Credible Sources for The Brain

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/mental-downtime/

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“In making an argument for the necessity of mental downtime, we can now add an overwhelming amount of empirical evidence to intuition and anecdote. Why giving our brains a break now and then is so important has become increasingly clear in a diverse collection of new studies investigating: the habits of office workers and the daily routines of extraordinary musicians and athletes; the benefits of vacation, meditation and time spent in parks, gardens and other peaceful outdoor spaces; and how napping, unwinding while awake and perhaps the mere act of blinking can sharpen the mind. What research to date also clarifies, however, is that even when we are relaxing or daydreaming, the brain does not really slow down or stop working. Rather—just as a dazzling array of molecular, genetic and physiological processes occur primarily or even exclusively when we sleep at night—many important mental processes seem to require what we call downtime and other forms of rest during the day. Downtime replenishes the brain’s stores of attention and motivation, encourages productivity and creativity, and is essential to both achieve our highest levels of performance and simply form stable memories in everyday life. A wandering mind unsticks us in time so that we can learn from the past and plan for the future. Moments of respite may even be necessary to keep one’s moral compass in working order and maintain a sense of self.

The rest is history

For much of the 20th century many scientists regarded the idea that the brain might be productive during downtime as ludicrous. German neurologist Hans Berger disagreed. In 1929, after extensive studies using an electroencephalogram—a device he invented to record electrical impulses in the brain by placing a net of electrodes on the scalp—he proposed that the brain is always in “a state of considerable activity,” even when people were sleeping or relaxing. Although his peers acknowledged that some parts of the the brain and spinal cord must work nonstop to regulate the lungs and heart, they assumed that when someone was not focusing on a specific mental task, the brain was largely offline; any activity picked up by an electroencephalogram or other device during rest was mostly random noise. At first, the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the early 1990s only strengthened this view of the brain as an exquisitely frugal organ switching on and off its many parts as needed. By tracing blood flow through the brain, fMRI clearly showed that different neural circuits became especially active during different mental tasks, summoning extra blood full of oxygen and glucose to use as energy.

By the mid 1990s, however, Marcus Raichle of Washington University in Saint Louis and his colleagues had demonstrated that the human brain is in fact a glutton, constantly demanding 20 percent of all the energy the body produces and requiring only 5 to 10 percent more energy than usual when someone solves calculus problems or reads a book. Raichle also noticed that a particular set of scattered brain regions consistently became less active when someone concentrated on a mental challenge, but began to fire in synchrony when someone was simply lying supine in an fMRI scanner, letting their thoughts wander. Likewise, Bharat Biswal, now at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, documented the same kind of coordinated communication between disparate brain regions in people who were resting. Many researchers were dubious, but further studies by other scientists confirmed that the findings were not a fluke. Eventually this mysterious and complex circuit that stirred to life when people were daydreaming became known as the default mode network (DMN). In the last five years researchers discovered that the DMN is but one of at least five different resting-state networks—circuits for vision, hearing, movement, attention and memory. But the DMN remains the best studied and perhaps the most important among them.”

Description:

Article from Scientific American examining the effect of mental downtime in the form of meditation, napping, and the like on productivity and our brains.

Author(s):

  • Ferris Jabr

Title:

  • Why Your Brain Needs More Downtime

Publisher:

  • Scientific American

Date:

  • October 15, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sports/league-of-denial/timeline-the-nfls-concussion-crisis/

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Sample:

“October 1999

NFL RETIREMENT BOARD RULES MIKE WEBSTER PERMANENTLY DISABLED

The NFL Retirement Board rules that Mike Webster’s head injuries from his years playing for the Pittsburgh Steelers and Kansas City Chiefs left him “totally and permanently” disabled as “the result of head injuries he suffered as a football player.” The ruling isn’t made public until it’s uncovered by FRONTLINE/ESPN reporters Steve Fainaru and Mark Fainaru-Wada.

Webster’s attorney, Bob Fitzsimmons, says the ruling shows that the league should’ve known there was a link between football and brain damage.

“It’s pretty devastating evidence,” he said. “If the NFL takes the position that they didn’t know or weren’t armed with evidence that concussions can cause total disability — permanent disability, permanent brain injury — in 1999, that evidence trumps anything they say.””

Description:

Detailed timeline from PBS on the issue of concussions in the NFL, chronicling their pubilc stances, contributions to research, and injured players.

Author(s):

  • Lauren Ezell

Title:

  • Timeline: The NFL’s Concussion Crisis

Publisher:

  • PBS

Date:

  • October 8, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://concussionfoundation.org/learning-center/what-is-cte

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Sample:

“Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain found in athletes, military veterans, and others with a history of repetitive brain trauma. Brain trauma can cause a build-up of an abnormal type of a protein called tau, which slowly kills brain cells. Once started, these changes in the brain appear to continue to progress even after exposure to brain trauma has ended. Possible symptoms include memory loss, confusion, impaired judgment, paranoia, impulse control problems, aggression, depression, and eventually progressive dementia. Symptoms can begin to appear months, years, or even decades after trauma has ended. Currently, CTE can only be diagnosed after death by brain tissue analysis.”

MLA Citation:

“What is CTE?” concussionfoundation.org. Concussion Legacy Foundation, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://concussionfoundation.org/learning-center/what-is-cte>.

In-Text: (“What is CTE?”)

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APA Citation:

What is CTE? (n.d.). Concussion Legacy Foundation. Retrieved from http://concussionfoundation.org/learning-center/what-is-cte

In-Text: (“What is CTE?”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/09/researchers-find-brain-damage-in-96-percent-of-former-nfl-players/406462/

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Sample:

“Frontline reported on numbers from the Department of Veterans Affairs and Boston University, where researchers studied the brains of 165 people who played football at the high school, college, or professional level. They found evidence of CTE in 131 of them—79 percent. Of the brains studied, 91 of them belonged to former NFL players, and 87 of those 91 (96 percent) had signs of CTE.”

MLA Citation:

Beck, Julie. “The NFL’s Continuing Concussion Nightmare.” theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 21 Sep. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/09/researchers-find-brain-damage-in-96-percent-of-former-nfl-players/406462/>.

In-Text: (Beck)

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APA Citation:

Beck, J. (2015, Sep. 21). The NFL’s continuing concussion nightmare. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/09/researchers-find-brain-damage-in-96-percent-of-former-nfl-players/406462/

In-Text: (Beck, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987636/

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Sample:

“In general, athletes tend to have a higher risk of concussion in competition as compared to practice. However, given the higher frequency of practices compared to games, and the resulting total number of concussions occurring in practice, one way to quickly and drastically reduce a sport’s concussion risk would be to limit unnecessary contact in practice. The majority of concussions in high school athletes resulted from participation in football, followed by girls’ soccer, boys’ soccer, and girls’ basketball.

Within a given sport, females tend to report higher rates of concussion than males. Within comparable sports, evidence indicates that female athletes may be at a greater risk of concussions than male athletes.(47) The evidence also indicates that, in general, concussions result in cognitive impairment in females more frequently than in males.(48) These variations may be due to biomechanical differences, such as differences in body mass, head mass, or neck strength. They may also be explained by cultural differences, such as reluctance among males to report injury, and physiologic differences, including hormones.”

MLA Citation:

Daneshvar, Daniel H., Christopher J. Nowinski, Ann Mckee, Roebrt C. Cantu. “The Epidemiology of Sport-Related Concussion.” Clinics in Sports Medicine 30.1 (Jan. 2011): 1-17. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987636/>.

In-Text: (Daneshvar et al.)

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APA Citation:

Daneshvar, D. H., Nowinski, C.J., Mckee, A., Cantu, R.C. (2011, Jan.). The epidemiology of sport-related concussion. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 30(1), 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csm.2010.08.006

In-Text: (Daneshvar, Nowinski, Mckee, Cantu, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/128/3/472.full

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“Following a complaint by a football coach regarding the diffusion of illegal drugs among football players, an Italian prosecutor, Mr Raffaele Guariniello, who was particularly interested in environmental and health lawsuits, ordered an inquiry in 2000 into the causes of death in a cohort of some 24 000 players who played between 1960 and 1996 in Italian professional and semi-professional football divisions (Series A, B and C). Out of 375 deaths, eight were due to ALS. Using Italian mortality statistics as a reference, the expected number of deaths was 0.69 and the corresponding standardized proportional mortality ratio was 11.6 [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.7–20.0] (unpublished data). Although this preliminary study had some biases (mainly related to the structure of the football cohort), its results prompted us to perform a retrospective incidence study on ALS in a rigorously defined cohort of Italian professional football players.”

MLA Citation:

Chio, Adriano, , , , and   (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/128/3/472.full>.

In-Text: (Adriano et al.)

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APA Citation:

Chio, A., , , , & 

In-Text: (Chio, Benzi, Dossena, Mutani, Mora, 2005)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.traumaticbraininjury.net/first-soccer-and-rugby-players-diagnosed-with-cte/

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Sample:

“Heading has long been thought to be relatively harmless, but evidence is growing to show that repeatedly hitting your head even comparitively softly can have repercussions. The damage seems to add up, and headers are beginning to be associated with microstructural damage to brain tissue and memory problems. An Italian study also linked them to ALS.”

MLA Citation:

Stone, Paul. “First Soccer and Rugby Players Diagnosed With CTE.” traumaticbraininjury.net. Neurological Rehabilitation Institute at Brookhaven Hospital, 18 Mar. 2014. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.traumaticbraininjury.net/first-soccer-and-rugby-players-diagnosed-with-cte/>.

In-Text: (Stone)

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APA Citation:

Stone, P. (2014, Mar. 18). First soccer and rugby players diagnosed with CTE. Neurological Rehabilitation Institute at Brookhaven Hospital Retrieved from http://www.traumaticbraininjury.net/first-soccer-and-rugby-players-diagnosed-with-cte/

In-Text: (Stone, 2014)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/02/03/sports/football/nfl-brain-disease-cte-concussions.html?_r=0

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“The former star defensive back for the Chicago Bears, a longtime leader in the players’ union, shot himself in the chest at 50. He had symptoms of repetitive brain trauma, including memory loss, poor impulse control and abusive behavior toward loved ones. His suicide note said, “Please, see that my brain is given to the N.F.L.’s brain bank.” Boston University researchers found his brain had developed C.T.E.”

MLA Citation:

“The NFL’s Tragic C.T.E. Roll Call.” nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 3 Feb. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/02/03/sports/football/nfl-brain-disease-cte-concussions.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (“The NFL’s Tragic C.T.E. Roll Call”)

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APA Citation:

The NFL’s tragic C.T.E. roll call. (2016, Feb. 3). The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/02/03/sports/football/nfl-brain-disease-cte-concussions.html?_r=0

In-Text: (“The NFL’s tragic C.T.E. roll call”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/25/sports/football/nfl-concussion-research-tobacco.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“In the mid-1990s, the National Football League formed a concussion committee that ultimately determined that head trauma posed no significant danger. But the data it collected from teams was inconsistent and contained glaring omissions — some involving the game’s star players.”

“The 49ers have no concussions listed from 1997 through 2000. However, numerous media reports and the N.F.L.’s own injury reports indicate quarterback Steve Young had at least two. The one at left occurred against Arizona in 1999. Young did not play again.”

MLA Citation:

Schwarz, Alan, Walt Bogdanich, and Jacqueline Williams. “N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry.” nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 24 Mar. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/25/sports/football/nfl-concussion-research-tobacco.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (Schwarz, Bogdanich, and Williams)

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APA Citation:

Schwarz, A., Bogdanich, W., Williams, J. (2016, Mar. 24). N.F.L.’s flawed concussion research and ties to tobacco industry. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/25/sports/football/nfl-concussion-research-tobacco.html?_r=0

In-Text: (Schwarz, Bogdanich, & Williams, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/

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Sample:

“Nature and nurture are not simply additive interactions that result in a particular behavior, but rather a complex interplay of many factors. Nature includes not only the usual factors—parents, homes, what people learn—but also many other factors that individuals are exposed to routinely in their daily environments. As Marder emphasized, we cannot simply assume that gene X produces behavior Y. Instead as Bialek described, there are often many additional factors that directly and indirectly interact with gene X and ultimately influence variants in behavior. These variants define individuality.”

MLA Citation:

“Grand Challenge: Nature Versus Nurture: How Does the Interplay of Biology and Experience Shape Our Brains and Make Us Who We Are?” ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Centers for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2008.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/>.

In-Text: (“Grand Challenge: Nature Versus Nurture”)

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APA Citation:

Grand challenge: Nature versus nurture: How does the interplay of biology and experience shape our brains and make us who we are? (2008). National Centers for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/

In-Text: (Grand challenge: Nature versus nurture)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/inspired-life/wp/2015/05/26/harvard-neuroscientist-meditation-not-only-reduces-stress-it-literally-changes-your-brain/

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Sample:

“It’s well-documented that our cortex shrinks as we get older – it’s harder to figure things out and remember things. But in this one region of the prefrontal cortex, 50-year-old meditators had the same amount of gray matter as 25-year-olds.”

MLA Citation:

Schulte, Brigid. “Harvard neuroscientist: Meditation not only reduces stress, here’s how it changes your brain.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 26 May 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/inspired-life/wp/2015/05/26/harvard-neuroscientist-meditation-not-only-reduces-stress-it-literally-changes-your-brain/>.

In-Text: (Schulte)

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APA Citation:

Schulte, B. (2015, May 26). Harvard neuroscientist: Meditation not only reduces stress, here’s how it changes your brain. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/inspired-life/wp/2015/05/26/harvard-neuroscientist-meditation-not-only-reduces-stress-it-literally-changes-your-brain/

In-Text: (Schulte, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-meditation-overrated/

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Sample:

“Describing their results in January in JAMA Internal Medicine, the researchers found moderate evidence that mindfulness meditation alleviates pain, anxiety and depression—the latter two to a similar degree as antidepressant drug therapy. Mindfulness meditation, the most widely researched approach, requires focusing one’s attention on experiencing the present moment. The scientists did not have enough data to assess other common claims of its benefits, including that it improves mood or attention, or other forms of meditation, such as mantra-based practices.”

MLA Citation:

Moyer, Melinda Wenner. “Is Meditation Overrated?” scientificamerican.com. Scientific American, 1 May 2014.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-meditation-overrated/>.

In-Text: (Moyer)

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APA Citation:

Moyer, M. W. (2014, May 1). Is Meditation Overrated? Scientific American. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-meditation-overrated/

In-Text: (Moyer, 2014)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2011/01/eight-weeks-to-a-better-brain/

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Sample:

“Participating in an eight-week mindfulness meditation program appears to make measurable changes in brain regions associated with memory, sense of self, empathy, and stress. In a study that will appear in the Jan. 30 issue of Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, a team led by Harvard-affiliated researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) reported the results of their study, the first to document meditation-produced changes over time in the brain’s gray matter.”

MLA Citation:

McGreevey, Sue. “Eight weeks to a better brain.” news.harvard.edu. Harvard Gazette, 21 Jan. 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2011/01/eight-weeks-to-a-better-brain/>.

In-Text: (McGreevey)

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APA Citation:

McGreevey, S. (2011, Jan. 21). Eight weeks to a better brain. Harvard Gazette. Retrieved from http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2011/01/eight-weeks-to-a-better-brain/

In-Text: (McGreevey, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.boston.com/jobs/news/jobdoc/2014/10/creating_landmark_research-bas.html

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“Q: You worked with researchers from Harvard to look at the use of e-readers by students with dyslexia. What did you find out?

A: We wanted to know about whether iPods, Kindles, iPads or other e-readers could help dyslexic students read faster and more accurately. Landmark high school students were tested by a visual learning lab to see if changing fonts, word spacing or letter size could help reduce ‘visual attention deficit,’ which is an inability to concentrate on letters or words. Researchers found that the short lines on an e-reader can reduce this distraction and help readers concentrate. So now we know that these devices aren’t just technological gadgets but an educational resource for those with dyslexia.”

MLA Citation:

Keene, Cindy Atoji. “Creating ‘Landmark’ research-based strategies for dyslexic readers”. www.boston.com. Boston Globe Media Partners, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.boston.com/jobs/news/jobdoc/2014/10/creating_landmark_research-bas.html>.

In-Text: (Keene)

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APA Citation:

Keene, C. (n.d.). Creating ‘Landmark’ research-based strategies for dyslexic readers. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/jobs/news/jobdoc/2014/10/creating_landmark_research-bas.html

In-Text: (Keene)

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Read More Comments Off on Dyslexia and Schools, Interview About New Learning Methods – Boston Globe

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

Samples:

“Difficulty walking, blurred vision, slurred speech, slowed reaction times, impaired memory: Clearly, alcohol affects the brain. Some of these impairments are detectable after only one or two drinks and quickly resolve when drinking stops. On the other hand, a person who drinks heavily over a long period of time may have brain deficits that persist well after he or she achieves sobriety. Exactly how alcohol affects the brain and the likelihood of reversing the impact of heavy drinking on the brain remain hot topics in alcohol research today.”

“Blackouts are much more common among social drinkers than previously assumed and should be viewed as a potential consequence of acute intoxication regardless of age or whether the drinker is clinically dependent on alcohol (2). White and colleagues (3) surveyed 772 college undergraduates about their experiences with blackouts and asked, “Have you ever awoken after a night of drinking not able to remember things that you did or places that you went?” Of the students who had ever consumed alcohol, 51 percent reported blacking out at some point in their lives, and 40 percent reported experiencing a blackout in the year before the survey. Of those who reported drinking in the 2 weeks before the survey, 9.4 percent said they blacked out during that time. The students reported learning later that they had participated in a wide range of potentially dangerous events they could not remember, including vandalism, unprotected sex, and driving.”

MLA Citation:

“Alcohol’s Damaging Effects on the Brain”. pubs.niaaa.nih.gov. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Oct. 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm>.

In-Text: (“Alcohol’s Damaging Effects on the Brain”)

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APA Citation:

Alcohol’s Damaging Effects on the Brain. (Oct, 2004). Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm

In-Text: (Alcohol’s Damaging Effects on the Brain)

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Read More Comments Off on Alcohol Effects on Brain, Damage, Blackouts and Memory Lapses, Treatment