Credible Sources for Cognitive Development

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/outgrowing-autism-a-closer-look-at-children-who-read-early-or-speak-late/

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Sample:

“The headlines read “New study suggests autism can be outgrown”, or “outgrowing autism: a doctor’s surprise and wonder.” The stories are based on studies reporting that 7-9% of children with a documented early autistic syndrome disorder (ASD) have no symptoms of the disorder on follow-up later in childhood or adolescence. That is good news. The question is how to account for it.”

MLA Citation:

Treffert, Darold A. “Outgrowing Autism? A Closer Look at Children Who Read Early or Speak Late.” Scientific American, 9 Dec. 2015, https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/outgrowing-autism-a-closer-look-at-children-who-read-early-or-speak-late. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Treffert)

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APA Citation:

Treffert, D. (2015, Dec. 9). Outgrowing Autism? A closer look at children who read early or speak late. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/outgrowing-autism-a-closer-look-at-children-who-read-early-or-speak-late/

In-Text: (Treffert, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

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Sample:

“Using DSM-IV, patients could be diagnosed with four separate disorders: autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, or the catch-all diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Researchers found that these separate diagnoses were not consistently applied across different clinics and treatment centers. Anyone diagnosed with one of the four pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) from DSM-IV should still meet the criteria for ASD in DSM-5 or another, more accurate DSM-5 diagnosis. While DSM does not outline recommended treatment and services for mental disorders, determining an accurate diagnosis is a first step for a clinician in defining a treatment plan for a patient.”

Useful Quote:

“The Neurodevelopmental Work Group, led by Susan Swedo, MD, senior investigator at the National Institute of Mental Health, recommended the DSM-5 criteria for ASD to be a better reflection of the state of knowledge about autism. The Work Group believes a single umbrella disorder will improve the diagnosis of ASD without limiting the sensitivity of the criteria, or substantially changing the number of children being diagnosed.”

MLA Citation:

“Autism Spectrum Disorder.” dsm5.org, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013, http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Autism Spectrum Disorder”)

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APA Citation:

Autism Spectrum Disorder. (2013). American Psychiatric Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

In-Text: (“Autism Spectrum Disorder,” 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/

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Sample:

“Nature and nurture are not simply additive interactions that result in a particular behavior, but rather a complex interplay of many factors. Nature includes not only the usual factors—parents, homes, what people learn—but also many other factors that individuals are exposed to routinely in their daily environments. As Marder emphasized, we cannot simply assume that gene X produces behavior Y. Instead as Bialek described, there are often many additional factors that directly and indirectly interact with gene X and ultimately influence variants in behavior. These variants define individuality.”

MLA Citation:

“Grand Challenge: Nature Versus Nurture: How Does the Interplay of Biology and Experience Shape Our Brains and Make Us Who We Are?” ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Centers for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2008.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/>.

In-Text: (“Grand Challenge: Nature Versus Nurture”)

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APA Citation:

Grand challenge: Nature versus nurture: How does the interplay of biology and experience shape our brains and make us who we are? (2008). National Centers for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/

In-Text: (Grand challenge: Nature versus nurture)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.erikson.edu/about/history/erik-erikson/

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Sample:

“One of the most influential psychoanalysts of the 20th century, Erik Erikson was born in 1902 in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany. After completing high school, he moved to Florence to pursue his interest in art, and in 1927 became an art teacher at a psychoanalytically enlightened school for children started by Dorothy Burlingham and Anna Freud in Vienna.”

MLA Citation:

“Erik H. Erikson.” erikson.edu. Erikson Institute, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.erikson.edu/about/history/erik-erikson/>.

In-Text: (“Erik H. Erikson”)

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APA Citation:

Erik H. Erikson. (n.d.).  Erikson Institute. Retrieved from http://www.erikson.edu/about/history/erik-erikson/

In-Text: (Erik H. Erikson)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html

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Sample:

“Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was one of the most influential researchers in the area of developmental psychology during the 20th century. Piaget originally trained in the areas of biology and philosophy and considered himself a “genetic epistemologist.” He was mainly interested in the biological influences on “how we come to know.” He believed that what distinguishes human beings from other animals is our ability to do “abstract symbolic reasoning.” Piaget’s views are often compared with those of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), who looked more to social interaction as the primary source of cognition and behavior. This is somewhat similar to the distinctions made between Freud and Erikson in terms of the development of personality. The writings of Piaget (e.g., 1972, 1990; see Piaget, Gruber, & Voneche) and Vygotsky (e.g. Vygotsky, 1986; Vygotsky & Vygotsky, 1980), along with the work of John Dewey (e.g., Dewey, 1997a, 1997b), Jerome Bruner (e.g., 1966, 1974) and Ulrick Neisser (1967) form the basis of the constructivist theory of learning and instruction.”

MLA Citation:

Huitt, William, and J. Hummel. “Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development.” Education Psychology Interactive. Valdosta State University. 2003. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html>.

In-Text: (Huitt, Hummel)

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APA Citation:

Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html

In-Text: (Huitt & Hummel, 2003)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://decal.ga.gov/ChildCareServices/CognitiveDevelopment.aspx

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Sample:

“Cognitive development refers to how a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of his or her world. Among the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development, and memory. Cognitive development is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood.”

MLA Citation:

“Cognitive Development.” decal.ga.gov. Georgia Department of Early Care and Learning, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://decal.ga.gov/ChildCareServices/CognitiveDevelopment.aspx>.

In-Text: (“Cognitive Development”)

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APA Citation:

Cognitive Development. (n.d.). Georgia Department of Early Care and Learning. Retrieved from http://decal.ga.gov/ChildCareServices/CognitiveDevelopment.aspx

In-Text: (Cognitive Development)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.piaget.org/aboutPiaget.html

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Sample:

“Jean Piaget was born in Neuchâtel (Switzerland) on August 9, 1896. He died in Geneva on September 16, 1980. He was the oldest child of Arthur Piaget, professor of medieval literature at the University, and of Rebecca Jackson. At age 11, while he was a pupil at Neuchâtel Latin high school, he wrote a short notice on an albino sparrow. This short paper is generally considered as the start of a brilliant scientific career made of over sixty books and several hundred articles.”

MLA Citation:

Smith, Leslie. “A Brief Biography of Jean Piaget.” piaget.org. Jean Piaget Society, November 2000.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.piaget.org/aboutPiaget.html>.

In-Text: (Smith)

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APA Citation:

Smith, L. (2000, November). A Brief Biography of Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget Society. Retrieved from http://www.piaget.org/aboutPiaget.html

In-Text: (Smith, 2000)

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