Credible Sources for Child Psychology

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2017/04/27/peds.2016-2615

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Sample:

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bullying is a significant public health concern, and it has received considerable attention from the media and policymakers over the past decade, which has led some to believe that it is increasing. However, there are limited surveillance data on bullying to inform our understanding of such trends over the course of multiple years. The current study examined the prevalence of bullying and related behaviors between 2005 and 2014 and explored whether any such changes varied across schools or as a function of school-level covariates.”

CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of bullying and related behaviors generally decreased over this 10-year period with the most recent years showing the greatest improvements in school climate and reductions in bullying. Additional research is needed to identify factors that contributed to this declining trend.”

Description:

Results from a 10-year study conducted in Maryland schools shows a decrease in bullying behaviors and increase in school environment for grades 4-12.

Author(s):

  • Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Elise T. Pas, Benjamin Zablotsky, Catherine P. Bradshaw

Title:

  • Ten-Year Trends in Bullying and Related Attitudes Among 4th- to 12th-Graders

Publisher:

  • Pediatrics

Date:

  • May, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000907/

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Sample:

“The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD.”

Description:

Article examining the history of ADHD, going back as much as 200 years or more to find the first signs of the disorder, up to knowledge we have today. This article looks at many different disorders defined throughout history with very similar criteria and symptoms, going all the way back to 1798.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3441936/

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Sample:

“This article describes a comprehensive meta-analysis that was conducted to estimate the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). A systematic literature review identified 86 studies of children and adolescents (N = 163,688 individuals) and 11 studies of adults (N = 14,112 individuals) that met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, more than half of which were published after the only previous meta-analysis of the prevalence of ADHD was completed. Although prevalence estimates reported by individual studies varied widely, pooled results suggest that the prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD is similar, whether ADHD is defined by parent ratings, teacher ratings, or a best estimate diagnostic procedure in children and adolescents (5.9–7.1 %), or by self-report measures in young adults (5.0 %). Analyses of diagnostic subtypes indicated that the predominantly inattentive type is the most common subtype in the population, but individuals with the combined type are more likely to be referred for clinical services. Additional research is needed to determine the etiology of the higher prevalence of ADHD in males than females and to clarify whether the prevalence of ADHD varies as a function of socioeconomic status or ethnicity. Finally, there were no significant prevalent differences between countries or regions of the world after controlling for differences in the diagnostic algorithms used to define ADHD. These results provide important support for the diagnostic validity of ADHD, and argue against the hypothesis that ADHD is a cultural construct that is restricted to the United States or any other specific culture.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of over 80 studies done on ADHD to determine the rate of prevalence of ADHD in youth and adults, previously estimated at 5.29% worldwide, though that rate varies greatly in a number of studies. A meta-analysis is a study of data from many other studies that have already been completed.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/prevalence.html

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/features/key-findings-adhd72013.html

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Sample:

“Important findings from this study include:

  • More than 1 in 10 (11%) US school-aged children had received an ADHD diagnosis by a health care provider by 2011, as reported by parents.
    • 6.4 million children reported by parents to have ever received a health care provider diagnosis of ADHD , including:
      • 1 in 5 high school boys
      • 1 in 11 high school girls
  • The percentage of US children 4-17 years of age with an ADHD diagnosis by a health care provider, as reported by parents, continues to increase.
    • A history of ADHD diagnosis by a health care provider increased by 42% between 2003 and 2011:
      • 7.8% had ever had a diagnosis in 2003
      • 9.5% had ever had a diagnosis in 2007
      • 11.0% had ever had a diagnosis in 2011
    • Average annual increase was approximately 5% per year”

Description:

Data from the Trends in the Parent-Report of Health Care Provider-Diagnosis and Medication Treatment for ADHD: United States, 2003—2011 report by the CDC. This report shows increases to those diagnosed with ADHD and being treated for it with medication since 2003.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/diagnosis.html

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Sample:

“People with ADHD show a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivityimpulsivity that interferes with functioning or development:

  1. Inattention: Six or more symptoms of inattention for children up to age 16, or five or more for adolescents 17 and older and adults; symptoms of inattention have been present for at least 6 months, and they are inappropriate for developmental level:
    • Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or with other activities.
    • Often has trouble holding attention on tasks or play activities.
    • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
    • Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., loses focus, side-tracked).
    • Often has trouble organizing tasks and activities.
    • Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to do tasks that require mental effort over a long period of time (such as schoolwork or homework).
    • Often loses things necessary for tasks and activities (e.g. school materials, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones).
    • Is often easily distracted
    • Is often forgetful in daily activities.”

Description:

CDC page with the diagnostic criteria for ADHD from DSM-5, including criteria for inattention and hyperactivity, and detailing changes from DSM-IV.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml

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Sample:

“Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.

  • Inattention means a person wanders off task, lacks persistence, has difficulty sustaining focus, and is disorganized; and these problems are not due to defiance or lack of comprehension.
  • Hyperactivity means a person seems to move about constantly, including in situations in which it is not appropriate; or excessively fidgets, taps, or talks. In adults, it may be extreme restlessness or wearing others out with constant activity.
  • Impulsivity means a person makes hasty actions that occur in the moment without first thinking about them and that may have high potential for harm; or a desire for immediate rewards or inability to delay gratification. An impulsive person may be socially intrusive and excessively interrupt others or make important decisions without considering the long-term consequences.”

Description:

National Institute of Mental Health page on ADHD including the ways to identify and treat ADHD and links to more information about the disorder. This is a great resource to start your research with as it not only provides a large detailed summary of many aspects of ADHD but also has many links to other credible sources on the topic.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0128248

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Sample:

Background

Children from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are at greater risk of a range of negative outcomes throughout their life course than their peers; however the specific mechanisms by which socioeconomic status relates to different health outcomes in childhood are as yet unclear.”

Conclusions

Socioeconomic disadvantage, conceptualised as reported difficulty in affording basic necessities (e.g. heating, food) has both direct and indirect impacts on a child’s risk of ADHD. Lower levels of parent involvement mediates this association, as does presence of adversity; with children exposed to adversity and those with less involved parents being at an increased risk of having ADHD. This study highlights the importance of home and environmental factors as small but important contributors toward the aetiology of ADHD.”

Description:

Study measuring the impact of “Socioeconomic disadvantage” on the risk and prevalence of ADHD in children, concluding it can directly impact this risk. Socioeconomic status (SES) can be a determinant of one’s health throughout their life, according to the authors. “Individuals and groups in differing socioeconomic strata are known to have disparate health outcomes, with those in the most disadvantaged groups at highest risk of poor health.”

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/features/adhd-keyfindings-psychiatric-comorbidity-school-children.html

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Sample:

Main Findings

Using data from the Project to Learn about ADHD in Youth (PLAY), the researchers found clear patterns of co-occurring conditions:

  • Children with ADHD were more than twice as likely as children without ADHD to have another mental disorder.
  • More than half of children (60%) with ADHD had another mental disorder (blue vertical bar for children with ADHD in the chart), most often conduct disorder (CD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).
  • One in four children (25%) with ADHD had two or more other mental disorders (red vertical bar for children with ADHD in the chart).”

What This Study Means

  • Most children with ADHD may benefit from treatments beyond those specifically for ADHD.
  • Children with ADHD and another mental disorder could benefit from interventions that prevent dropping out of school and criminal activity.
  • Physicians can use this information to understand the needs of children with ADHD and inform the care plans developed for these children.”

Description:

CDC summary of a study done by the Journal of Attention Disorders on how many children diagnosed with ADHD also have another mental disorder, and the effects on the children of having to deal with multiple disorders. The correlation between the presence of one condition and another in an individual is known as comorbidty.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html

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Sample:

“Economic Cost

  • Using a prevalence rate of 5%, the annual societal ‘‘cost of illness’’ for ADHD is estimated to be between $36 and $52 billion, in 2005 dollars. It is estimated to be between $12,005 and $17,458 annually per individual.
  • There were an estimated 7 million ambulatory care visits for ADHD in 2006.
  • The total excess cost of ADHD in the US in 2000 was $31.6 billion. Of this total, $1.6 billion was for the treatment of patients, $12.1 billion was for all other health care costs of persons with ADHD, $14.2 billion was for all other health care costs of family members with ADHD, and $3.7 billion was for the work loss cost of adults with ADHD and adult family members of persons with ADHD.
  • ADHD creates a significant financial burden regarding the cost of medical care and work loss for patients and family members. The annual average direct cost for each per ADHD patient was $1,574, compared to $541 among matched controls. The annual average payment (direct plus indirect cost) per family member was $2,728 for non-ADHD family members of ADHD patients versus $1,440 for family members of matched controls.
  • Across 10 countries, it was projected that ADHD was associated with 143.8 million lost days of productivity each year. Most of this loss can be attributed to ADHD and not co-occurring conditions.
  • Workers with ADHD were more likely to have at least one sick day in the past month compared to workers without ADHD.”

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/outgrowing-autism-a-closer-look-at-children-who-read-early-or-speak-late/

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Sample:

“The headlines read “New study suggests autism can be outgrown”, or “outgrowing autism: a doctor’s surprise and wonder.” The stories are based on studies reporting that 7-9% of children with a documented early autistic syndrome disorder (ASD) have no symptoms of the disorder on follow-up later in childhood or adolescence. That is good news. The question is how to account for it.”

MLA Citation:

Treffert, Darold A. “Outgrowing Autism? A Closer Look at Children Who Read Early or Speak Late.” Scientific American, 9 Dec. 2015, https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/outgrowing-autism-a-closer-look-at-children-who-read-early-or-speak-late. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Treffert)

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APA Citation:

Treffert, D. (2015, Dec. 9). Outgrowing Autism? A closer look at children who read early or speak late. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/outgrowing-autism-a-closer-look-at-children-who-read-early-or-speak-late/

In-Text: (Treffert, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/on-the-brink-of-breakthroughs-in-diagnosing-and-treating-autism/

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Sample:

“There’s a popular saying in the autism community: “If you’ve met one person with autism, you’ve met one person with autism.” Although this phrase is meant to convey the remarkable variation in abilities and disabilities among people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we’re learning that it also applies to the extraordinary variability in how ASD develops. When I first began doing research on autism decades ago, we thought of it as one condition and aimed to discover its “cause.” Now we know ASD is actually a group of lifelong conditions that can arise from a complex combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors. In the same way that each person with ASD has a unique personality and profile of talents and disabilities, each also has a distinct developmental history shaped by a specific combination of genetic and environmental factors.”

MLA Citation:

Dawson, Geraldine. “On the Brink of Breakthroughs in Diagnosing and Treating Autism.” Scientific American, 9 May 2016. http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/on-the-brink-of-breakthroughs-in-diagnosing-and-treating-autism. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Dawson)

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APA Citation:

Dawson, G. (2016, May 9). On the brink of breakthroughs in diagnosing and treating Autism. Scientific American. Retrieved from http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/on-the-brink-of-breakthroughs-in-diagnosing-and-treating-autism

In-Text: (Dawson, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

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Sample:

“Using DSM-IV, patients could be diagnosed with four separate disorders: autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, or the catch-all diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Researchers found that these separate diagnoses were not consistently applied across different clinics and treatment centers. Anyone diagnosed with one of the four pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) from DSM-IV should still meet the criteria for ASD in DSM-5 or another, more accurate DSM-5 diagnosis. While DSM does not outline recommended treatment and services for mental disorders, determining an accurate diagnosis is a first step for a clinician in defining a treatment plan for a patient.”

Useful Quote:

“The Neurodevelopmental Work Group, led by Susan Swedo, MD, senior investigator at the National Institute of Mental Health, recommended the DSM-5 criteria for ASD to be a better reflection of the state of knowledge about autism. The Work Group believes a single umbrella disorder will improve the diagnosis of ASD without limiting the sensitivity of the criteria, or substantially changing the number of children being diagnosed.”

MLA Citation:

“Autism Spectrum Disorder.” dsm5.org, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013, http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Autism Spectrum Disorder”)

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APA Citation:

Autism Spectrum Disorder. (2013). American Psychiatric Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

In-Text: (“Autism Spectrum Disorder,” 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/emerging_practices_report.pdf

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Sample:

“Recognition of the need to reduce the risks faced by vulnerable children can be found in current public and private efforts aimed at strengthening families and building capacities and resilience. The Healthy Marriage and Responsible Fatherhood initiatives from the Administration for Children and Families are both designed to protect children through approaches that encourage the enrichment of relationships between parents, and between parents and their children. In one-parent households, new initiatives are focusing on increasing access and visitation, developing the nurturing capabilities of noncustodial parents, and improving the relationship between custodial and noncustodial parents. Other important initiatives are focusing on reducing teen pregnancy and out-ofwedlock births, addressing substance use and abuse among parents, improving opportunities for adoption, increasing child support compliance, ensuring safe and adequate child care, promoting safe and stable families, and providing work opportunities for ex-offenders who are parents.”

MLA Citation:

Thomas, David, Christine Lecht, Candy Hughes, Amy Hadigan, and Kathy Dowell. “Emerging Practices In the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect.” U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/emerging_practices_report.pdf>.

In-Text: (Thomas et al.)

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APA Citation:

Thomas, D., Lecht, C., Hughes, C., Hadigan, A., & Dowell, K. (n.d.). Emerging practices in the prevention of child abuse and neglect. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/emerging_practices_report.pdf

In-Text: (Thomas, Lecht, Hughes, Hadigan, Dowell)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43254.pdf

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Sample:

“There are several federal initiatives that are specifically focused on student bullying, including interagency initiatives. In addition, there are a variety of federal initiatives that are not solely or primarily focused on student bullying, but permit some funds to be used for this purpose. Representatives from the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Education, Health and Human Services, the Interior, and Justice, as well as the Federal Trade Commission and the White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, have formed a Federal Partners in Bullying Prevention Steering Committee. The Federal Partners work to coordinate policy, research, and communications on bullying topics. The Federal Partners have created a website, http://www.stopbullying.gov, which provides extensive resources on bullying, including information on how schools can address bullying.”

MLA Citation:

McCallion, Gail and Jody Feder. “Student Bullying: Overview of Research, Federal Initiatives, and Legal Issues.” fas.org. Congressional Research Service, 18 Oct. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43254.pdf>.

In-Text: (McCallion and Feder INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

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APA Citation:

McCallion, G. & J. Feder (2013, Oct. 18). Student bullying: Overview of research, federal initiatives, and legal issues. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43254.pdf

In-Text: (McCallion & Feder, 2013, p. INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/bullying-jaana-juvonen-233108

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Sample:

“Everyone knows that school bullies torment their peers to compensate for low self-esteem, and that they are scorned as much as they are feared.

But “everyone” got it wrong, according to Jaana Juvonen, a professor of developmental psychology whose decade of groundbreaking research on mean kids and their hapless victims is changing the way parents and schools think about bullying.”

MLA Citation:

Lin, Judy. “Psychologist’s studies make sense of bullying.” newsroom.ucla.edu. UCLA Office of Media Relations, 03 May 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/bullying-jaana-juvonen-233108>.

In-Text: (Lin)

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APA Citation:

Lin, J. (2012, May 03). Psychologist’s studies make sense of bullying. UCLA Office of Media Relations. Retrieved from http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/bullying-jaana-juvonen-233108

In-Text: (Lin, 2012)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://cyberbullying.org/facts/

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

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Sample:

“There are only three studies that we are aware of that have explored cyberbullying experiences of students across the United States over time. The first analysis have been conducted by our friends at the Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire. Examining the three waves of the Youth Internet Safety Survey (2000, 2005, 2010), they find a slight increase in cyberbullying behaviors over that time period (from 6% to 9% to 11%).”

MLA Citation:

“Cyberbullying Facts.” cyberbullying.org. Cyberbullying Research Center,  n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://cyberbullying.org/facts/>.

In-Text: (“Cyberbullying Facts”)

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APA Citation:

Cyberbullying facts. (n.d.). Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved from http://cyberbullying.org/facts/

In-Text: (Cyberbullying facts)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.apa.org/research/action/bullying.aspx

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Sample:

“Psychological research has debunked several myths associated with bullying, including one that states bullies are usually the most unpopular students in school. A 2000 study by psychologist Philip Rodkin, PhD, and colleagues involving fourth-through-sixth-grade boys found that highly aggressive boys may be among the most popular and socially connected children in elementary classrooms, as viewed by their fellow students and even their teachers. Another myth is that the tough and aggressive bullies are basically anxious and insecure individuals who use bullying as a means of compensating for poor self-esteem. Using a number of different methods including projective tests and stress hormones, Olweus concludes that there is no support for such a view. Most bullies had average or better than average self-esteem.”

MLA Citation:

“School Bullying is Nothing New, But Psychologists Identify New Ways to Prevent It.” apa.org. American Psychological Association, 29 Oct. 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.apa.org/research/action/bullying.aspx>.

In-Text: (“School Bullying is Nothing New, But Psychologists Identify New Ways to Prevent It”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

School bullying is nothing new, but psychologists identify new ways to prevent it. (2004, Oct. 29). American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/research/action/bullying.aspx

In-Text: (School bullying is nothing new, but psychologists identify new ways to prevent it)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2016/01/end-bullying-get-the-cool-kids-to-help.html#

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Sample:

“For all of the efforts schools put into reducing bullying, there’s actually a dearth of rigorous evidence about what makes for effective anti-bullying intervention. The classic approach — pile kids into an auditorium and lecture them on the dangers of bullying, perhaps including a sad story about its effects along the way — doesn’t appear to really work. Some researchers believe that the reason it doesn’t work is that students, like people in general, don’t really take their cues for how to behave from authority figures — they take them from their peers. If students think their peers enjoy bullying, or at least aren’t opposed to it, they’ll be more likely to not just engage in bullying themselves, but also to fail to intervene when they see other people doing it.”

MLA Citation:

Singal, Jesse. “Want to End Bullying? Get the Popular Students to Help.” nymag.com. New York Media LLC, 6 Jan. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2016/01/end-bullying-get-the-cool-kids-to-help.html#>.

In-Text: (Singal)

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APA Citation:

Singal, J. (2016, Jan. 6). Want to end bullying? Get the popular students to help. New York Media LLC. Retrieved from http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2016/01/end-bullying-get-the-cool-kids-to-help.html#

In-Text: (Singal, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/13/us/13bully.html

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Sample:

“Adding an extra incendiary element, the school district has suffered eight student suicides in the last two years, leading state officials to declare a “suicide contagion.” Whether antigay bullying contributed to any of these deaths is sharply disputed; some friends and teachers say four of the students were struggling with issues of sexual identity.”

MLA Citation:

Eckholm, Erik. “In Suburb, Battle Goes Public on Bullying of Gay Students.” nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 13 Sept. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/13/us/13bully.html>.

In-Text: (Eckholm)

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APA Citation:

Eckholm, E. (2013, Sept. 13). In suburb, battle goes public on bullying of gay students. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/13/us/13bully.html

In-Text: (Eckholm, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mind-change/201512/the-internet-has-changed-bullying-the-worse

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Sample:

“Some aspects of cyberbullying are nothing new for today’s teenagers. One study found that the content of cyberbullying incidents in 91% of cases related to relationship issues, such as break-ups, envy, intolerance, and ganging up.3 These are all just typical adolescent tensions- the difference lies in that they are playing out in a far more dangerous environment. Compared to the traditional bullying of the playground or the times of Flashman, the online environment is a place where bullying has instant, widespread, and permanent effects- and a place where a bully can attack their victim 24 hours a day. Because there is the possibility for the abuse to be spread by others and to continue online and because bullies may be able to maintain a higher degree of anonymity than in face-to-face encounters, there is concern that the intensity of cyberbullying is greater than that of traditional bullying.”

MLA Citation:

Greenfield, Susan. “The Internet Has Changed Bullying- For The Worse.” Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers, LLC, 1 Dec. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mind-change/201512/the-internet-has-changed-bullying-the-worse>.

In-Text: (Greenfield)

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APA Citation:

Greenfield, S. (2015, Dec 1). The internet has changed bullying- for the worse. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mind-change/201512/the-internet-has-changed-bullying-the-worse

In-Text: (Greenfield, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/roles-kids-play/index.html

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Sample:

“The roles kids play in bullying are not limited to those who bully others and those who are bullied. Some researchers talk about the “circle of bullying” to define both those directly involved in bullying and those who actively or passively assist the behavior or defend against it.”

MLA Citation:

“The Roles Kids Play.” stopbullying.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/roles-kids-play/index.html>.

In-Text: (“The Roles Kids Play”)

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APA Citation:

The roles kids play. (n.d.). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/roles-kids-play/index.html

In-Text: (The roles kids play)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jweisz/files/1994c.pdf

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Sample:

“A meta-analysis of 47 studies was used to shed light on inconsistencies in the concurrent association between parental caregiving and child externalizing behavior. Parent-child associations were strongest when the measure of caregiving relied on observations or interviews, as opposed to questionnaires, and when the measure tapped combinations of parent behaviors (patterns), as opposed to single behaviors. Stronger parent-child associations were also found for older than for younger children, and for mothers than for fathers. Finally, externalizing was more strongly linked to parental caregiving for boys than for girls, especially among preadolescents and their mothers. The metaanalysis helps account for inconsistencies in findings across previous studies and supports theories emphasizing reciprocity of parent and child behavior.”

MLA Citation:

Rothbaum, Fred and John R. Weisz. “Parental Caregiving and Child Externalizing Behavior in Nonclinical Samples: A Meta-Analysis.” American Psychological Association, Psychological Bulletin Vol. 116, No. 1 (1994): 55-74. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jweisz/files/1994c.pdf>.

In-Text: (Rothbaum and Weisz)

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APA Citation:

Rothbaum, F. and Weisz, J. R. (1994). Parental caregiving and child externalizing behavior in nonclinical samples: A meta-analysis. American Psychological Association, Psychological Bulletin Vol. 116, No. 1: 55-74. Retrieved from http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jweisz/files/1994c.pdf

In-Text: (Rothbaum and Weisz, 1994)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1617081/

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Sample:

“A well-known distinction in the field of child psychology and psychiatry is the distinction between “externalizing” and “internalizing” disorders (Achenbach, 1978). The construct of externalizing behavior problems refers to a grouping of behavior problems that are manifested in children’s outward behavior and reflect the child negatively acting on the external environment (Campbell, Shaw, & Gilliom, 2000; Eisenberg et al., 2001). In the research literature, these externalizing disorders consist of disruptive, hyperactive, and aggressive behaviors (Hinshaw, 1987). In the context of this paper, three key behavior problems similarly make up this construct: aggression, delinquency, and hyperactivity. Other terms used to describe externalizing behavior problems include “conduct problems,” “antisocial,” and “undercontrolled” (Hinshaw).”

MLA Citation:

Liu, Jianghong. “Childhood Externalizing Behavior: Theory and Implications.” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 17 (2005): 93–103. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1617081/>.

In-Text: (Liu)

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APA Citation:

Liu, J. (2004). Childhood externalizing behavior: theory and implications. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 17: 93–103. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1617081/

In-Text: (Liu, 2004)

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