Credible Sources for Evolution

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sex-murder-and-the-meaning-life/201005/rebuilding-maslow-s-pyramid-evolutionary-foundation

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Sample:

“But the modern integration of ideas from neuroscience, developmental biology, and evolutionary psychology suggests that Maslow had a few things wrong. For one thing, he never gave much thought to reproduction. He conceived of “higher needs” as completely personal strivings, unconnected from other people, and totally divorced from biological needs. Parental motivations were completely missing from his hierarchy, and he placed “sexual needs” down at the bottom— along with hunger and thirst. Presumably, sexual urges were biological annoyances that could be as well dispatched by masturbation as by having intercourse, before one moved back to higher pursuits like playing the guitar or writing poetry.

From a modern evolutionary perspective, that is a curious set of assumptions. For one thing, all living organisms, including you and I, inherited a set of motivational mechanisms that inspired us to reproduce. Like other mammals, humans also have strong attachments to the offspring they produce, and unlike most mammals, both sexes develop attachments to their mates and their offspring. In the renovated pyramid, reproductive goals are at the top, not the bottom. Furthermore, there is more than one independent set of motivations involved in reproduction. First, one needs to attract a mate. After that is accomplished, one needs to maintain a relationship (a very different set of problems, as some of us have learned). Finally, one needs to care for one’s offspring.”

MLA Citation:

Kenrick, Douglas T. “Rebuilding Maslow’s Pyramid on an Evolutionary Foundation.” psychologytoday.com. Sussex Publishers, 10 May 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sex-murder-and-the-meaning-life/201005/rebuilding-maslow-s-pyramid-evolutionary-foundation>.

In-Text: (Kenrick)

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APA Citation:

Kenrick, D. (2010, May 10). Rebuilding Maslow’s pyramid on an evolutionary foundation. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sex-murder-and-the-meaning-life/201005/rebuilding-maslow-s-pyramid-evolutionary-foundation

In-Text: (Kenrick, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(10)00826-3

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Sample:

“Gene-environment interaction is a broad term encompassing the synergistic effect of genes and the environment on a disease or trait. In this instance, the term environment can be broadly interpreted to include lifestyle factors in addition to the more traditional physical, chemical, and biological exposures that individuals are subjected to in their occupational and domestic surroundings. In many ways, the term gene-environment interaction represents a new dimension of the long-standing “nature versus nurture” debate. In part this reflects a growing realization that the notion of nature or nurture is a false dichotomy and that understanding how these two powerful forces interact is key to unraveling disease pathogenesis (Levin, 2009, Rutter, 2002, Wermter et al., 2010). In our opinion, a complete understanding of the role of environment in disease cannot be achieved in isolation, but rather must be viewed in the context of the genome and its variety.”

MLA Citation:

Traynor, Bryan and Andrew Singleton. “Nature versus Nurture: Death of a Dogma, and the Road Ahead.” Neuron Volume 68 Issue 2: p. 196-200.  21 Oct. 2010. <http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(10)00826-3>.

In-Text: (Traynor and Singleton)

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APA Citation:

Traynor, B., & Singleton, A. (2010, Oct. 21). Nature versus nurture: Death of a dogma, and the road ahead. Neuron, Volume 68, Issue 2, 196-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2010.10.002

In-Text: (Traynor & Singleton, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookintro.html

Samples:

Table of Contents

Biology: The Science of Our Lives | Science and the Scientific Method | Theories Contributing to Modern Biology

Development of the Theory of Evolution | The Modern View of the Age of the Earth | Development of the Modern View of Evolution

Darwinian Evolution | The Diversity of Life | Characteristics of Living things | Levels of Organization | Learning Objectives

Terms | Review Questions | Links | References 

Biology literally means “the study of life”. Biology is such a broad field, covering the minute workings of chemical machines inside our cells, to broad scale concepts of ecosystems and global climate change. Biologists study intimate details of the human brain, the composition of our genes, and even the functioning of our reproductive system. Biologists recently all but completed the deciphering of the human genome, the sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bases that may determine much of our innate capabilities and predispositions to certain forms of behavior and illnesses. DNA sequences have played major roles in criminal cases (O.J. Simpson, as well as the reversal of death penalties for many wrongfully convicted individuals), as well as the impeachment of President Clinton (the stain at least did not lie). We are bombarded with headlines about possible health risks from favorite foods (Chinese, Mexican, hamburgers, etc.) as well as the potential benefits of eating other foods such as cooked tomatoes. Informercials tout the benefits of metabolism-adjusting drugs for weight loss. Many Americans are turning to herbal remedies to ease arthritis pain, improve memory, as well as improve our moods.

Charles Darwin, former divinity student and former medical student, secured (through the intercession of his geology professor) an unpaid position as ship’s naturalist on the British exploratory vessel H.M.S. Beagle. The voyage would provide Darwin a unique opportunity to study adaptation and gather a great deal of proof he would later incorporate into his theory of evolution. On his return to England in 1836, Darwin began (with the assistance of numerous specialists) to catalog his collections and ponder the seeming “fit” of organisms to their mode of existence. He eventually settled on four main points of a radical new hypothesis:

Adaptation: all organisms adapt to their environments. Variation: all organisms are variable in their traits. Over-reproduction: all organisms tend to reproduce beyond their environment’s capacity to support them (this is based on the work of Thomas Malthus, who studied how populations of organisms tended to grow geometrically until they encountered a limit on their population size). Since not all organisms are equally well adapted to their environment, some will survive and reproduce better than others — this is known as natural selection. Sometimes this is also referred to as “survival of the fittest”. In reality this merely deals with the reproductive success of the organisms, not solely their relative strength or speed.

MLA Citation:

Farabee, Michael J. http://www2.estrellamountain.edu. Estrella Mountain Community College, 18 May. 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookintro.html>.

In-Text: (Farabee)

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APA Citation:

Farabee, M. (18 May, 2010). Introduction: The Nature of Science and Biology. Retrieved from http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookintro.html

In-Text: (Farabee, 2010)

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