Credible Sources for Disorders

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2729620/

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Sample:

“In the past two years alone, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued alerts concerning suicidal ideation linked to the drug varenicline (Chantix®) as well as to numerous antiepileptic drugs. Meanwhile, the antiobesity drug rimonabant (Accomplia®)—not yet available in the US—was given a vote of no confidence by an FDA advisory panel, owing in part to the drug’s association with suicidality. All this occurs against the backdrop of intense controversy surrounding newer antidepressants and their possible association with increased suicidal ideation in a small percentage of younger patients.

The notion of a “depressogenic” drug is hardly new to medical practitioners. More than a half century ago, Freis first reported on “mental depression” in association with the antihypertensive drug, reserpine. And in his classic, Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), the English scholar Robert Burton identified alcohol as one cause of melancholy. Indeed, if alcohol is considered a drug, the concept of drug-induced depression (DID) may be traced to antiquity: In the Old Testament, for example, we read: “Who has woe? Who has sorrow? …Those who tarry long over wine…” (Proverbs 23:29–30).

In our own time, numerous medications and classes of medications have been implicated in DID, sometimes called substance-induced depression or drug-related depression. DID has important medical, medicolegal, and commercial implications. Any physician who has observed steroid-related mood swings—either mania or depression—knows that DID can drastically affect a patient’s clinical course. For example, one of us (R.P.) reported a case in which a young woman appeared to develop persistent bipolar mood swings after a single course of corticosteroids for treatment of ulcerative colitis.”

Description:

Peer-reviewed journal article discussing drug-induced depression, what drugs are typically associated with DID, and how difficult it is to establish DID.

Author(s):

  • Donald Rogers and Ronald Pies

Title:

  • General Medical Drugs Associated with Depression

Publisher:

  • Psychiatry

Date:

  • December 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2395346/

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Sample:

“In this article we discuss the traditional behavioral models of depression and some of the challenges analyzing a phenomenon with such complex and varied features. We present the traditional model and suggest that it does not capture the complexity of the phenomenon, nor do syndromal models of depression that dominate the mainstream conceptualization of depression. Instead, we emphasize ideographic analysis and present depression as a maladaptive dysregulation of an ultimately adaptive elicited emotional response. We emphasize environmental factors, specifically aversive control and private verbal events, in terms of relational frame theory, that may transform an adaptive response into a maladaptive disorder. We consider the role of negative thought processes and rumination, common and debilitating aspects of depression that have traditionally been neglected by behavior analysts.”

Description:

Research article discussing the analysis of depression using traditional behavioral models and the difficulty of it due to the complexity of the disorder.

Author(s):

  • Jonathan W Kanter, Andrew M Busch, Cristal E Weeks, and Sara J Landes

Title:

  • The Nature of Clinical Depression: Symptoms, Syndromes, and Behavior Analysis

Publisher:

  • Association for Behavior Analysis International

Date:

  • 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml

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Sample:

“Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the U.S. Current research suggests that depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.

Depression can happen at any age, but often begins in adulthood. Depression is now recognized as occurring in children and adolescents, although it sometimes presents with more prominent irritability than low mood. Many chronic mood and anxiety disorders in adults begin as high levels of anxiety in children.

Depression, especially in midlife or older adults, can co-occur with other serious medical illnesses, such as diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and Parkinson’s disease. These conditions are often worse when depression is present. Sometimes medications taken for these physical illnesses may cause side effects that contribute to depression. A doctor experienced in treating these complicated illnesses can help work out the best treatment strategy.”

Description:

Overview of depression from the National Institutes of Health with information on the effects of depression, what causes it, and how it is treated.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Depression

Publisher:

  • National Institutes of Mental Health

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC474733/

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Sample:

“Millions of Americans suffer from clinical depression each year. Most depressed patients first seek treatment from their primary care providers. Generally, depressed patients treated in primary care settings receive pharmacologic therapy alone. There is evidence to suggest that the addition of cognitive-behavioral therapies, specifically exercise, can improve treatment outcomes for many patients. Exercise is a behavioral intervention that has shown great promise in alleviating symptoms of depression. The current review discusses the growing body of research examining the exercise-depression relationship that supports the efficacy of exercise as an adjunct treatment. Databases searched were Medline, PsycLit, PubMed, and SportsDiscus from the years 1996 through 2003. Terms used in the search were clinical depression, depression, exercise, and physical activity. Further, because primary care physicians deliver important mental health services to the majority of depressed patients, several specific recommendations are made regarding counseling these patients on the adoption and maintenance of exercise programs.

Depression affects roughly 9.5% of the U.S. adult population each year, and it is estimated that approximately 17% of the U.S. population will suffer from a major depressive episode at some point in their lifetime. Depression has been ranked as the leading cause of disability in the United States, with over $40 billion being spent each year on lost work productivity and medical treatment related to this illness. Recent research suggests that between the years of 1987 and 1997, the rate of outpatient treatment for depression in the United States tripled and that health care costs related to this disorder continue to rise.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of studies done on exercise as a treatment for depression showing that, while more research is needed, there is evidence exercise can help.

Author(s):

  • Lynette L. Craft and Frank M. Perna

Title:

  • The Benefits of Exercise for the Clinically Depressed

Publisher:

  • The Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

Date:

  • 2004

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.aedweb.org/index.php/23-get-involved/position-statements/89-aed-statement-on-body-shaming-and-weight-prejudice-in-public-endeavors-to-reduce-obesity-3

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Sample:

“In summary, eating disorders are biologically-based, serious mental illnesses because:

• There is medical and scientific evidence that anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are as heritable as other psychiatric conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression) that are considered biologically based. • The behaviors of restricting food intake, bingeing and purging have been shown to alter brain structure, metabolism and neurochemistry in ways that make it difficult for individuals to discontinue the behaviors. • Eating disorders are associated with impairment in emotional and cognitive functioning that greatly limits life activities. • Eating disorders are life-threatening illnesses and are associated with numerous medical complications. Mortality rates for anorexia nervosa are the highest of any psychiatric disorder.”

Description:

Position statement from the Academy of Eating Disorders that describes why it eating disorders are considered a “serious” mental illness, as well as the impact of insurers and others in the healthcare industry not classifying it as such.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Position Statement: Eating Disorders are Serious Mental Illnesses

Publisher:

  • Academy for Eating Disorders

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-03-weekly-yoga-classes-home-effective.html

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Sample:

“People who suffer from depression should participate in yoga and deep (coherent) breathing classes at least twice weekly plus practice at home to receive a significant reduction in their symptoms.

The findings, which appear in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, providepreliminary support for the use of yoga-based interventions as an alternative or supplement to pharmacologic treatments for depression. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common, recurrent, chronic and disabling. Due in part to its prevalence, depression is globally responsible for more years lost to disability than any other disease. Up to 40 percent of individuals treated with antidepressant medications for MDD do notachieve full remission. This study used lyengar yoga that has an emphasis on detail, precision and alignment in the performance of posture and breath control.”

Description:

Article covering a study published in the Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine that showed yoga can significantly reduce depression symptoms.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Twice weekly yoga classes plus home practice effective in reducing symptoms of depression

Publisher:

  • medicalxpress.com

Date:

  • March 3, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000907/

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Sample:

“The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD.”

Description:

Article examining the history of ADHD, going back as much as 200 years or more to find the first signs of the disorder, up to knowledge we have today. This article looks at many different disorders defined throughout history with very similar criteria and symptoms, going all the way back to 1798.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

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Sample:

“Using DSM-IV, patients could be diagnosed with four separate disorders: autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, or the catch-all diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Researchers found that these separate diagnoses were not consistently applied across different clinics and treatment centers. Anyone diagnosed with one of the four pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) from DSM-IV should still meet the criteria for ASD in DSM-5 or another, more accurate DSM-5 diagnosis. While DSM does not outline recommended treatment and services for mental disorders, determining an accurate diagnosis is a first step for a clinician in defining a treatment plan for a patient.”

Useful Quote:

“The Neurodevelopmental Work Group, led by Susan Swedo, MD, senior investigator at the National Institute of Mental Health, recommended the DSM-5 criteria for ASD to be a better reflection of the state of knowledge about autism. The Work Group believes a single umbrella disorder will improve the diagnosis of ASD without limiting the sensitivity of the criteria, or substantially changing the number of children being diagnosed.”

MLA Citation:

“Autism Spectrum Disorder.” dsm5.org, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013, http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Autism Spectrum Disorder”)

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APA Citation:

Autism Spectrum Disorder. (2013). American Psychiatric Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

In-Text: (“Autism Spectrum Disorder,” 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.htm

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Sample:

“Under DSM–IV, the diagnostic criteria for abuse and dependence were distinct: anyone meeting one or more of the “abuse” criteria (see items 1 through 4) within a 12-month period would receive the “abuse” diagnosis. Anyone with three or more of the “dependence” criteria (see items 5 through 11) during the same 12-month period would receive a “dependence” diagnosis.

Under DSM–5, anyone meeting any two of the 11 criteria during the same 12-month period would receive a diagnosis of AUD. The severity of an AUD—mild, moderate, or severe—is based on the number of criteria met.”

 

MLA Citation:

“Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5.” pubs.nih.niaa.gov. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Jul. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.htm>.

In-Text: (“Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5”)

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APA Citation:

Alcohol Use Disorder: A comparison between DSM–IV and DSM–5. (2015, Jul.). National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.htm

In-Text: (“Alcohol Use Disorder: A comparison between DSM–IV and DSM–5”, 2015)

Note: You can shorten the in-text citation to just the first few words when citing a long title, but may not want to if you have similarly titled references you will be citing in-text. As long as it is still clear which reference you are citing from your bibliography you can shorten the in-text citation. The in-text citation MUST always start the same way the citation on your reference page or bibliography does. 

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm

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Sample:

“Clear, accurate definitions of medical conditions and disorders are important for research and clinical practice. The most widely used definitions for alcohol use disorders are found in two major classification systems of disease: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals of Mental Disorders (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Research on treatment, human genetics, and epidemiology relies on these sets of criteria to define alcohol abuse and dependence diagnoses. For example, alcoholism treatment studies often use definitions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM–IV) (APA 1994) to define inclusion criteria for subjects. Genetics studies use definitions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM–III–R) (APA 1987); the DSM–IV; or the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) (WHO 1993) to define sets of alcohol–related characteristics (i.e., phenotypes) under study. Epidemiologic research relies on DSM–IV definitions to define the alcohol use disorders enumerated in the general population and in various population subgroups. In addition, clinicians use DSM or ICD definitions as a common language in their communication about patients. DSM and ICD systems also serve an important educational function because they are used as introductory material on alcoholism for students and trainees from a variety of disciplines. As such, the concepts and definitions of DSM and ICD alcohol diagnoses form a unifying framework that underlies research and discussion of alcoholism in the United States and in other countries.”

MLA Citation:

Hasin, Deborah. “Classification of Alcohol Use Disorders.” pubs.niaaa.nih.gov. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Dec. 2003.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm>.

In-Text: (Hasin)

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APA Citation:

Hasin, D. (2003, Dec.). Classification of alcohol use and disorders. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm

In-Text: (Hasin)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.k-state.edu/counseling/student/aodes_news/sp11vol54.pdf

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Sample:

“Personality traits are part inherited and part learned. Scientists have not been able to identifu a specific personality type that is more prone to alcohol dependency, although certain traits may be associatedwith high alcohol use. Low self-esteem is sometimes correlated with alcohol dependency, as is risk-taking or poor impulse control. Individuals who experience depression, anxiety, or phobias are also often at higher risk for developing alcohol dependence. Debate continues, however, over which comes first! Is a depressed or anxious person more likely to use alcohol to relieve their symptoms? Or, is a person who abuses alcohol more likely to become depressed and anxious? These are questions that researchers haven’t definitively answered.”

MLA Citation:

“Alcoholism: Nature vs. Nurture”. k-state.edu. KSU Alcohol and Other Drug Education Service, 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.k-state.edu/counseling/student/aodes_news/sp11vol54.pdf>.

In-Text: (“Alcoholism: Nature vs Nurture”)

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APA Citation:

Alcoholism: Nature vs. nurture. (2011). KSU Alcohol and Other Drug Education Service. Retrieved from https://www.k-state.edu/counseling/student/aodes_news/sp11vol54.pdf

In-Text: (Alcoholism: Nature vs. nurture, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://time.com/growing-up-with-adhd/

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Sample:

“But Saorla’s perpetual motion isn’t what concerns Meenagh the most. Being fidgety and easily distracted are two of the most common and recognized symptoms of ADHD, often leading to poor performance in school, the most recognized fallout of the condition. But the 5% to 11% of American children 4 to 17 years of age who are diagnosed with the disorder—the numbers are up for debate depending on whom you talk to—also face a lifetime of increased risk for accidents, teen pregnancy, drug and alcohol abuse, smoking, and even dying prematurely. Overall, boys (13.2%) are more likely than girls (5.6%) to be given an ADHD diagnosis.”

MLA Citation:

Foley, Denise. “Growing Up with ADHD”. time.com. Time Inc., n.d. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://time.com/growing-up-with-adhd/>.

In-Text: (Foley)

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APA Citation:

Foley, Denise (n.d.). Growing Up with ADHD. Retrieved from http://time.com/growing-up-with-adhd/

In-Text: (Foley)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.boston.com/jobs/news/jobdoc/2014/10/creating_landmark_research-bas.html

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Sample:

“Q: You worked with researchers from Harvard to look at the use of e-readers by students with dyslexia. What did you find out?

A: We wanted to know about whether iPods, Kindles, iPads or other e-readers could help dyslexic students read faster and more accurately. Landmark high school students were tested by a visual learning lab to see if changing fonts, word spacing or letter size could help reduce ‘visual attention deficit,’ which is an inability to concentrate on letters or words. Researchers found that the short lines on an e-reader can reduce this distraction and help readers concentrate. So now we know that these devices aren’t just technological gadgets but an educational resource for those with dyslexia.”

MLA Citation:

Keene, Cindy Atoji. “Creating ‘Landmark’ research-based strategies for dyslexic readers”. www.boston.com. Boston Globe Media Partners, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.boston.com/jobs/news/jobdoc/2014/10/creating_landmark_research-bas.html>.

In-Text: (Keene)

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APA Citation:

Keene, C. (n.d.). Creating ‘Landmark’ research-based strategies for dyslexic readers. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/jobs/news/jobdoc/2014/10/creating_landmark_research-bas.html

In-Text: (Keene)

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Read More Comments Off on Dyslexia and Schools, Interview About New Learning Methods – Boston Globe

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

– http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/dyslexia/what-is-dyslexia

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Sample:

“As with other learning disabilities, dyslexia is a lifelong challenge that people are born with. This language processing disorder can hinder reading, writing, spelling and sometimes even speaking. Dyslexia is not a sign of poor intelligence or laziness. It is also not the result of impaired vision. Children and adults with dyslexia simply have a neurological disorder that causes their brains to process and interpret information differently.”

MLA Citation:

“What is Dyslexia?”. www.ncld.org. National Center for Learning Disabilities, n.d. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/dyslexia/what-is-dyslexia>.

In-Text: (What is Dyslexia?)

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APA Citation:

What is Dyslexia? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/dyslexia/what-is-dyslexia

In-Text: (What is Dyslexia?)

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Credible Source. MLA and APA Cited. ACCEPTABLE FOR SCHOOLWORK AND RESEARCH.

Read More Comments Off on Dyslexia, Information and Effects of the Learning Disorder – ncld.org