Credible Sources for Biology

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewinternet.org/2017/02/02/vast-majority-of-americans-say-benefits-of-childhood-vaccines-outweigh-risks/

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Sample:

“Yet, public concerns about childhood vaccines linger in the public discourse, often linked to a now discredited and retracted research study published nearly two decades ago that raised questions about a possible link between the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and autism. Despite assurances of vaccine safety from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics and a host of other scientific bodies that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine does not cause autism, a number of prominent figures have expressed concerns about the safety of childhood vaccines. President Donald Trump raised questions about the safety of childhood vaccines on the campaign trail and during the transition period met with Robert Kennedy Jr. reportedly about the possibility of leading a commission on vaccine safety and scientific integrity. Kennedy edited a book that argues that a preservative used in some vaccines causes neurological disorders, including autism.

A new Pew Research Center survey conducted prior to the election finds the “vaccine hesitant” views expressed by Trump and other public figures to be at odds with most Americans’ views. An overwhelming majority of Americans (82%) support requiring all healthy schoolchildren to be vaccinated for measles, mumps and rubella. Some 73% of Americans see high preventive health benefits from use of the MMR vaccine, and 66% believe there is a low risk of side effects from the vaccine. Overall, 88% believe that the benefits of these inoculations outweigh the risks.”

Description:

Report from Pew Research Center published in 2017 stating most Americans support required vaccination of schoolchildren and believe they are beneficial.

Author(s):

  • Cary Funk, Brian Kennedy, and Meg Hefferon

Title:

  • Vast Majority of Americans Say Benefits of Childhood Vaccines Outweigh Risks

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • February 2, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3497744/

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Sample:

“There is increasing concern about the progressive degradation of the world’s coral reefs (1–3). Major anthropogenic risk factors include mortality and reduced growth of the reef-building corals due to their high sensitivity to rising seawater temperatures, ocean acidification, water pollution from terrestrial runoff and dredging, destructive fishing, overfishing, and coastal development (4). These anthropogenic risks interact with other large-scale acute disturbances, especially tropical storms and population outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) Acanthaster planci, which may also increase in frequency and intensity in response to human activities (5, 6).”

MLA Citation:

De’ath, Glenn, Katharina E. Fabricius, Hugh Sweatman, and Marji Puotinen. “The 27–year decline of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109.44 (1 Oct. 2012): 17995-17999.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3497744/>.

In-Text: (De’ath et al.)

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APA Citation:

De’ath, G., Fabricus, K.E., Sweatman, H., & Puotinen, M. (2012, Oct. 1). The 27–year decline of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109(44), 17995-17999. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1208909109

In-Text: ( 2012)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.reefresilience.org/coral-reefs/stressors/predator-outbreaks/crown-of-thorns-starfish/

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Sample:

“Crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) are found throughout the Indo-Pacific region, occurring from the Red Sea and coast of East Africa, across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, to the west coast of Central America. Predators of COTS include the giant triton snail, the stars and stripes pufferfish (Arothron hispidus), the titan triggerfish (Balistoides viridescens), and the humphead maori wrasse (Cheilinus undulates).”

MLA Citation:

“Crown of Thorns Starfish.” reefresilience.org. The Nature Conservancy, 14 Jul. 2015. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.reefresilience.org/coral-reefs/stressors/predator-outbreaks/crown-of-thorns-starfish/>.

In-Text: (“Crown of Thorns Starfish”)

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APA Citation:

Crown of Thorns Starfish. (2015, Jul. 14). The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/19/tv/cover-story-holmes-loses-the-hat-and-watson-gets-hip.html

In-Text: (“Crown of Thorns Starfish”, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/01/29/5-key-findings-science/

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“More than any other issue, the public and scientists had very different views about the safety of eating genetically modified (GM) foods. A majority of the general public (57%) says that GM foods are generally unsafe to eat, while 37% say such foods are safe; by contrast, 88% of AAAS scientists say GM foods are generally safe.

One possible reason for the gap: Two-thirds of the public (67%) say scientists do not have a clear understanding about the health effects of GM crops.”

MLA Citation:

Funk, Cary. “5 key findings on what Americans and scientists think about science.” pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center, 29 Jan. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/01/29/5-key-findings-science/>.

In-Text: (Funk)

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APA Citation:

Funk, C. (2015, Jan. 29). 5 key findings on what Americans and scientists think about science. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/01/29/5-key-findings-science/

In-Text: (Funk, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://embor.embopress.org/content/2/7/545.full.pdf+html?

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Sample:

“There is no doubt that genetically modified organisms have a notoriously bad reputation in Europe. The anti‐GMO lobby accuses proponents of this technology of pushing the introduction of GMOs into agriculture without adequately considering health and environmental risks. The pro‐GMO camp charges its opponents with blowing potential risks out of proportion in order to manipulate public opinion against this new technology. During this mutual finger pointing, both sides have taken to blaming the public for a lack of understanding. Indeed, one often hears claims that: ‘The media is to blame for the “hysterical” coverage of the issue’, or: ‘The problem is that the public does not understand the science behind biotechnology’, or: ‘Public acceptability will improve as soon as consumers see direct benefits’.”

MLA Citation:

Marris, Claire. “Public views on GMOs: deconstructing the myths.” embor.embopress.org. European Molecular Biology Organization, 1 Jul. 2001.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://embor.embopress.org/content/2/7/545.full.pdf+html?>.

In-Text: (Marris)

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APA Citation:

Marris, C. (2001, Jul. 1). Public views on GMOs: deconstructing the myths. EMBO Reports, 2(7), 545-548. DOI 10.1093/embo-reports/kve142

In-Text: (Marris, 2001)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111629

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Sample:

“Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion.”

“We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence.”

“On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries.”

“The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology.”

MLA Citation:

Klumper, Willhelm, and Matin Qaim. “A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops.” jounrals.plos.org. Public Library of Science, 3 Nov. 2014. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111629>.

In-Text: (Klumper and Qaim)

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APA Citation:

Klumper, W, & Qaim, M. (2014, Nov. 3). A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops. PLoS ONE 9(11), n.p. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111629

In-Text: (Klumper & Qaim, 2014)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/what-is-cancer

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Sample:

“Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. Cancer cell growth is different from normal cell growth. Instead of dying, cancer cells continue to grow and form new, abnormal cells. Cancer cells can also invade (grow into) other tissues, something that normal cells can’t do. Growing out of control and invading other tissues are what makes a cell a cancer cell.”

MLA Citation:

“What is Cancer?” cancer.org. American Cancer Society, April 15. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/what-is-cancer>.

In-Text: (“What is Cancer?”)

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APA Citation:

What is cancer? (2015, April 15). American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/what-is-cancer

In-Text: (What is cancer? 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.runnersworld.com/nutrition-runners/right-stuff

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“If you’re like many runners, you’ve spent the last few months training for a big race. And as your 5-K, half-marathon, or marathon approaches, you’re probably taking extra care with what you eat and drink. Maybe you’re loading up on carbs, drinking lots of water, ordering extra servings of broccoli and beans. But are you doing the right thing?”

MLA Citation:

Bastone, Kelly. “The Right Stuff?”. runnersworld.com. 3 Sep. 2008.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.runnersworld.com/nutrition-runners/right-stuff>.

In-Text: (Bastone)

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APA Citation:

Bastone, K. 3 Sep, 2008. The Right Stuff? Retrieved from http://www.runnersworld.com/nutrition-runners/right-stuff

In-Text: (Bastone, 2008)

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Read More Comments Off on Running Nutrition and Diet – Runners World

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URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/16/health/nutrition/16run.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“But that, it turns out, is all wrong. Lactic acid is actually a fuel, not a caustic waste product. Muscles make it deliberately, producing it from glucose, and they burn it to obtain energy. The reason trained athletes can perform so hard and so long is because their intense training causes their muscles to adapt so they more readily and efficiently absorb lactic acid.”

MLA Citation:

Kolata, Gina. “Lactic Acid Is Not Muscles’ Foe, It’s Fuel”. nytimes.com. 16 May. 2006.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/16/health/nutrition/16run.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (Kolata)

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APA Citation:

Kolata, G. 16 May, 2006. Lactic Acid Is Not Muscles’ Foe, It’s Fuel. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/16/health/nutrition/16run.html?_r=0

In-Text: (Kolata, 2006)

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URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

Samples:

“Difficulty walking, blurred vision, slurred speech, slowed reaction times, impaired memory: Clearly, alcohol affects the brain. Some of these impairments are detectable after only one or two drinks and quickly resolve when drinking stops. On the other hand, a person who drinks heavily over a long period of time may have brain deficits that persist well after he or she achieves sobriety. Exactly how alcohol affects the brain and the likelihood of reversing the impact of heavy drinking on the brain remain hot topics in alcohol research today.”

“Blackouts are much more common among social drinkers than previously assumed and should be viewed as a potential consequence of acute intoxication regardless of age or whether the drinker is clinically dependent on alcohol (2). White and colleagues (3) surveyed 772 college undergraduates about their experiences with blackouts and asked, “Have you ever awoken after a night of drinking not able to remember things that you did or places that you went?” Of the students who had ever consumed alcohol, 51 percent reported blacking out at some point in their lives, and 40 percent reported experiencing a blackout in the year before the survey. Of those who reported drinking in the 2 weeks before the survey, 9.4 percent said they blacked out during that time. The students reported learning later that they had participated in a wide range of potentially dangerous events they could not remember, including vandalism, unprotected sex, and driving.”

MLA Citation:

“Alcohol’s Damaging Effects on the Brain”. pubs.niaaa.nih.gov. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Oct. 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm>.

In-Text: (“Alcohol’s Damaging Effects on the Brain”)

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APA Citation:

Alcohol’s Damaging Effects on the Brain. (Oct, 2004). Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm

In-Text: (Alcohol’s Damaging Effects on the Brain)

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Read More Comments Off on Alcohol Effects on Brain, Damage, Blackouts and Memory Lapses, Treatment

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URL:

http://www.nrdc.org/wildlife/animals/bees.asp?gclid=CLiGyYLX_asCFYwDQAodQElGmA

Samples:

“Beekeepers first sounded the alarm about disappearing bees in 2006. Seemingly healthy bees were simply abandoning their hives en masse, never to return. Researchers call the mass disappearance Colony Collapse Disorder, and they estimate that nearly one-third of all honey bee colonies in the country have vanished.”

&

“Why are the bees leaving? Scientists studying the disorder believe a combination of factors could be making bees sick, including pesticide exposure, invasive parasitic mites, an inadequate food supply and a new virus that targets bees’ immune systems. More research is essential to determine the exact cause of the bees’ distress.”

MLA Citation:

“Vanishing Bees”. nrdc.org. Natural Resources Defense Council, 25 Jul. 2007.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nrdc.org/wildlife/animals/bees.asp?gclid=CLiGyYLX_asCFYwDQAodQElGmA>.

In-Text: (“Vanishing Bees”)

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APA Citation:

Vanishing Bees. (25 Jul, 2007). Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/wildlife/animals/bees.asp?gclid=CLiGyYLX_asCFYwDQAodQElGmA

In-Text: (Vanishing Bees, 2007)

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Read More Comments Off on Vanishing Bees, Natural Resources Defense Council

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/27/business/27bees.html?_r=0

Samples:

In 24 states throughout the country, beekeepers have gone through similar shocks as their bees have been disappearing inexplicably at an alarming rate, threatening not only their livelihoods but also the production of numerous crops, including California almonds, one of the nation’s most profitable.

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Pressure has been building on the bee industry. The costs to maintain hives, also known as colonies, are rising along with the strain on bees of being bred to pollinate rather than just make honey. And beekeepers are losing out to suburban sprawl in their quest for spots where bees can forage for nectar to stay healthy and strong during the pollination season.

MLA Citation:

Barrionuevo, Alexei. nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 27 Feb. 2007.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/27/business/27bees.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (Barrionuevo)

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APA Citation:

Barrionuevo, A. (27 Feb, 2007). Honeybees Vanish, Leaving Keepers in Peril. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/27/business/27bees.html?_r=0

In-Text: (Barrionuevo, 2007)

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Read More Comments Off on Vanishing of Bee’s, Honeybee’s, Beekeepers Losing Colonies

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookmito.html

Samples:

Despite differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, there are several common features in their cell division processes. Replication of the DNA must occur. Segregation of the “original” and its “replica” follow. Cytokinesis ends the cell division process. Whether the cell was eukaryotic or prokaryotic, these basic events must occur.

&

” Table of Contents

The Cell Cycle | Prokaryotic Cell Division | Eukaryotic Cell Division | Mitosis

Prophase | Metaphase | Anaphase | Telophase | Cytokinesis | Links

MLA Citation:

Farabee, Michael J. http://www2.estrellamountain.edu. Estrella Mountain Community College, 18 May. 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookmito.html>.

In-Text: (Farabee)

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APA Citation:

Farabee, M. (18 May, 2010). Animal Organ Systems and Homeostasis. Retrieved from http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookmito.html

In-Text: (Farabee, 2010)

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Read More Comments Off on Cell Division, Mitosis, Biology

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCELL1.html

Samples:

Scientific estimates place the origin of the Universe at between 10 and 20 billion years ago. The theory currently with the most acceptance is the Big Bang Theory, the idea that all matter in the Universe existed in a cosmic egg (smaller than the size of a modern hydrogen atom) that exploded, forming the Universe. Recent discoveries from the Space Telescope and other devices suggest this theory smay need some modification. Evidence for the Big Bang includes:

1) The Red Shift: when stars/galaxies are moving away from us the energy they emit is shifted to the red side of the visible-light spectrum. Those moving towards us are shifted to the violet side. This shift is an example of the Doppler effect. Similar effects are observed when listening to a train whistle– it will sound higher (shorter wavelengths) approaching and lower (longer wavelengths) as it moves away. Likewise red wavelengths are longer than violet ones. Most galaxies appear to be moving away from ours. 2) Background radiation: two Bell Labs scientists discovered that in interstellar space there is a slight background radiation, thought to be the residual afterblast remnant of the Big Bang. Click here for additional information from sites dealing with the Big Bang, or here for a Powerpoint slideshow about the Big Bang.

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Cell Membrane (also known as plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is surrounds all cells. It: 1) separates the inner parts of the cell from the outer environment; and 2) acts as a selectively permeable barrier to allow certain chemicals, namely water, to pass and others to not pass. In multicellular organisms certain chemicals on the membrane surface act in the recognition of self. Antigens are substances located on the outside of cells, viruses and in some cases other chemicals. Antibodies are chemicals (Y-shaped) produced by an animal in response to a specific antigen. This is the basis of immunity and vaccination.

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Table of Contents

Origin of the Earth and Life | Is There Life on Mars, Venus, Anywhere Else?? | Terms Applied to Cells.

Components of Cells | The Origins of Multicellularity | Microscopes | Learning Objectives | Terms

Review Questions | Links | References

MLA Citation:

Farabee, Michael J. http://www2.estrellamountain.edu. Estrella Mountain Community College, 18 May. 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCELL1.html>.

In-Text: (Farabee)

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APA Citation:

Farabee, M. (18 May, 2010). Animal Organ Systems and Homeostasis. Retrieved from http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCELL1.html

In-Text: (Farabee, 2010)

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Read More Comments Off on Cells, Microscopes, Biology, Multicellularity

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookintro.html

Samples:

Table of Contents

Biology: The Science of Our Lives | Science and the Scientific Method | Theories Contributing to Modern Biology

Development of the Theory of Evolution | The Modern View of the Age of the Earth | Development of the Modern View of Evolution

Darwinian Evolution | The Diversity of Life | Characteristics of Living things | Levels of Organization | Learning Objectives

Terms | Review Questions | Links | References 

Biology literally means “the study of life”. Biology is such a broad field, covering the minute workings of chemical machines inside our cells, to broad scale concepts of ecosystems and global climate change. Biologists study intimate details of the human brain, the composition of our genes, and even the functioning of our reproductive system. Biologists recently all but completed the deciphering of the human genome, the sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bases that may determine much of our innate capabilities and predispositions to certain forms of behavior and illnesses. DNA sequences have played major roles in criminal cases (O.J. Simpson, as well as the reversal of death penalties for many wrongfully convicted individuals), as well as the impeachment of President Clinton (the stain at least did not lie). We are bombarded with headlines about possible health risks from favorite foods (Chinese, Mexican, hamburgers, etc.) as well as the potential benefits of eating other foods such as cooked tomatoes. Informercials tout the benefits of metabolism-adjusting drugs for weight loss. Many Americans are turning to herbal remedies to ease arthritis pain, improve memory, as well as improve our moods.

Charles Darwin, former divinity student and former medical student, secured (through the intercession of his geology professor) an unpaid position as ship’s naturalist on the British exploratory vessel H.M.S. Beagle. The voyage would provide Darwin a unique opportunity to study adaptation and gather a great deal of proof he would later incorporate into his theory of evolution. On his return to England in 1836, Darwin began (with the assistance of numerous specialists) to catalog his collections and ponder the seeming “fit” of organisms to their mode of existence. He eventually settled on four main points of a radical new hypothesis:

Adaptation: all organisms adapt to their environments. Variation: all organisms are variable in their traits. Over-reproduction: all organisms tend to reproduce beyond their environment’s capacity to support them (this is based on the work of Thomas Malthus, who studied how populations of organisms tended to grow geometrically until they encountered a limit on their population size). Since not all organisms are equally well adapted to their environment, some will survive and reproduce better than others — this is known as natural selection. Sometimes this is also referred to as “survival of the fittest”. In reality this merely deals with the reproductive success of the organisms, not solely their relative strength or speed.

MLA Citation:

Farabee, Michael J. http://www2.estrellamountain.edu. Estrella Mountain Community College, 18 May. 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookintro.html>.

In-Text: (Farabee)

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APA Citation:

Farabee, M. (18 May, 2010). Introduction: The Nature of Science and Biology. Retrieved from http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookintro.html

In-Text: (Farabee, 2010)

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Read More Comments Off on Biology Overview, Biology Fields, Biology Theories, Scientific Method, Evolution, Diversity

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookanimorgsys.html

Samples:

“We are all familiar with many of the organ systems that comprise the body of advanced animals: such as the circulatory system, nervous system, etc. More of us are aware of the essential nature of the immune system in these days of HIV, AIDS, and emergent viral diseases such as Ebola and Hanta. Later chapters will focus on animals, such as sponges that have no organs at all, and other organisms that lack many of the organ systems we take for granted. Recall that in the Introduction chapter we discussed the levels of organization we see in biology, from atoms to organ systems that makeup a multicellular organism. We have also seen somewhat of the myriad cells and tissues that occur in humans (and by extension in other animals). This chapter will introduce you to the eleven organ systems that function within our own bodies, and how they coordinate to keep us functioning within a dynamic range of internal conditions we refer to as homeostasis.”

“Animal organs are usually composed of more than one cell type. Recall that the stomach contains all four animal tissue types: epithelium to line the stomach and secrete gastric juices; connective tissues to give the stomach flexibility to expand after a large meal; smooth muscle tissues to churn and digest that meal without the need for conscious thought (indeed, we are aware of that action only when we burp or suffer some sort of gastric distress!); and nervous tissues to monitor the progress of food as it is worked on by the stomach, and to direct secretion and muscle activity. Each organ typically performs a given function set. The stomach is an organ composed of tissues that aid in the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food. Most organs have functions in only one organ system. The stomach is involved only in the digestion of food as part of the digestive system. Organ systems, such as the digestive system, are collections of organs that perform a major function for the organism.”

MLA Citation:

Farabee, Michael J. emc.maricopa.edu. Estrella Mountain Community College, 18 May. 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookanimorgsys.html>.

In-Text: (Farabee)

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APA Citation:

Farabee, M. (18 May, 2010). Animal Organ Systems and Homeostasis. Retrieved from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookanimorgsys.html

In-Text: (Farabee, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.chemistry.armstrong.edu/carpenter/Orgsysre.html

Samples:

“SKELETAL SYSTEM Components:  bones, cartilage, ligaments Function:  supports and protects body; muscles attached to bones; provides calcium storage; site of blood cell formation Specific features: -Supports body via bony framework -Protects delicate vital organs (for their weight, bones are nearly as strong as steel) -Bones are levers that transmit muscular forces; muscles are attached to bones by bands of connective tissue called tendons.  When muscles contract, they pull on bones.  Bones are held together at the joints by bands of connective tissue called ligaments. -Marrow inside some bones produces blood cells (specifically inside flat bones:  skull, ribs and breastbone) -Bones serve as banks for storage and release of minerals like calcium and phosphorus”

“MUSCULAR SYSTEM Components:  skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle Function:  moves parts of the skeleton, locomotion; pumps blood; aids movement of internal materials”

“REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Components:  testes, ovaries and associated structures Function:  reproduction, which provides for continuation of the species”

MLA Citation:

“Organ Systems Review”. chemistry.armstrong.edu. Armstrong Atlantic State University, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.chemistry.armstrong.edu/carpenter/Orgsysre.html>.

In-Text: (“Organ Systems Review”)

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APA Citation:

Organ Systems Review. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.chemistry.armstrong.edu/carpenter/Orgsysre.html

In-Text: (Organ Systems Review)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/

Samples:

“The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract—a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus—and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food (see figure).”

“Organs that make up the digestive tract are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine—also called the colon—rectum, and anus. Inside these hollow organs is a lining called the mucosa. In the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, the mucosa contains tiny glands that produce juices to help digest food. The digestive tract also contains a layer of smooth muscle that helps break down food and move it along the tract.”

“After the stomach empties the food and juice mixture into the small intestine, the juices of two other digestive organs mix with the food. One of these organs, the pancreas, produces a juice that contains a wide array of enzymes to break down the carbohydrate, fat, and protein in food. Other enzymes that are active in the process come from glands in the wall of the intestine.”

“The major hormones that control the functions of the digestive system are produced and released by cells in the mucosa of the stomach and small intestine. These hormones are released into the blood of the digestive tract, travel back to the heart and through the arteries, and return to the digestive system where they stimulate digestive juices and cause organ movement.

The main hormones that control digestion are gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin (CCK):

  • Gastrin causes the stomach to produce an acid for dissolving and digesting some foods. Gastrin is also necessary for normal cell growth in the lining of the stomach, small intestine, and colon.
  • Secretin causes the pancreas to send out a digestive juice that is rich in bicarbonate. The bicarbonate helps neutralize the acidic stomach contents as they enter the small intestine. Secretin also stimulates the stomach to produce pepsin, an enzyme that digests protein, and stimulates the liver to produce bile.
  • CCK causes the pancreas to produce the enzymes of pancreatic juice, and causes the gallbladder to empty. It also promotes normal cell growth of the pancreas.”

MLA Citation:

“Your Digestive System and How it Works”. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, 23 Apr. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/>.

In-Text: (“Your Digestive System”)

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APA Citation:

Your Digestive System and How it Works. (23 Apr, 2012). Retrieved from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/

In-Text: (Your Digestive System, 2012)

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