Credible Sources for Nature vs Nurture

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/twins/

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Sample:

“To illustrate, for twins with schizophrenia, 50% identical twins share the disease, while only about 10-15% of fraternal twins do. This difference is evidence for a strong genetic component in susceptibility to schizophrenia. However, the fact that both identical twins in a pair don’t develop the disease 100% of the time indicates that other factors are involved.”

MLA Citation:

“Insights From Identical Twins.” learn.genetics.utah.edu. University of Utah, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/twins/>.

In-Text: (“Insights From Identical Twins”)

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APA Citation:

Insights from identical twins. (n.d.). University of Utah. Retrieved from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/twins/

In-Text: (Insights from identical twins)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.msu.edu/~jsherry/Site/NatureNurture.pdf

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Sample:

“Nearly 30 years ago, Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess (1977) offered a version of human development that consisted of a compromise between the nature and nurture perspectives. In the time since, great advances have been made in understanding human psychology. It is past time for media effects researchers to embrace the interactionist perspective offered by Thomas and Chess and embraced by legions of human behavior researchers. There is no longer any question among most developmental psychologists, cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, and biologists that nature interacts with nurture to determine human behavior.”

MLA Citation:

Sherry, John L. “Media Effects Theory and the Nature/Nurture Debate: A Historical Overview and Directions for Future Research.” msu.edu. Michigan State University, 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.msu.edu/~jsherry/Site/NatureNurture.pdf>.

In-Text: (Sherry)

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APA Citation:

Sherry, J. L. (2004). Media Effects Theory and the Nature/Nurture debate: A historical overview and directions for future research. Michigan State University. Retrieved from https://www.msu.edu/~jsherry/Site/NatureNurture.pdf

In-Text: (Sherry, 2004)

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Note on citations: We used the format for citing a website page for the MLA citation. The research paper itself lists Purdue University, where the author had done the research; However, the credible source is found on Michigan State University’s website, where the author now seems to be employed. The OWL guide states one should list the website name and organization affiliated with the website (msu.edu and Michigan State University, respectively) in the citation. Since the source is being accessed through the web this is appropriate, though the original publisher does not appear to be MSU. Please consider your specific requirements and guidelines when preparing your bibliography.

 

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/8/588.full

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Sample:

“In its brief history, epigenetics research has concentrated mostly on the early development of organisms. One strain of these investigations is development of behavior, and this line of research now has its own name: Behavioral epigenetics refers to the study of how signals from the environment trigger molecular biological changes that modify what goes on in brain cells. Here, the term environment encompasses pretty much everything that happens in every stage of life: social experience; nutrition; hormones; and toxicological exposures that occur prenatally, postnatally, and in adulthood. If research on epigenetics is in its infancy, research on behavioral epigenetics is in embryo.”

MLA Citation:

Powledge, Tabitha. “Behavioral Epigenetics: How Nurture Shapes Nature.” Bioscience 61.8 (2011): 588-592.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/8/588.full>.

In-Text: (Powledge)

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APA Citation:

Powledge, T. (2011). Behavioral Epigenetics: How nurture shapes nature. Bioscience, 68(8), 588-592. doi: 10.1525/bio.2011.61.8.4

In-Text: (Powledge, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/

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Sample:

“Nature and nurture are not simply additive interactions that result in a particular behavior, but rather a complex interplay of many factors. Nature includes not only the usual factors—parents, homes, what people learn—but also many other factors that individuals are exposed to routinely in their daily environments. As Marder emphasized, we cannot simply assume that gene X produces behavior Y. Instead as Bialek described, there are often many additional factors that directly and indirectly interact with gene X and ultimately influence variants in behavior. These variants define individuality.”

MLA Citation:

“Grand Challenge: Nature Versus Nurture: How Does the Interplay of Biology and Experience Shape Our Brains and Make Us Who We Are?” ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Centers for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2008.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/>.

In-Text: (“Grand Challenge: Nature Versus Nurture”)

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APA Citation:

Grand challenge: Nature versus nurture: How does the interplay of biology and experience shape our brains and make us who we are? (2008). National Centers for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/

In-Text: (Grand challenge: Nature versus nurture)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.k-state.edu/counseling/student/aodes_news/sp11vol54.pdf

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Sample:

“Personality traits are part inherited and part learned. Scientists have not been able to identifu a specific personality type that is more prone to alcohol dependency, although certain traits may be associatedwith high alcohol use. Low self-esteem is sometimes correlated with alcohol dependency, as is risk-taking or poor impulse control. Individuals who experience depression, anxiety, or phobias are also often at higher risk for developing alcohol dependence. Debate continues, however, over which comes first! Is a depressed or anxious person more likely to use alcohol to relieve their symptoms? Or, is a person who abuses alcohol more likely to become depressed and anxious? These are questions that researchers haven’t definitively answered.”

MLA Citation:

“Alcoholism: Nature vs. Nurture”. k-state.edu. KSU Alcohol and Other Drug Education Service, 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.k-state.edu/counseling/student/aodes_news/sp11vol54.pdf>.

In-Text: (“Alcoholism: Nature vs Nurture”)

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APA Citation:

Alcoholism: Nature vs. nurture. (2011). KSU Alcohol and Other Drug Education Service. Retrieved from https://www.k-state.edu/counseling/student/aodes_news/sp11vol54.pdf

In-Text: (Alcoholism: Nature vs. nurture, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.amnh.org/learn/genetics/Resource1

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Sample:

“But height is also determined by nurture; during the last century the overall height within populations increased in almost all countries that industrialized and improved both hygiene and nutrition. This trend is not related to changing genes. The genotype is all the specific gene versions an organism possesses. The phenotype is the detectable outward manifestation of a genotype and is also influenced by the environment (e.g., hair color). The genotypic composition of these populations did not change drastically during that time. This shows that organisms have great phenotypic plasticity (an observable change of a genetically controlled trait) for certain traits, i.e., genes produce a wide range of phenotypes across a range of environments.”

MLA Citation:

Englbrecht, Claudia. “Nature v. Nurture.” amnh.org. American Museum of Natural History, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.amnh.org/learn/genetics/Resource1>.

In-Text: (Englbrecht)

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APA Citation:

Englbrecht, C. (n.d.). Nature v. nurture. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved from http://www.amnh.org/learn/genetics/Resource1

In-Text: (Englbrecht)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://rdcu.be/cSde

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Sample:

“Despite a century of research on complex traits in humans, the relative importance and specific nature of the influences of genes and environment on human traits remain controversial. We report a meta-analysis of twin correlations and reported variance components for 17,804 traits from 2,748 publications including 14,558,903 partly dependent twin pairs, virtually all published twin studies of complex traits. Estimates of heritability cluster strongly within functional domains, and across all traits the reported heritability is 49%. For a majority (69%) of traits, the observed twin correlations are consistent with a simple and parsimonious model where twin resemblance is solely due to additive genetic variation. The data are inconsistent with substantial influences from shared environment or non-additive genetic variation. This study provides the most comprehensive analysis of the causes of individual differences in human traits thus far and will guide future gene-mapping efforts.”

MLA Citation:

Polderman, Tinca C.J.,  Beben Benyamin, Christiaan de Leeuw, Patrick F Sullivan, Arjen van Bochoven, Peter M Visscher, and Danielle Posthuma. “Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies”.  Nature Genetics, 47.7 ( 18 May 2015): 702-709.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://rdcu.be/cSde>.

In-Text: (Polderman et al. INSERT PAGE NO.)

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APA Citation:

Polderman T.J.C., Benyamin B., de Leeuw C.A., Sullivan P.F., van Bochoven A., Visscher P.M., & Posthuma D (2015, May 18). Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nature Genetics, 47(7), 702-709. doi:10.1038/ng.3285

In-Text: (Polderman et al., 2015, p. INSERT NO.)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(10)00826-3

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Sample:

“Gene-environment interaction is a broad term encompassing the synergistic effect of genes and the environment on a disease or trait. In this instance, the term environment can be broadly interpreted to include lifestyle factors in addition to the more traditional physical, chemical, and biological exposures that individuals are subjected to in their occupational and domestic surroundings. In many ways, the term gene-environment interaction represents a new dimension of the long-standing “nature versus nurture” debate. In part this reflects a growing realization that the notion of nature or nurture is a false dichotomy and that understanding how these two powerful forces interact is key to unraveling disease pathogenesis (Levin, 2009, Rutter, 2002, Wermter et al., 2010). In our opinion, a complete understanding of the role of environment in disease cannot be achieved in isolation, but rather must be viewed in the context of the genome and its variety.”

MLA Citation:

Traynor, Bryan and Andrew Singleton. “Nature versus Nurture: Death of a Dogma, and the Road Ahead.” Neuron Volume 68 Issue 2: p. 196-200.  21 Oct. 2010. <http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(10)00826-3>.

In-Text: (Traynor and Singleton)

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APA Citation:

Traynor, B., & Singleton, A. (2010, Oct. 21). Nature versus nurture: Death of a dogma, and the road ahead. Neuron, Volume 68, Issue 2, 196-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2010.10.002

In-Text: (Traynor & Singleton, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jweisz/files/1994c.pdf

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Sample:

“A meta-analysis of 47 studies was used to shed light on inconsistencies in the concurrent association between parental caregiving and child externalizing behavior. Parent-child associations were strongest when the measure of caregiving relied on observations or interviews, as opposed to questionnaires, and when the measure tapped combinations of parent behaviors (patterns), as opposed to single behaviors. Stronger parent-child associations were also found for older than for younger children, and for mothers than for fathers. Finally, externalizing was more strongly linked to parental caregiving for boys than for girls, especially among preadolescents and their mothers. The metaanalysis helps account for inconsistencies in findings across previous studies and supports theories emphasizing reciprocity of parent and child behavior.”

MLA Citation:

Rothbaum, Fred and John R. Weisz. “Parental Caregiving and Child Externalizing Behavior in Nonclinical Samples: A Meta-Analysis.” American Psychological Association, Psychological Bulletin Vol. 116, No. 1 (1994): 55-74. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jweisz/files/1994c.pdf>.

In-Text: (Rothbaum and Weisz)

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APA Citation:

Rothbaum, F. and Weisz, J. R. (1994). Parental caregiving and child externalizing behavior in nonclinical samples: A meta-analysis. American Psychological Association, Psychological Bulletin Vol. 116, No. 1: 55-74. Retrieved from http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jweisz/files/1994c.pdf

In-Text: (Rothbaum and Weisz, 1994)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/05/songbirdculture/

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Sample:

“Knowledge is passed down directly from generation to generation in the animal kingdom as parents teach their children the things they will need to survive. But a new study has found that, even when the chain is broken, nature sometimes finds a way.”

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“Birds transmit their songs through social interactions, as humans do for languages, dances, cuisine and other cultural elements. Though birds and humans have clearly followed different evolutionary paths, birdsong culture can still inform theories of human culture.”

MLA Citation:

Buchen, Lizzie. wired.com. Wired.com, 3 May. 2009.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/05/songbirdculture/>.

In-Text: (Buchen)

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APA Citation:

Buchen, L. (3 May, 2009). Culture May Be Encoded in DNA. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/05/songbirdculture/

In-Text: (Buchen, 2009)

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