeated.

At every level of government, the food and beverage industries won fight after fight during the last decade. They have never lost a significant political battle in the United States despite mounting scientific evidence of the role of unhealthy food and children’s marketing in obesity.”

Description:

Special report from Reuters highlighting how the food industry’s lobbying has prevented regulations aimed at improving public health, especially in kids.

Author(s):

  • Duff Wilson and Janet Roberts

Title:

  • Special Report: How Washington went soft on childhood obesity

Publisher:

  • Reuters

Date:

  • April 27, 2012

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/childhood-obesity/symptoms-causes/dxc-20268891

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Sample:

  • Family factors. If your child comes from a family of overweight people, he or she may be more likely to put on weight. This is especially true in an environment where high-calorie foods are always available and physical activity isn’t encouraged.
  • Psychological factors. Personal, parental and family stress can increase a child’s risk of obesity. Some children overeat to cope with problems or to deal with emotions, such as stress, or to fight boredom. Their parents may have similar tendencies.
  • Socioeconomic factors. People in some communities have limited resources and limited access to supermarkets. As a result, they may opt for convenience foods that don’t spoil quickly, such as frozen meals, crackers and cookies. In addition, people who live in lower income neighborhoods might not have access to a safe place to exercise.

Description:

Informational page on Childhood Obesity from the Mayo Clinic with details about causes and symptoms, and links to info on diagnosis and treatment.

Author(s):

  • Mayo Clinic Staff

Title:

  • Childhood obesity

Publisher:

  • Mayo Clinic

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123518/

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Sample:

“Those against, contend that the benefit to humans does not justify the harm to animals. Many people also believe that animals are inferior to humans and very different from them, hence results from animals cannot be applied to humans. Those in favor of animal testing argue that experiments on animals are necessary to advance medical and biological knowledge. Claude Bernard, known as the father of physiology, stated that “experiments on animals are entirely conclusive for the toxicology and hygiene of man. The effects of these substances are the same on man as on animals, save for differences in degree”. Bernard established animal experimentation as part of the standard scientific method.

Drug testing using animals became important in the twentieth century. In 1937, a pharmaceutical company in the USA created a preparation of sulfanilamide, using diethylene glycol (DEG) as a solvent, and called the preparation ‘Elixir Sulfanilamide’. DEG was poisonous to humans, but the company’s chief pharmacist and chemist was not aware of this. He simply added raspberry flavoring to the sulfa drug, which he had dissolved in DEG, and the company marketed the product. The preparation led to mass poisoning causing the deaths of more than a hundred people. No animal testing was done. The public outcry caused by this incident and other similar disasters led to the passing of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requiring safety testing of drugs on animals before they could be marketed.”

Description:

Article discussing the importance of animal test subjects to medicinal research and current efforts to limit such tests and make them safer.

Author(s):

  • Rachel Hajar

Title:

  • Animal Testing and Medicine

Publisher:

  • Heart Views

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/experiments_1.shtml

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Sample:

“Animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products.

Many of these experiments cause pain to the animals involved or reduce their quality of life in other ways.

If it is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer then experimenting on animals produces serious moral problems.

Animal experimenters are very aware of this ethical problem and acknowledge that experiments should be made as humane as possible.

They also agree that it’s wrong to use animals if alternative testing methods would produce equally valid results.”

Description:

BBC article exploring the ethics of animal experimenting to determine if it is actually humane or effective to conduct experiments on animals.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Experimenting on animals

Publisher:

  • BBC

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594046/

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Sample:

“Nonhuman animal (“animal”) experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.”

Description:

Scholarly article discussing what merit there is to using animal testing for healthcare treatment, concluding it can be dangerous due to misleading results.

Author(s):

  • Aysha Akhtar

Title:

  • The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation

Publisher:

  • Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics

Date:

  • October 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3830171/

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Sample:

“Individuals who perceive their bodies negatively with regard to culturally valued features may have low self-esteem, low satisfaction in life and feeling of inferiority and pose themselves at higher risk for depression, anxiety or eating disorders. At the highest level of dissatisfaction, this may result in significant impairment of social, educational and/or occupational functioning. Currently, beautiful is considered good and thinness is synonymous with beauty, which makes it valued by society while its opposite, obesity, is strongly rejected. Although the ideals of female beauty vary as a function of esthetical standards adopted at each time, studies show that women have tried to change their bodies to follow these standards.[5]

Obesity has been identified as one of the rising epidemic across globe with consequential rise of non-communicable diseases including disproportionate health care cost on individuals, family and society. According to latest WHO estimates, 14.4% (male) and 15% (female) adult aged 15 years and above are obese in the world.[6] More than half a billion adults (205 million men and 297 million women over the age of 20 years) world-wide were obese in 2008. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was highest in WHO regions of America and lowest in South-East Asia.[7]

Overweight children, adolescents, and adults generally have lower body esteem than do their normal-weight peers and this is especially true for females.[8] It is generally believed that body image distortion and related consequences is a western societal phenomenon however, it has made its presence felt into diverse culture including developing countries also. With the change in epidemiological shift, India is witnessing simultaneous manifestation of double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease with a challenging and daunting task for stakeholders to identify issues, resolve conflict, mobilize resources and overcome situation with innovative solution and strategies. Considering this background, a cross-sectional descriptive study sought to determine body image satisfaction, a hitherto underexplored arena in our setting. Using body satisfaction described in words, this study also investigated relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables.”

Description:

Study published in the Industrial Psychiatry Journal aiming to measure the body-image satisfaction among female students entering college.

Author(s):

  • Shweta Goswami, Sandeep Sachdeva, and Ruchi Sachdeva

Title:

  • Body image satisfaction among female college students

Publisher:

  • Industrial Psychiatry Journal

Date:

  • 2012

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139177

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Sample:

“Body image is the subjective “picture” that people have of their own body, regardless of how their body actually looks. Body image is a multifaceted construct, consisting of cognitive and affective components (i.e., how people think and feel about their body), perceptual components (i.e., how people perceive the size and shape of their body and body parts), and behavioural components (i.e., the actions that people perform for the purpose of checking on, tending to, altering, or concealing their body). Negative body image is expressed in one or more of the components of body image and is often characterised by a dissatisfaction with appearance and engaging in behaviours such as frequent self-weighing or mirror checking, or avoidance of public situations.

Studies have shown that negative body image can emerge in childhood. Approximately 50% of preadolescent girls and 30% of preadolescent boys dislike their body. In adults, approximately 60% of women and 40% of men have a negative body image, and these rates remain stable across the lifespan. Negative body image contributes to the development and maintenance of body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, and is associated with low self-esteem, depression, social anxiety, and impaired sexual functioning. In addition, negative body image has serious consequences for health behaviours. For instance, negative body image predicts physical inactivity, unhealthy eating, and weight gain, and is associated with unsafe sex, smoking, and skin cancer risk behaviours.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of various interventions meant to improve body image, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, fitness training, media literacy, and others.

Author(s):

  • Jessica M. Alleva, Paschal Sheeran, Thomas L. Webb, Carolien Martijn, Eleanor Miles

Title:

  • A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image

Publisher:

  • PLoS ONE

Date:

  • September 29, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.aedweb.org/index.php/23-get-involved/position-statements/89-aed-statement-on-body-shaming-and-weight-prejudice-in-public-endeavors-to-reduce-obesity-3

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Sample:

“In summary, eating disorders are biologically-based, serious mental illnesses because:

• There is medical and scientific evidence that anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are as heritable as other psychiatric conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression) that are considered biologically based. • The behaviors of restricting food intake, bingeing and purging have been shown to alter brain structure, metabolism and neurochemistry in ways that make it difficult for individuals to discontinue the behaviors. • Eating disorders are associated with impairment in emotional and cognitive functioning that greatly limits life activities. • Eating disorders are life-threatening illnesses and are associated with numerous medical complications. Mortality rates for anorexia nervosa are the highest of any psychiatric disorder.”

Description:

Position statement from the Academy of Eating Disorders that describes why it eating disorders are considered a “serious” mental illness, as well as the impact of insurers and others in the healthcare industry not classifying it as such.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Position Statement: Eating Disorders are Serious Mental Illnesses

Publisher:

  • Academy for Eating Disorders

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nature.com/articles/nrdp201626

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Sample:

Note: BID is Body Image Distortion and AN is Anorexia Nervosa.

“Findings from an increasing number of functional MRI (fMRI) studies . . . provide valuable insights into the neural basis of BID in AN. Unfortunately, we felt that these issues were not entirely addressed by the Primer, making it difficult to understand the ‘reasonably consistent’ (Ref. 7) evidence produced by this research. The review summarized that the ‘affective’ component of BID in AN is related to alterations of the prefrontal cortex, the insula and the amygdala and that the ‘perceptive’ component of BID is related to alterations of the parietal lobes (which have roles in spatial and body representations, body ownership and other features requiring multisensory integration) or, more accurately, the posterior parietal regions (which are involved in visuospatial processing). A deficit in parietal cortex-mediated functions in AN is also underscored by findings from neurocognitive studies. Although both extant neuroimaging and behavioural data suggest that two components of body image (the estimation of one’s own body size and the attitude towards one’s own body in terms of an emotional evaluation) are disturbed in individuals with AN, these aspects might have been described in more detail in the Primer. In fact, although two (widely accepted) body-image components can be distinguished, this does not imply that they are independent. Indeed, experimental evidence supports a direct (unidirectional) link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body. The aforementioned specific neural bases of the affective component of BID in AN also support an altered emotional response to unpleasant (for example, self-distorted fat image) stimuli. Furthermore, in the few available fMRI studies based on a word paradigm (that is, tasks using ‘fat’, ‘thin’ and ‘neutral’ words), a variation in amygdala response was absent — making the involvement of this brain region less clear but suggesting the greater relevance of self-perception and the mechanism of body-image construction (see below). There is the need to take into account these (and other convergent) clues and the considerable room for improvement that remains from the first-line prevention and psychotherapeutic interventions, currently described in the Primer (for example, the Body Project and enhanced cognitive–behavioural therapy), and targeting the ‘affective’ body-image component. Thus, we would suggest that it is now time to consider the development of intervention strategies that target the perceptive component.”

Description:

Article discussing recent reviews of research into Anorexia Nervosa and related body-image issues through brain scans and other available data.

Author(s):

  • Antonios Dakanalis, Santino Gaudio, Silvia Serino, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà & Giuseppe Riva

Title:

  • Body-image distortion in anorexia nervosa

Publisher:

  • Nature Reviews Disease Primers (Journal)

Date:

  • April 21, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/mental-downtime/

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Sample:

“In making an argument for the necessity of mental downtime, we can now add an overwhelming amount of empirical evidence to intuition and anecdote. Why giving our brains a break now and then is so important has become increasingly clear in a diverse collection of new studies investigating: the habits of office workers and the daily routines of extraordinary musicians and athletes; the benefits of vacation, meditation and time spent in parks, gardens and other peaceful outdoor spaces; and how napping, unwinding while awake and perhaps the mere act of blinking can sharpen the mind. What research to date also clarifies, however, is that even when we are relaxing or daydreaming, the brain does not really slow down or stop working. Rather—just as a dazzling array of molecular, genetic and physiological processes occur primarily or even exclusively when we sleep at night—many important mental processes seem to require what we call downtime and other forms of rest during the day. Downtime replenishes the brain’s stores of attention and motivation, encourages productivity and creativity, and is essential to both achieve our highest levels of performance and simply form stable memories in everyday life. A wandering mind unsticks us in time so that we can learn from the past and plan for the future. Moments of respite may even be necessary to keep one’s moral compass in working order and maintain a sense of self.

The rest is history

For much of the 20th century many scientists regarded the idea that the brain might be productive during downtime as ludicrous. German neurologist Hans Berger disagreed. In 1929, after extensive studies using an electroencephalogram—a device he invented to record electrical impulses in the brain by placing a net of electrodes on the scalp—he proposed that the brain is always in “a state of considerable activity,” even when people were sleeping or relaxing. Although his peers acknowledged that some parts of the the brain and spinal cord must work nonstop to regulate the lungs and heart, they assumed that when someone was not focusing on a specific mental task, the brain was largely offline; any activity picked up by an electroencephalogram or other device during rest was mostly random noise. At first, the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the early 1990s only strengthened this view of the brain as an exquisitely frugal organ switching on and off its many parts as needed. By tracing blood flow through the brain, fMRI clearly showed that different neural circuits became especially active during different mental tasks, summoning extra blood full of oxygen and glucose to use as energy.

By the mid 1990s, however, Marcus Raichle of Washington University in Saint Louis and his colleagues had demonstrated that the human brain is in fact a glutton, constantly demanding 20 percent of all the energy the body produces and requiring only 5 to 10 percent more energy than usual when someone solves calculus problems or reads a book. Raichle also noticed that a particular set of scattered brain regions consistently became less active when someone concentrated on a mental challenge, but began to fire in synchrony when someone was simply lying supine in an fMRI scanner, letting their thoughts wander. Likewise, Bharat Biswal, now at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, documented the same kind of coordinated communication between disparate brain regions in people who were resting. Many researchers were dubious, but further studies by other scientists confirmed that the findings were not a fluke. Eventually this mysterious and complex circuit that stirred to life when people were daydreaming became known as the default mode network (DMN). In the last five years researchers discovered that the DMN is but one of at least five different resting-state networks—circuits for vision, hearing, movement, attention and memory. But the DMN remains the best studied and perhaps the most important among them.”

Description:

Article from Scientific American examining the effect of mental downtime in the form of meditation, napping, and the like on productivity and our brains.

Author(s):

  • Ferris Jabr

Title:

  • Why Your Brain Needs More Downtime

Publisher:

  • Scientific American

Date:

  • October 15, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/an-overview-of-yoga-research-for-health-and-wellbeing-2157-7595-1000210.php?aid=63791

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Sample:

“With the emergence of higher quality yoga research, there is evidence that yoga has sizable and replicable effects for many health conditions. Although health is viewed as holistic in yogic traditions and aspects of health are clearly intertwined, research often targets specific areas such as physical health, mental health, and/or spiritual well-being. Some conditions that have been well studied include depression, stress and anxiety, irritable bowel syndrome, HIV, heart conditions, cancer, and chronic low back pain (CLBP) [40-43]. With CLBP, for example, a recent review documented consistent findings that yoga can improve function and decrease pain in people with CLBP [44,45]. Additionally yoga practice among people with CLBP reduces depression and pain medication use and improves quality of life [46-48].

There have been studies examining the potential benefits of yoga for cancer survivors, with the majority of research focusing on alleviating symptoms of radiation or chemotherapy, such as fatigue. A recent review concluded that yoga improves quality of life and psychosocial outcomes including depression in cancer survivors, but evidence is limited for supporting improvements in fatigue or sleep [49,50].

Considerable research has also been conducted examining the effects of yoga on cardiovascular risk factors, including a recent review concluding that yoga is a promising method for reducing high blood pressure (hypertension). Other reviews too report a variety of beneficial effects of yoga for cardiovascular diseases more broadly [51]. For asthma, the breathing component of yoga has been linked to improvements in lung function, but has not proven to be better than standard breathing exercises for those specific outcomes [52-54].”

Description:

Article published in the Journal of Yoga and Physical Therapy covering the available scholarly research on how yoga can impact one’s health.

Author(s):

  • Erik J Groessil, Deepak Chopra, Paul J Mills

Title:

  • An Overview of Yoga Research for Health and Well-Being

Publisher:

  • Journal of Yoga and Physical Therapy

Date:

  • October 27, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/yoga-for-anxiety-and-depression

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Sample:

“Since the 1970s, meditation and other stress-reduction techniques have been studied as possible treatments for depression and anxiety. One such practice, yoga, has received less attention in the medical literature, though it has become increasingly popular in recent decades. One national survey estimated, for example, that about 7.5% of U.S. adults had tried yoga at least once, and that nearly 4% practiced yoga in the previous year.

Yoga classes can vary from gentle and accommodating to strenuous and challenging; the choice of style tends to be based on physical ability and personal preference. Hatha yoga, the most common type of yoga practiced in the United States, combines three elements: physical poses, called asanas; controlled breathing practiced in conjunction with asanas; and a short period of deep relaxation or meditation.

Many of the studies evaluating yoga’s therapeutic benefits have been small and poorly designed. However, a 2004 analysis found that, in recent decades, an increasing number have been randomized controlled trials — the most rigorous standard for proving efficacy.”

Description:

Harvard Medical School publication outlining the effects yoga can have in relation to anxiety and depression, with an overview of research in this field.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Yoga for anxiety and depression

Publisher:

  • Harvard Medical School

Date:

  • April, 2009

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.elsevier.com/connect/the-science-of-yoga-what-new-research-reveals

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Sample:

“In her review, Dr. Tiffany Field, Director of the Touch Research Institute at the University of Miami, provides a fascinating overview of the effect of yoga on anxiety and depression, pain, cardiovascular, autoimmune and immune conditions and on pregnancy.

In research looking more closely at the effect of yoga on anxiety, Dr. M. Javnbakht and colleagues from the Psychiatry Department of Islamic Azad University in Iran showed that participating in a two-month yoga class can significantly reduce anxiety in women with anxiety disorders. In their paper published in Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, the researchers say this “suggests that yoga can be considered as a complementary therapy or an alternative method for medical therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders.”

Another study, published in Complementary Therapies in Medicine, examined the effect of yoga on lower back pain. Dr. Padmini Tekur and colleagues from the Division of Yoga & Life Sciences at the Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation (SVYASA) in India carried out a seven-day randomized control trial at a holistic health center in Bangalore, India, with 80 patients who have chronic lower back pain. They assigned patients to one of two groups – yoga therapy and physical therapy. Their results showed that practicing yoga is more effective than physical therapy at reducing pain, anxiety and depression, and improving spinal mobility.”

Description:

Article covering various research studies done on the health benefits of Yoga and exactly what we know about how it can help deal with stress. Includes links to research studies and more information.

Author(s):

  • Denise Rankin-Box

Title:

  • The science of yoga — what research reveals

Publisher:

  • Elsevier

Date:

  • June 18, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sports/league-of-denial/timeline-the-nfls-concussion-crisis/

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Sample:

“October 1999

NFL RETIREMENT BOARD RULES MIKE WEBSTER PERMANENTLY DISABLED

The NFL Retirement Board rules that Mike Webster’s head injuries from his years playing for the Pittsburgh Steelers and Kansas City Chiefs left him “totally and permanently” disabled as “the result of head injuries he suffered as a football player.” The ruling isn’t made public until it’s uncovered by FRONTLINE/ESPN reporters Steve Fainaru and Mark Fainaru-Wada.

Webster’s attorney, Bob Fitzsimmons, says the ruling shows that the league should’ve known there was a link between football and brain damage.

“It’s pretty devastating evidence,” he said. “If the NFL takes the position that they didn’t know or weren’t armed with evidence that concussions can cause total disability — permanent disability, permanent brain injury — in 1999, that evidence trumps anything they say.””

Description:

Detailed timeline from PBS on the issue of concussions in the NFL, chronicling their pubilc stances, contributions to research, and injured players.

Author(s):

  • Lauren Ezell

Title:

  • Timeline: The NFL’s Concussion Crisis

Publisher:

  • PBS

Date:

  • October 8, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/concussion/symptoms-causes/dxc-20273155

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Sample:

The signs and symptoms of a concussion can be subtle and may not show up immediately. Symptoms can last for days, weeks or even longer.

Common symptoms after a concussive traumatic brain injury are headache, loss of memory (amnesia) and confusion. The amnesia usually involves forgetting the event that caused the concussion.

Signs and symptoms of a concussion may include:

  • Headache or a feeling of pressure in the head
  • Temporary loss of consciousness
  • Confusion or feeling as if in a fog
  • Amnesia surrounding the traumatic event
  • Dizziness or “seeing stars”
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Slurred speech
  • Delayed response to questions
  • Appearing dazed
  • Fatigue

Description:

List of symptoms and causes of concussions from the Mayo Clinic, with details for concussions in children, athletes, and links to more information.

Author(s):

  • Mayo Clinic Staff

Title:

  • Symptoms and causes

Publisher:

  • Mayo Clinic

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewinternet.org/2017/02/02/vast-majority-of-americans-say-benefits-of-childhood-vaccines-outweigh-risks/

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Sample:

“Yet, public concerns about childhood vaccines linger in the public discourse, often linked to a now discredited and retracted research study published nearly two decades ago that raised questions about a possible link between the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and autism. Despite assurances of vaccine safety from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics and a host of other scientific bodies that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine does not cause autism, a number of prominent figures have expressed concerns about the safety of childhood vaccines. President Donald Trump raised questions about the safety of childhood vaccines on the campaign trail and during the transition period met with Robert Kennedy Jr. reportedly about the possibility of leading a commission on vaccine safety and scientific integrity. Kennedy edited a book that argues that a preservative used in some vaccines causes neurological disorders, including autism.

A new Pew Research Center survey conducted prior to the election finds the “vaccine hesitant” views expressed by Trump and other public figures to be at odds with most Americans’ views. An overwhelming majority of Americans (82%) support requiring all healthy schoolchildren to be vaccinated for measles, mumps and rubella. Some 73% of Americans see high preventive health benefits from use of the MMR vaccine, and 66% believe there is a low risk of side effects from the vaccine. Overall, 88% believe that the benefits of these inoculations outweigh the risks.”

Description:

Report from Pew Research Center published in 2017 stating most Americans support required vaccination of schoolchildren and believe they are beneficial.

Author(s):

  • Cary Funk, Brian Kennedy, and Meg Hefferon

Title:

  • Vast Majority of Americans Say Benefits of Childhood Vaccines Outweigh Risks

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • February 2, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12528:region-americas-declared-free-measles&Itemid=1926&lang=en

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Sample:

“Measles transmission had been considered interrupted in the Region since 2002, when the last endemic case was reported in the Americas. However, as the disease had continued to circulate in other parts the world, some countries in the Americas experienced imported cases. The International Expert Committee reviewed evidence on measles elimination presented by all the countries of the Region between 2015 and August 2016 and decided that it met the established criteria for elimination. The process included six years of work with countries to document evidence of the elimination.

Measles is one of the most contagious diseases and affects primarily children. It is transmitted by airborne droplets or via direct contact with secretions from the nose, mouth, and throat of infected individuals. Symptoms include high fever, generalized rash all over the body, stuffy nose, and reddened eyes. It can cause serious complications including blindness, encephalitis, severe diarrhea, ear infections and pneumonia, particularly in children with nutritional problems and in immunocompromised patients.”

MLA Citation:

“Region of the Americas is declared free of measles.” Pan American Health Organization, 29 Sep. 2016, http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12528:region-americas-declared-free-measles&Itemid=1926&lang=en. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Region of the Americas is declared free of measles.”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Region of the Americas is declared free of measles. (2016, Sep. 29). Pan American Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12528:region-americas-declared-free-measles&Itemid=1926&lang=en

In-Text: (“Region of the Americas is declared free of measles,” 2016)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/on-the-brink-of-breakthroughs-in-diagnosing-and-treating-autism/

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Sample:

“There’s a popular saying in the autism community: “If you’ve met one person with autism, you’ve met one person with autism.” Although this phrase is meant to convey the remarkable variation in abilities and disabilities among people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we’re learning that it also applies to the extraordinary variability in how ASD develops. When I first began doing research on autism decades ago, we thought of it as one condition and aimed to discover its “cause.” Now we know ASD is actually a group of lifelong conditions that can arise from a complex combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors. In the same way that each person with ASD has a unique personality and profile of talents and disabilities, each also has a distinct developmental history shaped by a specific combination of genetic and environmental factors.”

MLA Citation:

Dawson, Geraldine. “On the Brink of Breakthroughs in Diagnosing and Treating Autism.” Scientific American, 9 May 2016. http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/on-the-brink-of-breakthroughs-in-diagnosing-and-treating-autism. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Dawson)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Dawson, G. (2016, May 9). On the brink of breakthroughs in diagnosing and treating Autism. Scientific American. Retrieved from http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/on-the-brink-of-breakthroughs-in-diagnosing-and-treating-autism

In-Text: (Dawson, 2016)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

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Sample:

“Using DSM-IV, patients could be diagnosed with four separate disorders: autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, or the catch-all diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Researchers found that these separate diagnoses were not consistently applied across different clinics and treatment centers. Anyone diagnosed with one of the four pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) from DSM-IV should still meet the criteria for ASD in DSM-5 or another, more accurate DSM-5 diagnosis. While DSM does not outline recommended treatment and services for mental disorders, determining an accurate diagnosis is a first step for a clinician in defining a treatment plan for a patient.”

Useful Quote:

“The Neurodevelopmental Work Group, led by Susan Swedo, MD, senior investigator at the National Institute of Mental Health, recommended the DSM-5 criteria for ASD to be a better reflection of the state of knowledge about autism. The Work Group believes a single umbrella disorder will improve the diagnosis of ASD without limiting the sensitivity of the criteria, or substantially changing the number of children being diagnosed.”

MLA Citation:

“Autism Spectrum Disorder.” dsm5.org, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013, http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Autism Spectrum Disorder”)

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APA Citation:

Autism Spectrum Disorder. (2013). American Psychiatric Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

In-Text: (“Autism Spectrum Disorder,” 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.vaccines.gov/more_info/work

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“There are two major kinds of lymphocytes, T cells and B cells, and they do their own jobs in fighting off infection. T cells function either offensively or defensively. The offensive T cells don’t attack the microbe directly, but they use chemical weapons to eliminate the human cells that have already been infected. Because they have been “programmed” by their exposure to the microbe’s antigen, these cytotoxic T cells, also called killer T cells, can “sense” diseased cells that are harboring the microbe. The killer T cells latch onto these cells and release chemicals that destroy the infected cells and the microbes inside.”

MLA Citation:

“How Vaccines Work.” Vaccines.org, Department of Health and Human Services, 23 June 2016, http://www.vaccines.gov/more_info/work. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“How Vaccines Work”)

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APA Citation:

How vaccines work. (2016, June 23). Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.vaccines.gov/more_info/work

In-Text: (“How vaccines work,” 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/patient-ed/conversations/downloads/vacsafe-understand-color-office.pdf

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“Vaccines help develop immunity by imitating an infection. This type of infection, however, does not cause illness, but it does cause the immune system to produce T-lymphocytes and antibodies. Sometimes, after getting a vaccine, the imitation infection can cause minor symptoms, such as fever. Such minor symptoms are normal and should be expected as the body builds immunity.

Once the imitation infection goes away, the body is left with a supply of “memory” T-lymphocytes, as well as B-lymphocytes that will remember how to fight that disease in the future. However, it typically takes a few weeks for the body to produce T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes after vaccination. Therefore, it is possible that a person who was infected with a disease just before or just after vaccination could develop symptoms and get a disease, because the vaccine has not had enough time to provide protection.”

MLA Citation:

“Understanding How Vaccines Work.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Feb. 2013, http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/patient-ed/conversations/downloads/vacsafe-understand-color-office.pdf. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Understanding How Vaccines Work”)

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APA Citation:

Understanding how vaccines work. (2011, Feb.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/patient-ed/conversations/downloads/vacsafe-understand-color-office.pdf

In-Text: (Understanding how vaccines work, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bmj.com/content/342/bmj.c7452

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“Authored by Andrew Wakefield and 12 others, the paper’s scientific limitations were clear when it appeared in 1998. As the ensuing vaccine scare took off, critics quickly pointed out that the paper was a small case series with no controls, linked three common conditions, and relied on parental recall and beliefs. Over the following decade, epidemiological studies consistently found no evidence of a link between the MMR vaccine and autism. By the time the paper was finally retracted 12 years later, after forensic dissection at the General Medical Council’s (GMC) longest ever fitness to practise hearing, few people could deny that it was fatally flawed both scientifically and ethically. But it has taken the diligent scepticism of one man, standing outside medicine and science, to show that the paper was in fact an elaborate fraud.”

MLA Citation:

Goodlee, Fiona, Jane Smith, and Harvey Marcovitch. “Wakefield’s article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent.” British Medical Journal, 06 Jan. 2011, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c7452. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Goodlee, Smith, Marcovitch)

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APA Citation:

Goodlee, F., Smith, J., & Marcovitch, H. (2011, Jan. 06). Wakefield’s article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent. British Medical Journal. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c7452

In-Text: (Goodlee, Smith, Marcovitch, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/02/us/a-discredited-vaccine-studys-continuing-impact-on-public-health.html?

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“Typically, the M.M.R. shot is given to infants at about 12 months and again at age 5 or 6. This doctor, Andrew Wakefield, wrote that his study of 12 children showed that the three vaccines taken together could alter immune systems, causing intestinal woes that then reach, and damage, the brain. In fairly short order, his findings were widely rejected as — not to put too fine a point on it — bunk. Dozens of epidemiological studies found no merit to his work, which was based on a tiny sample. The British Medical Journal went so far as to call his research “fraudulent.” The British journal Lancet, which originally published Dr. Wakefield’s paper, retracted it. The British medical authorities stripped him of his license.

Nonetheless, despite his being held in disgrace, the vaccine-autism link has continued to be accepted on faith by some. Among the more prominently outspoken is Jenny McCarthy, a former television host and Playboy Playmate, who has linked her son’s autism to his vaccination: He got the shot, and then he was not O.K. Post hoc, etc.”

MLA Citation:

Haberman, Clyde. “A Discredited Vaccine Study’s Continuing Impact on Public Health.” The New York Times, 1 Feb. 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/02/us/a-discredited-vaccine-studys-continuing-impact-on-public-health.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Haberman)

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APA Citation:

Haberman, C. (2015. Feb. 1). A discredited vaccine study’s continuing impact on public health. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/02/us/a-discredited-vaccine-studys-continuing-impact-on-public-health.html

In-Text: (Haberman, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/lancet-retracts-wakefield-article/

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Sample:

“However, error should not include scientific fraud, or science that is thoroughly misrepresented. One aspect of the transparency demanded by science, and increasingly an issue, is disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. This is the issue that first got Wakefield in hot water with the Lancet – the journal that published his original research. Wakefield was being paid as an expert by lawyers who were suing over alleged vaccine injury. In fact some of the children in the study were the children of parents who were suing. This is a massive conflict of interest.

When this came to light the Lancet responded by contacting the co-authors of the article and essentially asking them if they still stand by the results of the study. Ten of the original 12 authors of the study retracted their support for the study and its interpretation. In 2004 the Lancet published a retraction. However, it was only a partial retraction, and the study remained as part of the published literature.”

MLA Citation:

Novella, Steven. “The Lancet retracts Andrew Wakefield’s article.” sciencebasedmedicine.org, 3 Feb. 2010, https://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/lancet-retracts-wakefield-article. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Novella)

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APA Citation:

Novella, S. (2011, Feb. 3). The Lancet retracts Andrew Wakefield’s article. Sciencebasedmedicine.org. Retrieved from https://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/lancet-retracts-wakefield-article

In-Text: (Novella, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/01/05/autism.vaccines/index.html

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Sample:

“Wakefield has been unable to reproduce his results in the face of criticism, and other researchers have been unable to match them. Most of his co-authors withdrew their names from the study in 2004 after learning he had had been paid by a law firm that intended to sue vaccine manufacturers — a serious conflict of interest he failed to disclose. After years on controversy, the Lancet, the prestigious journal that originally published the research, retracted Wakefield’s paper last February.”

MLA Citation:

“Retracted autism study an ‘elaborate fraud,’ British journal finds.” CNN, 5 Jan. 2011, http://www.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/01/05/autism.vaccines/index.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Retracted autism study an ‘elaborate fraud,’ British journal finds”)

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APA Citation:

Retracted autism study an ‘elaborate fraud,’ British journal finds. (2011, Jan. 5). CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/01/05/autism.vaccines/index.html

In-Text: (“Retracted autism study an ‘elaborate fraud,’ British journal finds”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/vaccines/Pages/typesVaccines.aspx

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Sample:

“Scientists take many approaches to designing vaccines against a microbe. These choices are typically based on fundamental information about the microbe, such as how it infects cells and how the immune system responds to it, as well as practical considerations, such as regions of the world where the vaccine would be used. The following are some of the options that researchers might pursue:

Live, attenuated vaccines Inactivated vaccines Subunit vaccines Toxoid vaccines Conjugate vaccines DNA vaccines Recombinant vector vaccines”

MLA Citation:

“Types of Vaccines.” National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 3 April 2012, https://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/vaccines/Pages/typesVaccines.aspx. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Types of Vaccines”)

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APA Citation:

Types of vaccines. (2012, April 3). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Retrieved from https://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/vaccines/Pages/typesVaccines.aspx

In-Text: (“Types of vaccines,” 2012)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/features/how-vaccines-autism-battle-continues-despite-scientific-consensus-924080

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“Stars have played a key role in stoking vaccine alarm and shaping the narrative around immunization suspicion. That atmosphere of doubt helped contribute to a decline in childhood shot rates across the country over the past decade, including across L.A. Jenny McCarthy’s outright connection of shots with autism has been the most conspicuous example of celebrity engagement. While many others, including Schneider, Toni Braxton and Aidan Quinn, share this concern, high-profile dissident behavior runs the gamut. It can be advocacy of irregular, choose-your-own immunization schedules unsupported by medical authorities (Holly Robinson Peete, Alicia Silverstone) to protesting SB 277 as a matter of government overreach thwarting individual rights (Danny Masterson, Jim Carrey).

Whatever the talking point, their Q Scores significantly amplify it. “A celebrity saying something gives it a lot more attention — period,” says Michael Sitrick, CEO of L.A. crisis management firm Sitrick and Company. “It’s the same reason why marketers have celebrities endorsing products.””

MLA Citation:

Baum, Gary. “How Hollywood Stars, Trump and Scientologists Inflame the Vaccine Wars: ‘It’s Spurious but Effective’.” The Hollywood Reporter, 1 Sept. 2016, http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/features/how-vaccines-autism-battle-continues-despite-scientific-consensus-924080. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Baum)

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APA Citation:

Baum, G. (2016. Sept. 1). How Hollywood stars, Trump and Scientologists inflame the vaccine wars: “It’s spurious but effective.” The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved from http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/features/how-vaccines-autism-battle-continues-despite-scientific-consensus-924080

In-Text: (Baum, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.jgid.org/text.asp?2016/8/1/3/176140

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Sample:

“The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that is named after the Ugandan forest where it was first isolated from a rhesus monkey in 1947. [1],[2],[3] ZIKV has become more of a global threat over the past decade because of its relentless spread, first to the Asia-Pacific region, followed by its rapid entry into the Western hemisphere. [3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9] ZIKV is related to other flaviviruses including dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis. [8],[10] The first major outbreak outside of Africa occurred in 2007 in the Yap Islands of Micronesia, [4] with another large outbreak in 2013 in French Polynesia. [11]

In addition to the concerns over its rapid geographic spread, ZIKV has received much attention from public health officials because of its highly suspected association with maternal-fetal transmission and related newborn microcephaly (as well as other neurological abnormalities). [12],[13],[14] The rapid increase in the incidence of microcephaly during the virus’ recent geographic expansion has caused the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to advise pregnant women to consider postponing travel to any area where ZIKV transmission is ongoing. [12],[13],[14] The areas of concern for ZIKV include Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Saint Martin and Guyana, Venezuela, as well as Samoa in the South Pacific. [3],[4],[5],[6],[15] In a recent statement, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirms that ZIKV is “spreading explosively” and that the associated level of concern is “extremely high.” [16] This was followed by the declaration (February 2, 2016) of public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) around the current outbreak. [17]”

MLA Citation:

Sikka, Veronica, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Raaj K Popli, Sagar C Galwankar, Dhanashree Kelkar, Stanley G Sawicki, Stanislaw P Stawicki, and Thomas J Papadimos. “The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG).” Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, Vol. 8, Issue 1, 2016, pp. 3-15, http://www.jgid.org/text.asp?2016/8/1/3/176140. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Sikka et al.)

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APA Citation:

Sikka, V., Chattu, V. K., Popli, R. K., Galwankar, S. C., Kelkar, D., Sawicki, S. G., Stawicki, S. P., & Papadimos, T. J. (2016). The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG). Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, 8(1), 3-15. Retrieved from http://www.jgid.org/text.asp?2016/8/1/3/176140

In-Text: (Sikka et al., 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/microcephaly.html

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“Microcephaly is a condition where a baby’s head is much smaller than expected. During pregnancy, a baby’s head grows because the baby’s brain grows. Microcephaly can occur because a baby’s brain has not developed properly during pregnancy or has stopped growing after birth, which results in a smaller head size. Microcephaly can be an isolated condition, meaning that it can occur with no other major birth defects, or it can occur in combination with other major birth defects.”

MLA Citation:

“Facts about Microcephaly.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 25 July 2016, http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/microcephaly.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Facts about Microcephaly”)

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APA Citation:

Facts about Microcephaly. (2016, July 25). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/microcephaly.html

In-Text: (“Facts about Microcephaly”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMsr1604338

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Sample:

“Since the identification of the Zika virus in Brazil in early 2015, the virus has spread rapidly throughout the Americas (www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/ active-countries.html). An increase in the number of infants with microcephaly in Brazil was first noted in September 2015, after the recognition of Zika virus transmission in the country earlier in the year; this was followed by the recognition of a similar increase in French Polynesia after an outbreak there in 2013 and 2014. Despite accumulating evidence that supports the link between Zika virus infection and microcephaly, most experts have taken care not to state that Zika virus infection is causally related to these adverse outcomes. This cautious approach toward ascribing Zika virus as a cause of birth defects is not surprising, given that the last time an infectious pathogen (rubella virus) caused an epidemic of congenital defects was more than 50 years ago, no flavivirus has ever been shown definitively to cause birth defects in humans, and no reports of adverse pregnancy or birth outcomes were noted during previous outbreaks of Zika virus disease in the Pacific Islands.”

MLA Citation:

Rasmussen, Sonja A., et al. “Zika Virus and Birth Defects — Reviewing the Evidence for Causality.” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 374, No. 20, 2016, 1981-1987, http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMsr1604338. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Rasmussen et al.)

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APA Citation:

Rasmussen, S., Jamieson, D., Honein, M., & Peterson, L. (2016, May 19). Zika virus and birth defects — Reviewing the evidence for causality. The New England Journal of Medicine, 374(20), 1981-1987. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsr1604338

In-Text: (Rasmussen et al., 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cdc.gov/zika/symptoms/symptoms.html

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“Zika is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week. People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. For this reason, many people might not realize they have been infected. Symptoms of Zika are similar to other viruses spread through mosquito bites, like dengue and chikungunya.”

MLA Citation:

“Symptoms.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 28 Jun. 2016, http://www.cdc.gov/zika/symptoms/symptoms.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Symptoms”)

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APA Citation:

Symptoms. (2016, Jun. 28). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/zika/symptoms/symptoms.html

In-Text: (“Symptoms”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0122544

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“Although the vast majority of e-cigarette users are current smokers, they appear to fall into two distinct groups—those using them to quit smoking and those using them recreationally with no intention of quitting.[9, 10] The presence of recreational e-cigarettes users has raised concerns whether e-cigarettes act as genuine smoking cessation aids or merely ‘bridging’ products, which perpetuate smokers’ nicotine addictions by enabling them to smoke in environments where smoking has been banned, or ‘gateway’ products which hook first time users into nicotine.[10, 11] These concerns have arisen from the studies on initial use of e-cigarettes, however, it is also feasible that entrenched smokers may be able to reduce their tobacco use by substituting e-cigarettes for cigarettes. In terms of the safety of e-cigarettes, while there have been no data on their long term health effects, a substantial body of research now exists reporting mixed findings about the toxicity of their refill solutions, with the variation apparently due to divergent testing methods.[12–14] Similarly, there is conflicting evidence as to whether e-cigarettes are effective for smoking cessation and this creates a pressing dilemma for regulatory authorities which seek to minimise harms without stifling a potentially beneficial product.[10, 11]”

MLA Citation:

Muhammad, Aziz Rahman, Nicholas Hann, Andrew Wilson, George Mnatzaganian, and Linda Worrall-Carter. “E-Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” PLoS ONE 10.3 (30 Mar. 2015): n.p.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0122544>.

In-Text: (Muhammad et al.)

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APA Citation:

Muhammad, A.R., Hann, N., Wilson, A., Mnatzaganian, G., & Worrell-Carter, L. (2015, Mar. 30). E-Cigarettes and smoking cessation: Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 10(3), n.p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122544

In-Text: (Muhammad et al., 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/smoke-screen-are-e-cigarettes-safe/

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“But are e-cigs truly safe? No one knows for sure. Yet there is no question that the nicotine they contain is addictive—which is one reason many public health experts have grown alarmed by their rapidly increasing popularity. Among their concerns: e-cigs might lure former smokers back to conventional cigarettes, expose users and bystanders alike to unidentified dangers, or become a gateway for teens who might subsequently experiment with tobacco products and other drugs.”

MLA Citation:

Maron, Dina. “Smoke Screen: Are E-Cigarettes Safe?” scientificamerican.com. Scientific American, 1 May 2014.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/smoke-screen-are-e-cigarettes-safe/>.

In-Text: (Maron)

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APA Citation:

Maron, D. (2014, May 1). Smoke screen: Are e-cigarettes safe? Scientific American.  Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/smoke-screen-are-e-cigarettes-safe/

In-Text: (Maron, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://concussionfoundation.org/learning-center/what-is-cte

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“Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain found in athletes, military veterans, and others with a history of repetitive brain trauma. Brain trauma can cause a build-up of an abnormal type of a protein called tau, which slowly kills brain cells. Once started, these changes in the brain appear to continue to progress even after exposure to brain trauma has ended. Possible symptoms include memory loss, confusion, impaired judgment, paranoia, impulse control problems, aggression, depression, and eventually progressive dementia. Symptoms can begin to appear months, years, or even decades after trauma has ended. Currently, CTE can only be diagnosed after death by brain tissue analysis.”

MLA Citation:

“What is CTE?” concussionfoundation.org. Concussion Legacy Foundation, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://concussionfoundation.org/learning-center/what-is-cte>.

In-Text: (“What is CTE?”)

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APA Citation:

What is CTE? (n.d.). Concussion Legacy Foundation. Retrieved from http://concussionfoundation.org/learning-center/what-is-cte

In-Text: (“What is CTE?”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/09/researchers-find-brain-damage-in-96-percent-of-former-nfl-players/406462/

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Sample:

“Frontline reported on numbers from the Department of Veterans Affairs and Boston University, where researchers studied the brains of 165 people who played football at the high school, college, or professional level. They found evidence of CTE in 131 of them—79 percent. Of the brains studied, 91 of them belonged to former NFL players, and 87 of those 91 (96 percent) had signs of CTE.”

MLA Citation:

Beck, Julie. “The NFL’s Continuing Concussion Nightmare.” theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 21 Sep. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/09/researchers-find-brain-damage-in-96-percent-of-former-nfl-players/406462/>.

In-Text: (Beck)

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APA Citation:

Beck, J. (2015, Sep. 21). The NFL’s continuing concussion nightmare. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/09/researchers-find-brain-damage-in-96-percent-of-former-nfl-players/406462/

In-Text: (Beck, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.who.int/occupational_health/topics/stressatwp/en/

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Sample:

“Pressure at the workplace is unavoidable due to the demands of the contemporary work environment. Pressure perceived as acceptable by an individual, may even keep workers alert, motivated, able to work and learn, depending on the available resources and personal characteristics. However, when that pressure becomes excessive or otherwise unmanageable it leads to stress. Stress can damage an employees’ health and the business performance.

Work-related stress can be caused by poor work organisation (the way we design jobs and work systems, and the way we manage them), by poor work design (for example, lack of control over work processes), poor management, unsatisfactory working conditions, and lack of support from colleagues and supervisors.”

MLA Citation:

“Stress at the workplace.” who.int. World Health Organization, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.who.int/occupational_health/topics/stressatwp/en/>.

In-Text: (“Stress at the workplace”)

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APA Citation:

Stress at the workplace. (n.d.). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/occupational_health/topics/stressatwp/en/

In-Text: (“Stress at the workplace”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/understanding-the-stress-response

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Sample:

“After the amygdala sends a distress signal, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. These glands respond by pumping the hormone epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) into the bloodstream. As epinephrine circulates through the body, it brings on a number of physiological changes. The heart beats faster than normal, pushing blood to the muscles, heart, and other vital organs. Pulse rate and blood pressure go up. The person undergoing these changes also starts to breathe more rapidly. Small airways in the lungs open wide. This way, the lungs can take in as much oxygen as possible with each breath. Extra oxygen is sent to the brain, increasing alertness. Sight, hearing, and other senses become sharper. Meanwhile, epinephrine triggers the release of blood sugar (glucose) and fats from temporary storage sites in the body. These nutrients flood into the bloodstream, supplying energy to all parts of the body.”

MLA Citation:

“Understanding the stress response.” health.harvard.edu. Harvard University, 1 Mar. 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/understanding-the-stress-response>.

In-Text: (“Understanding the stress response”)

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APA Citation:

Understanding the stress response. (2011, Mar. 1). Harvard University. Retrieved from http://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/understanding-the-stress-response

In-Text: (“Understanding the stress response”, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.choixdecarriere.com/pdf/6573/2010/ColliganHiggins2005.pdf

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Sample:

“Workplace stress can be defined as the change in one’s physical or mental state in response to workplaces that pose an appraised challenge or threat to that employee. Research has shown that there are a number of factors that contribute to workplace stress. These factors include a toxic work environment, negative workload, isolation, types of hours worked, role conflict, role ambiguity, lack of autonomy, career development barriers, difficult relationships with administrators and/ or coworkers, managerial bullying, harassment, and organizational climate. Should the stressors continue, the employee is at significant risk of developing physiological and psychological disorders that can lead to increased absenteeism, organizational dysfunction, and decreased work productivity. Intervention strategies are discussed to help managers provide support and intervention to employees coping with workplace stress”

MLA Citation:

Colligan, Thomas W. and Eileen M. Higgins. “Workplace Stress: Etiology and Consequences.” Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health 21.2 (2005): 89-97.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.choixdecarriere.com/pdf/6573/2010/ColliganHiggins2005.pdf>.

In-Text: (Colligan and Higgins)

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APA Citation:

Colligan, T.W. & Higgins, E.H. (2005). Workplace stress: Etiology and consequences. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 21(2): 89-97. Retrieved from http://www.choixdecarriere.com/pdf/6573/2010/ColliganHiggins2005.pdf

In-Text: (Colligan and Higgins)

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