Credible Sources for Organ Systems

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Hangovers/beyondHangovers.pdf

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Sample:

“A brightly colored cosmopolitan is the drink of choice for the glamorous characters in Sex and the City. James Bond depends on his famous martini—shaken, not stirred—to unwind with after confounding a villain. And what wedding concludes without a champagne toast? Alcohol is part of our culture—it helps us celebrate and socialize, and it enhances our religious ceremonies. But drinking too much—on a single occasion or over time—can have serious consequences for our health. Most Americans recognize that drinking too much can lead to accidents and dependence. But that’s only part of the story. In addition to these serious problems, alcohol abuse can damage organs, weaken the immune system, and contribute to cancers.”

MLA Citation:

“Beyond Hangovers.” pubs.niaaa.nih.gov. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Oct. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Hangovers/beyondHangovers.pdf>.

In-Text: (“Beyond Hangovers”)

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APA Citation:

Beyond hangovers. (2015, Oct.). National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Hangovers/beyondHangovers.pdf

In-Text: (“Beyond hangovers”, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookanimorgsys.html

Samples:

“We are all familiar with many of the organ systems that comprise the body of advanced animals: such as the circulatory system, nervous system, etc. More of us are aware of the essential nature of the immune system in these days of HIV, AIDS, and emergent viral diseases such as Ebola and Hanta. Later chapters will focus on animals, such as sponges that have no organs at all, and other organisms that lack many of the organ systems we take for granted. Recall that in the Introduction chapter we discussed the levels of organization we see in biology, from atoms to organ systems that makeup a multicellular organism. We have also seen somewhat of the myriad cells and tissues that occur in humans (and by extension in other animals). This chapter will introduce you to the eleven organ systems that function within our own bodies, and how they coordinate to keep us functioning within a dynamic range of internal conditions we refer to as homeostasis.”

“Animal organs are usually composed of more than one cell type. Recall that the stomach contains all four animal tissue types: epithelium to line the stomach and secrete gastric juices; connective tissues to give the stomach flexibility to expand after a large meal; smooth muscle tissues to churn and digest that meal without the need for conscious thought (indeed, we are aware of that action only when we burp or suffer some sort of gastric distress!); and nervous tissues to monitor the progress of food as it is worked on by the stomach, and to direct secretion and muscle activity. Each organ typically performs a given function set. The stomach is an organ composed of tissues that aid in the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food. Most organs have functions in only one organ system. The stomach is involved only in the digestion of food as part of the digestive system. Organ systems, such as the digestive system, are collections of organs that perform a major function for the organism.”

MLA Citation:

Farabee, Michael J. emc.maricopa.edu. Estrella Mountain Community College, 18 May. 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookanimorgsys.html>.

In-Text: (Farabee)

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APA Citation:

Farabee, M. (18 May, 2010). Animal Organ Systems and Homeostasis. Retrieved from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookanimorgsys.html

In-Text: (Farabee, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.chemistry.armstrong.edu/carpenter/Orgsysre.html

Samples:

“SKELETAL SYSTEM Components:  bones, cartilage, ligaments Function:  supports and protects body; muscles attached to bones; provides calcium storage; site of blood cell formation Specific features: -Supports body via bony framework -Protects delicate vital organs (for their weight, bones are nearly as strong as steel) -Bones are levers that transmit muscular forces; muscles are attached to bones by bands of connective tissue called tendons.  When muscles contract, they pull on bones.  Bones are held together at the joints by bands of connective tissue called ligaments. -Marrow inside some bones produces blood cells (specifically inside flat bones:  skull, ribs and breastbone) -Bones serve as banks for storage and release of minerals like calcium and phosphorus”

“MUSCULAR SYSTEM Components:  skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle Function:  moves parts of the skeleton, locomotion; pumps blood; aids movement of internal materials”

“REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Components:  testes, ovaries and associated structures Function:  reproduction, which provides for continuation of the species”

MLA Citation:

“Organ Systems Review”. chemistry.armstrong.edu. Armstrong Atlantic State University, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.chemistry.armstrong.edu/carpenter/Orgsysre.html>.

In-Text: (“Organ Systems Review”)

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APA Citation:

Organ Systems Review. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.chemistry.armstrong.edu/carpenter/Orgsysre.html

In-Text: (Organ Systems Review)

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Read More Comments Off on Organ Systems, Overview, Every System, Anatomy, Biology

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/

Samples:

“The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract—a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus—and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food (see figure).”

“Organs that make up the digestive tract are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine—also called the colon—rectum, and anus. Inside these hollow organs is a lining called the mucosa. In the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, the mucosa contains tiny glands that produce juices to help digest food. The digestive tract also contains a layer of smooth muscle that helps break down food and move it along the tract.”

“After the stomach empties the food and juice mixture into the small intestine, the juices of two other digestive organs mix with the food. One of these organs, the pancreas, produces a juice that contains a wide array of enzymes to break down the carbohydrate, fat, and protein in food. Other enzymes that are active in the process come from glands in the wall of the intestine.”

“The major hormones that control the functions of the digestive system are produced and released by cells in the mucosa of the stomach and small intestine. These hormones are released into the blood of the digestive tract, travel back to the heart and through the arteries, and return to the digestive system where they stimulate digestive juices and cause organ movement.

The main hormones that control digestion are gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin (CCK):

  • Gastrin causes the stomach to produce an acid for dissolving and digesting some foods. Gastrin is also necessary for normal cell growth in the lining of the stomach, small intestine, and colon.
  • Secretin causes the pancreas to send out a digestive juice that is rich in bicarbonate. The bicarbonate helps neutralize the acidic stomach contents as they enter the small intestine. Secretin also stimulates the stomach to produce pepsin, an enzyme that digests protein, and stimulates the liver to produce bile.
  • CCK causes the pancreas to produce the enzymes of pancreatic juice, and causes the gallbladder to empty. It also promotes normal cell growth of the pancreas.”

MLA Citation:

“Your Digestive System and How it Works”. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, 23 Apr. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/>.

In-Text: (“Your Digestive System”)

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APA Citation:

Your Digestive System and How it Works. (23 Apr, 2012). Retrieved from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/

In-Text: (Your Digestive System, 2012)

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Read More Comments Off on Digestive System, Human Anatomy, Parts and Function, Biology