Credible Sources for Psychology

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3395931/

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Sample:

Objective

Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study.

Method

278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study.

Results

The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively.

Conclusion

Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women’s health impact on family and population health.”

Description:

Study on the psychological consequences of having an abortion and analysis of the data.

Author(s):

  • Abolghasem Pourreza and Aziz Batebi

Title:

  • Psychological Consequences of Abortion among the Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

Publisher:

  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 6, No. 1

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/trump-signs-bill-revoking-obama-era-gun-checks-people-mental-n727221

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Sample:

“President Donald Trump quietly signed a bill into law Tuesday rolling back an Obama-era regulation that made it harder for people with mental illnesses to purchase a gun.

The rule, which was finalized in December, added people receiving Social Security checks for mental illnesses and people deemed unfit to handle their own financial affairs to the national background check database.

Had the rule fully taken effect, the Obama administration predicted it would have added about 75,000 names to that database.

President Barack Obama recommended the now-nullified regulation in a 2013 memo following the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, which left 20 first graders and six others dead. The measure sought to block some people with severe mental health problems from buying guns.”

Description:

Article detailing the repeal of an Obama-era rule that requires background checks including data on individuals with mental disabilities.

Author(s):

  • Ali Vitali

Title:

  • Trump Signs Bill Revoking Obama-Era Gun Checks for People With Mental Illnesses

Publisher:

  • NBC News

Date:

  • February 28, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2729620/

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Sample:

“In the past two years alone, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued alerts concerning suicidal ideation linked to the drug varenicline (Chantix®) as well as to numerous antiepileptic drugs. Meanwhile, the antiobesity drug rimonabant (Accomplia®)—not yet available in the US—was given a vote of no confidence by an FDA advisory panel, owing in part to the drug’s association with suicidality. All this occurs against the backdrop of intense controversy surrounding newer antidepressants and their possible association with increased suicidal ideation in a small percentage of younger patients.

The notion of a “depressogenic” drug is hardly new to medical practitioners. More than a half century ago, Freis first reported on “mental depression” in association with the antihypertensive drug, reserpine. And in his classic, Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), the English scholar Robert Burton identified alcohol as one cause of melancholy. Indeed, if alcohol is considered a drug, the concept of drug-induced depression (DID) may be traced to antiquity: In the Old Testament, for example, we read: “Who has woe? Who has sorrow? …Those who tarry long over wine…” (Proverbs 23:29–30).

In our own time, numerous medications and classes of medications have been implicated in DID, sometimes called substance-induced depression or drug-related depression. DID has important medical, medicolegal, and commercial implications. Any physician who has observed steroid-related mood swings—either mania or depression—knows that DID can drastically affect a patient’s clinical course. For example, one of us (R.P.) reported a case in which a young woman appeared to develop persistent bipolar mood swings after a single course of corticosteroids for treatment of ulcerative colitis.”

Description:

Peer-reviewed journal article discussing drug-induced depression, what drugs are typically associated with DID, and how difficult it is to establish DID.

Author(s):

  • Donald Rogers and Ronald Pies

Title:

  • General Medical Drugs Associated with Depression

Publisher:

  • Psychiatry

Date:

  • December 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1446422/pdf/11111261.pdf

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Sample:

“OBJECTIVES: This study examined incidence rates of medically identified suicide acts (self-inflicted injuries, either fatal or nonfatal) and case fatality rates by age, sex, race, and method used. METHODS: The authors analyzed data on 10,892 suicides and 57,439 attempted suicides among hospital-admitted individuals in 8 states, along with 6219 attempted suicides among individuals released from emergency departments in 2 states. RESULTS: The 8 states experienced a mean of 11 suicides and 119 attempted suicides per 100,000 residents each year. Groups with high suicide rates were men, the elderly, and Whites; groups with high attempted suicide rates were teenagers, young adults, women, and Blacks and Whites aged 25 to 44 years. Blacks aged 15 to 44 years evidenced high attempted suicide rates undocumented in previous studies. Poisoning and firearm were the most common methods used among those attempting suicide and those completing suicide acts, respectively. The most lethal method was firearm. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of suicides and attempted suicides differ dramatically. Method used is important in the lethality of the act.”

Description:

Study done on available suicide data from 8 states and broken down by race, sex, age and method of attempt to add to existing data on suicidal behavior.

Author(s):

  • Rebecca S. Spicer and Ted R. Miller

Title:

  • Suicide Acts in 8 States: Incidence and Case Fatality Rates by Demographics and Method

Publisher:

  • American Journal of Public Health

Date:

  • December 2000

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/african-american-mental-health

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Sample:

“According to the US HHS Office of Minority Health [3]:

  • Adult Black/African Americans are 20 percent more likely to report serious psychological distress than adult whites.
  • Adult Black/African Americans living below poverty are three times more likely to report serious psychological distress than those living above poverty.
  • Adult Black/African Americans are more likely to have feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness than are adult whites.
  • And while Black/African Americans are less likely than white people to die from suicide as teenagers, Black/African Americans teenagers are more likely to attempt suicide than are white teenagers (8.3 percent v. 6.2 percent).”

Description:

Article from Mental Health America covering in detail the increased prevalence of depression in African American communities and what the causes are.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Black & African American Communities and Mental Health

Publisher:

  • Mental Health America

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2395346/

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Sample:

“In this article we discuss the traditional behavioral models of depression and some of the challenges analyzing a phenomenon with such complex and varied features. We present the traditional model and suggest that it does not capture the complexity of the phenomenon, nor do syndromal models of depression that dominate the mainstream conceptualization of depression. Instead, we emphasize ideographic analysis and present depression as a maladaptive dysregulation of an ultimately adaptive elicited emotional response. We emphasize environmental factors, specifically aversive control and private verbal events, in terms of relational frame theory, that may transform an adaptive response into a maladaptive disorder. We consider the role of negative thought processes and rumination, common and debilitating aspects of depression that have traditionally been neglected by behavior analysts.”

Description:

Research article discussing the analysis of depression using traditional behavioral models and the difficulty of it due to the complexity of the disorder.

Author(s):

  • Jonathan W Kanter, Andrew M Busch, Cristal E Weeks, and Sara J Landes

Title:

  • The Nature of Clinical Depression: Symptoms, Syndromes, and Behavior Analysis

Publisher:

  • Association for Behavior Analysis International

Date:

  • 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml

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Sample:

“Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the U.S. Current research suggests that depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.

Depression can happen at any age, but often begins in adulthood. Depression is now recognized as occurring in children and adolescents, although it sometimes presents with more prominent irritability than low mood. Many chronic mood and anxiety disorders in adults begin as high levels of anxiety in children.

Depression, especially in midlife or older adults, can co-occur with other serious medical illnesses, such as diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and Parkinson’s disease. These conditions are often worse when depression is present. Sometimes medications taken for these physical illnesses may cause side effects that contribute to depression. A doctor experienced in treating these complicated illnesses can help work out the best treatment strategy.”

Description:

Overview of depression from the National Institutes of Health with information on the effects of depression, what causes it, and how it is treated.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Depression

Publisher:

  • National Institutes of Mental Health

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC474733/

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“Millions of Americans suffer from clinical depression each year. Most depressed patients first seek treatment from their primary care providers. Generally, depressed patients treated in primary care settings receive pharmacologic therapy alone. There is evidence to suggest that the addition of cognitive-behavioral therapies, specifically exercise, can improve treatment outcomes for many patients. Exercise is a behavioral intervention that has shown great promise in alleviating symptoms of depression. The current review discusses the growing body of research examining the exercise-depression relationship that supports the efficacy of exercise as an adjunct treatment. Databases searched were Medline, PsycLit, PubMed, and SportsDiscus from the years 1996 through 2003. Terms used in the search were clinical depression, depression, exercise, and physical activity. Further, because primary care physicians deliver important mental health services to the majority of depressed patients, several specific recommendations are made regarding counseling these patients on the adoption and maintenance of exercise programs.

Depression affects roughly 9.5% of the U.S. adult population each year, and it is estimated that approximately 17% of the U.S. population will suffer from a major depressive episode at some point in their lifetime. Depression has been ranked as the leading cause of disability in the United States, with over $40 billion being spent each year on lost work productivity and medical treatment related to this illness. Recent research suggests that between the years of 1987 and 1997, the rate of outpatient treatment for depression in the United States tripled and that health care costs related to this disorder continue to rise.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of studies done on exercise as a treatment for depression showing that, while more research is needed, there is evidence exercise can help.

Author(s):

  • Lynette L. Craft and Frank M. Perna

Title:

  • The Benefits of Exercise for the Clinically Depressed

Publisher:

  • The Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

Date:

  • 2004

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2017/04/27/peds.2016-2615

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Sample:

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bullying is a significant public health concern, and it has received considerable attention from the media and policymakers over the past decade, which has led some to believe that it is increasing. However, there are limited surveillance data on bullying to inform our understanding of such trends over the course of multiple years. The current study examined the prevalence of bullying and related behaviors between 2005 and 2014 and explored whether any such changes varied across schools or as a function of school-level covariates.”

CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of bullying and related behaviors generally decreased over this 10-year period with the most recent years showing the greatest improvements in school climate and reductions in bullying. Additional research is needed to identify factors that contributed to this declining trend.”

Description:

Results from a 10-year study conducted in Maryland schools shows a decrease in bullying behaviors and increase in school environment for grades 4-12.

Author(s):

  • Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Elise T. Pas, Benjamin Zablotsky, Catherine P. Bradshaw

Title:

  • Ten-Year Trends in Bullying and Related Attitudes Among 4th- to 12th-Graders

Publisher:

  • Pediatrics

Date:

  • May, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3161123/

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Sample:

“Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, proposed in 1943, has been one of the most cognitively contagious ideas in the behavioral sciences. Anticipating later evolutionary views of human motivation and cognition, Maslow viewed human motives as based in innate and universal predispositions. We revisit the idea of a motivational hierarchy in light of theoretical developments at the interface of evolutionary biology, anthropology, and psychology. After considering motives at three different levels of analysis, we argue that the basic foundational structure of the pyramid is worth preserving, but that it should be buttressed with a few architectural extensions. By adding a contemporary design feature, connections between fundamental motives and immediate situational threats and opportunities should be highlighted. By incorporating a classical element, these connections can be strengthened by anchoring the hierarchy of human motives more firmly in the bedrock of modern evolutionary theory. We propose a renovated hierarchy of fundamental motives that serves as both an integrative framework and a generative foundation for future empirical research.”

Description:

The authors discuss how best to modify Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs with modern psychology and anthropology while keeping the basis intact.

Author(s):

  • Douglas T. Kenrick, Vladas Griskevicius, Steven L. Neuberg, and Mark Schaller

Title:

  • Renovating the Pyramid of Needs: Contemporary Extensions Built Upon Ancient Foundations

Publisher:

  • Perspectives on Psychological Science

Date:

  • May 2010

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3830171/

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Sample:

“Individuals who perceive their bodies negatively with regard to culturally valued features may have low self-esteem, low satisfaction in life and feeling of inferiority and pose themselves at higher risk for depression, anxiety or eating disorders. At the highest level of dissatisfaction, this may result in significant impairment of social, educational and/or occupational functioning. Currently, beautiful is considered good and thinness is synonymous with beauty, which makes it valued by society while its opposite, obesity, is strongly rejected. Although the ideals of female beauty vary as a function of esthetical standards adopted at each time, studies show that women have tried to change their bodies to follow these standards.[5]

Obesity has been identified as one of the rising epidemic across globe with consequential rise of non-communicable diseases including disproportionate health care cost on individuals, family and society. According to latest WHO estimates, 14.4% (male) and 15% (female) adult aged 15 years and above are obese in the world.[6] More than half a billion adults (205 million men and 297 million women over the age of 20 years) world-wide were obese in 2008. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was highest in WHO regions of America and lowest in South-East Asia.[7]

Overweight children, adolescents, and adults generally have lower body esteem than do their normal-weight peers and this is especially true for females.[8] It is generally believed that body image distortion and related consequences is a western societal phenomenon however, it has made its presence felt into diverse culture including developing countries also. With the change in epidemiological shift, India is witnessing simultaneous manifestation of double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease with a challenging and daunting task for stakeholders to identify issues, resolve conflict, mobilize resources and overcome situation with innovative solution and strategies. Considering this background, a cross-sectional descriptive study sought to determine body image satisfaction, a hitherto underexplored arena in our setting. Using body satisfaction described in words, this study also investigated relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables.”

Description:

Study published in the Industrial Psychiatry Journal aiming to measure the body-image satisfaction among female students entering college.

Author(s):

  • Shweta Goswami, Sandeep Sachdeva, and Ruchi Sachdeva

Title:

  • Body image satisfaction among female college students

Publisher:

  • Industrial Psychiatry Journal

Date:

  • 2012

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139177

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Sample:

“Body image is the subjective “picture” that people have of their own body, regardless of how their body actually looks. Body image is a multifaceted construct, consisting of cognitive and affective components (i.e., how people think and feel about their body), perceptual components (i.e., how people perceive the size and shape of their body and body parts), and behavioural components (i.e., the actions that people perform for the purpose of checking on, tending to, altering, or concealing their body). Negative body image is expressed in one or more of the components of body image and is often characterised by a dissatisfaction with appearance and engaging in behaviours such as frequent self-weighing or mirror checking, or avoidance of public situations.

Studies have shown that negative body image can emerge in childhood. Approximately 50% of preadolescent girls and 30% of preadolescent boys dislike their body. In adults, approximately 60% of women and 40% of men have a negative body image, and these rates remain stable across the lifespan. Negative body image contributes to the development and maintenance of body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, and is associated with low self-esteem, depression, social anxiety, and impaired sexual functioning. In addition, negative body image has serious consequences for health behaviours. For instance, negative body image predicts physical inactivity, unhealthy eating, and weight gain, and is associated with unsafe sex, smoking, and skin cancer risk behaviours.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of various interventions meant to improve body image, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, fitness training, media literacy, and others.

Author(s):

  • Jessica M. Alleva, Paschal Sheeran, Thomas L. Webb, Carolien Martijn, Eleanor Miles

Title:

  • A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image

Publisher:

  • PLoS ONE

Date:

  • September 29, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.aedweb.org/index.php/23-get-involved/position-statements/89-aed-statement-on-body-shaming-and-weight-prejudice-in-public-endeavors-to-reduce-obesity-3

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Sample:

“In summary, eating disorders are biologically-based, serious mental illnesses because:

• There is medical and scientific evidence that anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are as heritable as other psychiatric conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression) that are considered biologically based. • The behaviors of restricting food intake, bingeing and purging have been shown to alter brain structure, metabolism and neurochemistry in ways that make it difficult for individuals to discontinue the behaviors. • Eating disorders are associated with impairment in emotional and cognitive functioning that greatly limits life activities. • Eating disorders are life-threatening illnesses and are associated with numerous medical complications. Mortality rates for anorexia nervosa are the highest of any psychiatric disorder.”

Description:

Position statement from the Academy of Eating Disorders that describes why it eating disorders are considered a “serious” mental illness, as well as the impact of insurers and others in the healthcare industry not classifying it as such.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Position Statement: Eating Disorders are Serious Mental Illnesses

Publisher:

  • Academy for Eating Disorders

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nature.com/articles/nrdp201626

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Sample:

Note: BID is Body Image Distortion and AN is Anorexia Nervosa.

“Findings from an increasing number of functional MRI (fMRI) studies . . . provide valuable insights into the neural basis of BID in AN. Unfortunately, we felt that these issues were not entirely addressed by the Primer, making it difficult to understand the ‘reasonably consistent’ (Ref. 7) evidence produced by this research. The review summarized that the ‘affective’ component of BID in AN is related to alterations of the prefrontal cortex, the insula and the amygdala and that the ‘perceptive’ component of BID is related to alterations of the parietal lobes (which have roles in spatial and body representations, body ownership and other features requiring multisensory integration) or, more accurately, the posterior parietal regions (which are involved in visuospatial processing). A deficit in parietal cortex-mediated functions in AN is also underscored by findings from neurocognitive studies. Although both extant neuroimaging and behavioural data suggest that two components of body image (the estimation of one’s own body size and the attitude towards one’s own body in terms of an emotional evaluation) are disturbed in individuals with AN, these aspects might have been described in more detail in the Primer. In fact, although two (widely accepted) body-image components can be distinguished, this does not imply that they are independent. Indeed, experimental evidence supports a direct (unidirectional) link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body. The aforementioned specific neural bases of the affective component of BID in AN also support an altered emotional response to unpleasant (for example, self-distorted fat image) stimuli. Furthermore, in the few available fMRI studies based on a word paradigm (that is, tasks using ‘fat’, ‘thin’ and ‘neutral’ words), a variation in amygdala response was absent — making the involvement of this brain region less clear but suggesting the greater relevance of self-perception and the mechanism of body-image construction (see below). There is the need to take into account these (and other convergent) clues and the considerable room for improvement that remains from the first-line prevention and psychotherapeutic interventions, currently described in the Primer (for example, the Body Project and enhanced cognitive–behavioural therapy), and targeting the ‘affective’ body-image component. Thus, we would suggest that it is now time to consider the development of intervention strategies that target the perceptive component.”

Description:

Article discussing recent reviews of research into Anorexia Nervosa and related body-image issues through brain scans and other available data.

Author(s):

  • Antonios Dakanalis, Santino Gaudio, Silvia Serino, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà & Giuseppe Riva

Title:

  • Body-image distortion in anorexia nervosa

Publisher:

  • Nature Reviews Disease Primers (Journal)

Date:

  • April 21, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/mental-downtime/

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Sample:

“In making an argument for the necessity of mental downtime, we can now add an overwhelming amount of empirical evidence to intuition and anecdote. Why giving our brains a break now and then is so important has become increasingly clear in a diverse collection of new studies investigating: the habits of office workers and the daily routines of extraordinary musicians and athletes; the benefits of vacation, meditation and time spent in parks, gardens and other peaceful outdoor spaces; and how napping, unwinding while awake and perhaps the mere act of blinking can sharpen the mind. What research to date also clarifies, however, is that even when we are relaxing or daydreaming, the brain does not really slow down or stop working. Rather—just as a dazzling array of molecular, genetic and physiological processes occur primarily or even exclusively when we sleep at night—many important mental processes seem to require what we call downtime and other forms of rest during the day. Downtime replenishes the brain’s stores of attention and motivation, encourages productivity and creativity, and is essential to both achieve our highest levels of performance and simply form stable memories in everyday life. A wandering mind unsticks us in time so that we can learn from the past and plan for the future. Moments of respite may even be necessary to keep one’s moral compass in working order and maintain a sense of self.

The rest is history

For much of the 20th century many scientists regarded the idea that the brain might be productive during downtime as ludicrous. German neurologist Hans Berger disagreed. In 1929, after extensive studies using an electroencephalogram—a device he invented to record electrical impulses in the brain by placing a net of electrodes on the scalp—he proposed that the brain is always in “a state of considerable activity,” even when people were sleeping or relaxing. Although his peers acknowledged that some parts of the the brain and spinal cord must work nonstop to regulate the lungs and heart, they assumed that when someone was not focusing on a specific mental task, the brain was largely offline; any activity picked up by an electroencephalogram or other device during rest was mostly random noise. At first, the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the early 1990s only strengthened this view of the brain as an exquisitely frugal organ switching on and off its many parts as needed. By tracing blood flow through the brain, fMRI clearly showed that different neural circuits became especially active during different mental tasks, summoning extra blood full of oxygen and glucose to use as energy.

By the mid 1990s, however, Marcus Raichle of Washington University in Saint Louis and his colleagues had demonstrated that the human brain is in fact a glutton, constantly demanding 20 percent of all the energy the body produces and requiring only 5 to 10 percent more energy than usual when someone solves calculus problems or reads a book. Raichle also noticed that a particular set of scattered brain regions consistently became less active when someone concentrated on a mental challenge, but began to fire in synchrony when someone was simply lying supine in an fMRI scanner, letting their thoughts wander. Likewise, Bharat Biswal, now at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, documented the same kind of coordinated communication between disparate brain regions in people who were resting. Many researchers were dubious, but further studies by other scientists confirmed that the findings were not a fluke. Eventually this mysterious and complex circuit that stirred to life when people were daydreaming became known as the default mode network (DMN). In the last five years researchers discovered that the DMN is but one of at least five different resting-state networks—circuits for vision, hearing, movement, attention and memory. But the DMN remains the best studied and perhaps the most important among them.”

Description:

Article from Scientific American examining the effect of mental downtime in the form of meditation, napping, and the like on productivity and our brains.

Author(s):

  • Ferris Jabr

Title:

  • Why Your Brain Needs More Downtime

Publisher:

  • Scientific American

Date:

  • October 15, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/an-overview-of-yoga-research-for-health-and-wellbeing-2157-7595-1000210.php?aid=63791

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Sample:

“With the emergence of higher quality yoga research, there is evidence that yoga has sizable and replicable effects for many health conditions. Although health is viewed as holistic in yogic traditions and aspects of health are clearly intertwined, research often targets specific areas such as physical health, mental health, and/or spiritual well-being. Some conditions that have been well studied include depression, stress and anxiety, irritable bowel syndrome, HIV, heart conditions, cancer, and chronic low back pain (CLBP) [40-43]. With CLBP, for example, a recent review documented consistent findings that yoga can improve function and decrease pain in people with CLBP [44,45]. Additionally yoga practice among people with CLBP reduces depression and pain medication use and improves quality of life [46-48].

There have been studies examining the potential benefits of yoga for cancer survivors, with the majority of research focusing on alleviating symptoms of radiation or chemotherapy, such as fatigue. A recent review concluded that yoga improves quality of life and psychosocial outcomes including depression in cancer survivors, but evidence is limited for supporting improvements in fatigue or sleep [49,50].

Considerable research has also been conducted examining the effects of yoga on cardiovascular risk factors, including a recent review concluding that yoga is a promising method for reducing high blood pressure (hypertension). Other reviews too report a variety of beneficial effects of yoga for cardiovascular diseases more broadly [51]. For asthma, the breathing component of yoga has been linked to improvements in lung function, but has not proven to be better than standard breathing exercises for those specific outcomes [52-54].”

Description:

Article published in the Journal of Yoga and Physical Therapy covering the available scholarly research on how yoga can impact one’s health.

Author(s):

  • Erik J Groessil, Deepak Chopra, Paul J Mills

Title:

  • An Overview of Yoga Research for Health and Well-Being

Publisher:

  • Journal of Yoga and Physical Therapy

Date:

  • October 27, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/yoga-for-anxiety-and-depression

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Sample:

“Since the 1970s, meditation and other stress-reduction techniques have been studied as possible treatments for depression and anxiety. One such practice, yoga, has received less attention in the medical literature, though it has become increasingly popular in recent decades. One national survey estimated, for example, that about 7.5% of U.S. adults had tried yoga at least once, and that nearly 4% practiced yoga in the previous year.

Yoga classes can vary from gentle and accommodating to strenuous and challenging; the choice of style tends to be based on physical ability and personal preference. Hatha yoga, the most common type of yoga practiced in the United States, combines three elements: physical poses, called asanas; controlled breathing practiced in conjunction with asanas; and a short period of deep relaxation or meditation.

Many of the studies evaluating yoga’s therapeutic benefits have been small and poorly designed. However, a 2004 analysis found that, in recent decades, an increasing number have been randomized controlled trials — the most rigorous standard for proving efficacy.”

Description:

Harvard Medical School publication outlining the effects yoga can have in relation to anxiety and depression, with an overview of research in this field.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Yoga for anxiety and depression

Publisher:

  • Harvard Medical School

Date:

  • April, 2009

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.elsevier.com/connect/the-science-of-yoga-what-new-research-reveals

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Sample:

“In her review, Dr. Tiffany Field, Director of the Touch Research Institute at the University of Miami, provides a fascinating overview of the effect of yoga on anxiety and depression, pain, cardiovascular, autoimmune and immune conditions and on pregnancy.

In research looking more closely at the effect of yoga on anxiety, Dr. M. Javnbakht and colleagues from the Psychiatry Department of Islamic Azad University in Iran showed that participating in a two-month yoga class can significantly reduce anxiety in women with anxiety disorders. In their paper published in Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, the researchers say this “suggests that yoga can be considered as a complementary therapy or an alternative method for medical therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders.”

Another study, published in Complementary Therapies in Medicine, examined the effect of yoga on lower back pain. Dr. Padmini Tekur and colleagues from the Division of Yoga & Life Sciences at the Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation (SVYASA) in India carried out a seven-day randomized control trial at a holistic health center in Bangalore, India, with 80 patients who have chronic lower back pain. They assigned patients to one of two groups – yoga therapy and physical therapy. Their results showed that practicing yoga is more effective than physical therapy at reducing pain, anxiety and depression, and improving spinal mobility.”

Description:

Article covering various research studies done on the health benefits of Yoga and exactly what we know about how it can help deal with stress. Includes links to research studies and more information.

Author(s):

  • Denise Rankin-Box

Title:

  • The science of yoga — what research reveals

Publisher:

  • Elsevier

Date:

  • June 18, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-03-weekly-yoga-classes-home-effective.html

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Sample:

“People who suffer from depression should participate in yoga and deep (coherent) breathing classes at least twice weekly plus practice at home to receive a significant reduction in their symptoms.

The findings, which appear in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, providepreliminary support for the use of yoga-based interventions as an alternative or supplement to pharmacologic treatments for depression. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common, recurrent, chronic and disabling. Due in part to its prevalence, depression is globally responsible for more years lost to disability than any other disease. Up to 40 percent of individuals treated with antidepressant medications for MDD do notachieve full remission. This study used lyengar yoga that has an emphasis on detail, precision and alignment in the performance of posture and breath control.”

Description:

Article covering a study published in the Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine that showed yoga can significantly reduce depression symptoms.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Twice weekly yoga classes plus home practice effective in reducing symptoms of depression

Publisher:

  • medicalxpress.com

Date:

  • March 3, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sports/league-of-denial/timeline-the-nfls-concussion-crisis/

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Sample:

“October 1999

NFL RETIREMENT BOARD RULES MIKE WEBSTER PERMANENTLY DISABLED

The NFL Retirement Board rules that Mike Webster’s head injuries from his years playing for the Pittsburgh Steelers and Kansas City Chiefs left him “totally and permanently” disabled as “the result of head injuries he suffered as a football player.” The ruling isn’t made public until it’s uncovered by FRONTLINE/ESPN reporters Steve Fainaru and Mark Fainaru-Wada.

Webster’s attorney, Bob Fitzsimmons, says the ruling shows that the league should’ve known there was a link between football and brain damage.

“It’s pretty devastating evidence,” he said. “If the NFL takes the position that they didn’t know or weren’t armed with evidence that concussions can cause total disability — permanent disability, permanent brain injury — in 1999, that evidence trumps anything they say.””

Description:

Detailed timeline from PBS on the issue of concussions in the NFL, chronicling their pubilc stances, contributions to research, and injured players.

Author(s):

  • Lauren Ezell

Title:

  • Timeline: The NFL’s Concussion Crisis

Publisher:

  • PBS

Date:

  • October 8, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/concussion/symptoms-causes/dxc-20273155

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Sample:

The signs and symptoms of a concussion can be subtle and may not show up immediately. Symptoms can last for days, weeks or even longer.

Common symptoms after a concussive traumatic brain injury are headache, loss of memory (amnesia) and confusion. The amnesia usually involves forgetting the event that caused the concussion.

Signs and symptoms of a concussion may include:

  • Headache or a feeling of pressure in the head
  • Temporary loss of consciousness
  • Confusion or feeling as if in a fog
  • Amnesia surrounding the traumatic event
  • Dizziness or “seeing stars”
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Slurred speech
  • Delayed response to questions
  • Appearing dazed
  • Fatigue

Description:

List of symptoms and causes of concussions from the Mayo Clinic, with details for concussions in children, athletes, and links to more information.

Author(s):

  • Mayo Clinic Staff

Title:

  • Symptoms and causes

Publisher:

  • Mayo Clinic

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://psychology.uiowa.edu/sites/psychology.uiowa.edu/files/groups/nikolas/files/Barkley,%202014.pdf

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Sample:

“Symptoms of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) have been recognized for nearly 30 years as comprising a semiindependent set(s) of symptoms from the inattentive (IN) and hyperactive-impulsive (HI) symptoms involved in attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has only been within the past decade that research focusing specifically on SCT symptoms and on samples of SCT cases chosen independently from ADHD samples has increased so as to address the question of whether SCT is a distinct condition from ADHD or other disorders. All but two of these studies have focused on children but the two extant large scale studies on adults have replicated those findings. This Commentary highlights not only those findings concerning SCT that appear to be relatively robust, but also those patterns that appear to be emerging yet in need of further research to corroborate their association with SCT, as well as those barely or unexplored areas that may deserve more research. Evidence to date, including the many findings in this special issue, is nearing a critical mass that likely supports the conclusion that SCT is a distinct disorder of attention from ADHD, yet one that may overlap with it in about half of all cases. SCT has unique symptom dimensions and comorbidities from ADHD, probably distinct though lesser domains of impairment and demographic correlates, and perhaps unique cognitive deficits, causes and life course risks. These latter areas, however, are in need of substantially more research as is SCT in adults and treatments specifically designed for cases of SCT. Meanwhile, the name of the condition is premature, implying a known cognitive deficit that is as yet unknown, and is proving derogatory and offensive to patients, leading this author to recommend a change to Concentration Deficit Disorder.”

Description:

Article discussing Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) and whether it should be diagnosis and treated as separate from ADHD, as well as comparing the two. This article also discusses a change from the name Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) to Cognitive Deficit Disorder (CDD).

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000907/

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Sample:

“The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD.”

Description:

Article examining the history of ADHD, going back as much as 200 years or more to find the first signs of the disorder, up to knowledge we have today. This article looks at many different disorders defined throughout history with very similar criteria and symptoms, going all the way back to 1798.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195639/

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Sample:

Objective: To raise awareness of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an underdiagnosed, undertreated, often comorbid, and debilitating condition in adults.

Data Sources: PubMed was searched using combinations of keywords, including ADHD, adult, diagnosis, identify, prevalence, and comorbid, to find articles published between 1976 and 2013.

Study Selection: In total, 99 articles were selected for inclusion on the basis of their relevance to the objective and importance to and representation of ADHD research, including international guidelines for adults with ADHD.

Results: In a large proportion of children with ADHD, symptoms persist into adulthood. However, although adults with ADHD often experience chaotic lifestyles, with impaired educational and vocational achievement and higher risks of substance abuse and imprisonment, many remain undiagnosed and/or untreated. ADHD is usually accompanied by other psychiatric comorbidities (such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse). Indeed, adults with ADHD are more likely to present to a psychiatric clinic for treatment of their comorbid disorders than for ADHD, and their ADHD symptoms are often mistaken for those of their comorbidities. Untreated ADHD in adults with psychiatric comorbidities leads to poor clinical and functional outcomes for the patient even if comorbidities are treated. Effective treatment of adults’ ADHD improves symptoms, emotional lability, and patient functioning, often leading to favorable outcomes (eg, safer driving, reduced criminality). A few medications have now been approved for use in adults with ADHD, while a multimodal approach involving psychotherapy has also shown promising results.

Conclusions General psychiatrists should familiarize themselves with the symptoms of ADHD in adults in order to diagnose and manage ADHD and comorbidities appropriately in these patients.”

Description:

Study published examining existing literature of over 99 articles related to the underdiagnosis of ADHD in adults and how often ADHD is associated with another condition in adults.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3441936/

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Sample:

“This article describes a comprehensive meta-analysis that was conducted to estimate the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). A systematic literature review identified 86 studies of children and adolescents (N = 163,688 individuals) and 11 studies of adults (N = 14,112 individuals) that met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, more than half of which were published after the only previous meta-analysis of the prevalence of ADHD was completed. Although prevalence estimates reported by individual studies varied widely, pooled results suggest that the prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD is similar, whether ADHD is defined by parent ratings, teacher ratings, or a best estimate diagnostic procedure in children and adolescents (5.9–7.1 %), or by self-report measures in young adults (5.0 %). Analyses of diagnostic subtypes indicated that the predominantly inattentive type is the most common subtype in the population, but individuals with the combined type are more likely to be referred for clinical services. Additional research is needed to determine the etiology of the higher prevalence of ADHD in males than females and to clarify whether the prevalence of ADHD varies as a function of socioeconomic status or ethnicity. Finally, there were no significant prevalent differences between countries or regions of the world after controlling for differences in the diagnostic algorithms used to define ADHD. These results provide important support for the diagnostic validity of ADHD, and argue against the hypothesis that ADHD is a cultural construct that is restricted to the United States or any other specific culture.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of over 80 studies done on ADHD to determine the rate of prevalence of ADHD in youth and adults, previously estimated at 5.29% worldwide, though that rate varies greatly in a number of studies. A meta-analysis is a study of data from many other studies that have already been completed.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/prevalence.html

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/features/key-findings-adhd72013.html

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Sample:

“Important findings from this study include:

  • More than 1 in 10 (11%) US school-aged children had received an ADHD diagnosis by a health care provider by 2011, as reported by parents.
    • 6.4 million children reported by parents to have ever received a health care provider diagnosis of ADHD , including:
      • 1 in 5 high school boys
      • 1 in 11 high school girls
  • The percentage of US children 4-17 years of age with an ADHD diagnosis by a health care provider, as reported by parents, continues to increase.
    • A history of ADHD diagnosis by a health care provider increased by 42% between 2003 and 2011:
      • 7.8% had ever had a diagnosis in 2003
      • 9.5% had ever had a diagnosis in 2007
      • 11.0% had ever had a diagnosis in 2011
    • Average annual increase was approximately 5% per year”

Description:

Data from the Trends in the Parent-Report of Health Care Provider-Diagnosis and Medication Treatment for ADHD: United States, 2003—2011 report by the CDC. This report shows increases to those diagnosed with ADHD and being treated for it with medication since 2003.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/diagnosis.html

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Sample:

“People with ADHD show a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivityimpulsivity that interferes with functioning or development:

  1. Inattention: Six or more symptoms of inattention for children up to age 16, or five or more for adolescents 17 and older and adults; symptoms of inattention have been present for at least 6 months, and they are inappropriate for developmental level:
    • Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or with other activities.
    • Often has trouble holding attention on tasks or play activities.
    • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
    • Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., loses focus, side-tracked).
    • Often has trouble organizing tasks and activities.
    • Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to do tasks that require mental effort over a long period of time (such as schoolwork or homework).
    • Often loses things necessary for tasks and activities (e.g. school materials, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones).
    • Is often easily distracted
    • Is often forgetful in daily activities.”

Description:

CDC page with the diagnostic criteria for ADHD from DSM-5, including criteria for inattention and hyperactivity, and detailing changes from DSM-IV.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml

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Sample:

“Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.

  • Inattention means a person wanders off task, lacks persistence, has difficulty sustaining focus, and is disorganized; and these problems are not due to defiance or lack of comprehension.
  • Hyperactivity means a person seems to move about constantly, including in situations in which it is not appropriate; or excessively fidgets, taps, or talks. In adults, it may be extreme restlessness or wearing others out with constant activity.
  • Impulsivity means a person makes hasty actions that occur in the moment without first thinking about them and that may have high potential for harm; or a desire for immediate rewards or inability to delay gratification. An impulsive person may be socially intrusive and excessively interrupt others or make important decisions without considering the long-term consequences.”

Description:

National Institute of Mental Health page on ADHD including the ways to identify and treat ADHD and links to more information about the disorder. This is a great resource to start your research with as it not only provides a large detailed summary of many aspects of ADHD but also has many links to other credible sources on the topic.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0128248

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Sample:

Background

Children from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are at greater risk of a range of negative outcomes throughout their life course than their peers; however the specific mechanisms by which socioeconomic status relates to different health outcomes in childhood are as yet unclear.”

Conclusions

Socioeconomic disadvantage, conceptualised as reported difficulty in affording basic necessities (e.g. heating, food) has both direct and indirect impacts on a child’s risk of ADHD. Lower levels of parent involvement mediates this association, as does presence of adversity; with children exposed to adversity and those with less involved parents being at an increased risk of having ADHD. This study highlights the importance of home and environmental factors as small but important contributors toward the aetiology of ADHD.”

Description:

Study measuring the impact of “Socioeconomic disadvantage” on the risk and prevalence of ADHD in children, concluding it can directly impact this risk. Socioeconomic status (SES) can be a determinant of one’s health throughout their life, according to the authors. “Individuals and groups in differing socioeconomic strata are known to have disparate health outcomes, with those in the most disadvantaged groups at highest risk of poor health.”

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/features/adhd-keyfindings-psychiatric-comorbidity-school-children.html

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Sample:

Main Findings

Using data from the Project to Learn about ADHD in Youth (PLAY), the researchers found clear patterns of co-occurring conditions:

  • Children with ADHD were more than twice as likely as children without ADHD to have another mental disorder.
  • More than half of children (60%) with ADHD had another mental disorder (blue vertical bar for children with ADHD in the chart), most often conduct disorder (CD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).
  • One in four children (25%) with ADHD had two or more other mental disorders (red vertical bar for children with ADHD in the chart).”

What This Study Means

  • Most children with ADHD may benefit from treatments beyond those specifically for ADHD.
  • Children with ADHD and another mental disorder could benefit from interventions that prevent dropping out of school and criminal activity.
  • Physicians can use this information to understand the needs of children with ADHD and inform the care plans developed for these children.”

Description:

CDC summary of a study done by the Journal of Attention Disorders on how many children diagnosed with ADHD also have another mental disorder, and the effects on the children of having to deal with multiple disorders. The correlation between the presence of one condition and another in an individual is known as comorbidty.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html

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Sample:

“Economic Cost

  • Using a prevalence rate of 5%, the annual societal ‘‘cost of illness’’ for ADHD is estimated to be between $36 and $52 billion, in 2005 dollars. It is estimated to be between $12,005 and $17,458 annually per individual.
  • There were an estimated 7 million ambulatory care visits for ADHD in 2006.
  • The total excess cost of ADHD in the US in 2000 was $31.6 billion. Of this total, $1.6 billion was for the treatment of patients, $12.1 billion was for all other health care costs of persons with ADHD, $14.2 billion was for all other health care costs of family members with ADHD, and $3.7 billion was for the work loss cost of adults with ADHD and adult family members of persons with ADHD.
  • ADHD creates a significant financial burden regarding the cost of medical care and work loss for patients and family members. The annual average direct cost for each per ADHD patient was $1,574, compared to $541 among matched controls. The annual average payment (direct plus indirect cost) per family member was $2,728 for non-ADHD family members of ADHD patients versus $1,440 for family members of matched controls.
  • Across 10 countries, it was projected that ADHD was associated with 143.8 million lost days of productivity each year. Most of this loss can be attributed to ADHD and not co-occurring conditions.
  • Workers with ADHD were more likely to have at least one sick day in the past month compared to workers without ADHD.”

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/outgrowing-autism-a-closer-look-at-children-who-read-early-or-speak-late/

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“The headlines read “New study suggests autism can be outgrown”, or “outgrowing autism: a doctor’s surprise and wonder.” The stories are based on studies reporting that 7-9% of children with a documented early autistic syndrome disorder (ASD) have no symptoms of the disorder on follow-up later in childhood or adolescence. That is good news. The question is how to account for it.”

MLA Citation:

Treffert, Darold A. “Outgrowing Autism? A Closer Look at Children Who Read Early or Speak Late.” Scientific American, 9 Dec. 2015, https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/outgrowing-autism-a-closer-look-at-children-who-read-early-or-speak-late. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Treffert)

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APA Citation:

Treffert, D. (2015, Dec. 9). Outgrowing Autism? A closer look at children who read early or speak late. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/outgrowing-autism-a-closer-look-at-children-who-read-early-or-speak-late/

In-Text: (Treffert, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/on-the-brink-of-breakthroughs-in-diagnosing-and-treating-autism/

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Sample:

“There’s a popular saying in the autism community: “If you’ve met one person with autism, you’ve met one person with autism.” Although this phrase is meant to convey the remarkable variation in abilities and disabilities among people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we’re learning that it also applies to the extraordinary variability in how ASD develops. When I first began doing research on autism decades ago, we thought of it as one condition and aimed to discover its “cause.” Now we know ASD is actually a group of lifelong conditions that can arise from a complex combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors. In the same way that each person with ASD has a unique personality and profile of talents and disabilities, each also has a distinct developmental history shaped by a specific combination of genetic and environmental factors.”

MLA Citation:

Dawson, Geraldine. “On the Brink of Breakthroughs in Diagnosing and Treating Autism.” Scientific American, 9 May 2016. http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/on-the-brink-of-breakthroughs-in-diagnosing-and-treating-autism. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Dawson)

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APA Citation:

Dawson, G. (2016, May 9). On the brink of breakthroughs in diagnosing and treating Autism. Scientific American. Retrieved from http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/on-the-brink-of-breakthroughs-in-diagnosing-and-treating-autism

In-Text: (Dawson, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

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Sample:

“Using DSM-IV, patients could be diagnosed with four separate disorders: autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, or the catch-all diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Researchers found that these separate diagnoses were not consistently applied across different clinics and treatment centers. Anyone diagnosed with one of the four pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) from DSM-IV should still meet the criteria for ASD in DSM-5 or another, more accurate DSM-5 diagnosis. While DSM does not outline recommended treatment and services for mental disorders, determining an accurate diagnosis is a first step for a clinician in defining a treatment plan for a patient.”

Useful Quote:

“The Neurodevelopmental Work Group, led by Susan Swedo, MD, senior investigator at the National Institute of Mental Health, recommended the DSM-5 criteria for ASD to be a better reflection of the state of knowledge about autism. The Work Group believes a single umbrella disorder will improve the diagnosis of ASD without limiting the sensitivity of the criteria, or substantially changing the number of children being diagnosed.”

MLA Citation:

“Autism Spectrum Disorder.” dsm5.org, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013, http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Autism Spectrum Disorder”)

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APA Citation:

Autism Spectrum Disorder. (2013). American Psychiatric Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

In-Text: (“Autism Spectrum Disorder,” 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.who.int/occupational_health/topics/stressatwp/en/

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Sample:

“Pressure at the workplace is unavoidable due to the demands of the contemporary work environment. Pressure perceived as acceptable by an individual, may even keep workers alert, motivated, able to work and learn, depending on the available resources and personal characteristics. However, when that pressure becomes excessive or otherwise unmanageable it leads to stress. Stress can damage an employees’ health and the business performance.

Work-related stress can be caused by poor work organisation (the way we design jobs and work systems, and the way we manage them), by poor work design (for example, lack of control over work processes), poor management, unsatisfactory working conditions, and lack of support from colleagues and supervisors.”

MLA Citation:

“Stress at the workplace.” who.int. World Health Organization, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.who.int/occupational_health/topics/stressatwp/en/>.

In-Text: (“Stress at the workplace”)

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APA Citation:

Stress at the workplace. (n.d.). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/occupational_health/topics/stressatwp/en/

In-Text: (“Stress at the workplace”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/understanding-the-stress-response

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Sample:

“After the amygdala sends a distress signal, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. These glands respond by pumping the hormone epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) into the bloodstream. As epinephrine circulates through the body, it brings on a number of physiological changes. The heart beats faster than normal, pushing blood to the muscles, heart, and other vital organs. Pulse rate and blood pressure go up. The person undergoing these changes also starts to breathe more rapidly. Small airways in the lungs open wide. This way, the lungs can take in as much oxygen as possible with each breath. Extra oxygen is sent to the brain, increasing alertness. Sight, hearing, and other senses become sharper. Meanwhile, epinephrine triggers the release of blood sugar (glucose) and fats from temporary storage sites in the body. These nutrients flood into the bloodstream, supplying energy to all parts of the body.”

MLA Citation:

“Understanding the stress response.” health.harvard.edu. Harvard University, 1 Mar. 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/understanding-the-stress-response>.

In-Text: (“Understanding the stress response”)

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APA Citation:

Understanding the stress response. (2011, Mar. 1). Harvard University. Retrieved from http://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/understanding-the-stress-response

In-Text: (“Understanding the stress response”, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.choixdecarriere.com/pdf/6573/2010/ColliganHiggins2005.pdf

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Sample:

“Workplace stress can be defined as the change in one’s physical or mental state in response to workplaces that pose an appraised challenge or threat to that employee. Research has shown that there are a number of factors that contribute to workplace stress. These factors include a toxic work environment, negative workload, isolation, types of hours worked, role conflict, role ambiguity, lack of autonomy, career development barriers, difficult relationships with administrators and/ or coworkers, managerial bullying, harassment, and organizational climate. Should the stressors continue, the employee is at significant risk of developing physiological and psychological disorders that can lead to increased absenteeism, organizational dysfunction, and decreased work productivity. Intervention strategies are discussed to help managers provide support and intervention to employees coping with workplace stress”

MLA Citation:

Colligan, Thomas W. and Eileen M. Higgins. “Workplace Stress: Etiology and Consequences.” Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health 21.2 (2005): 89-97.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.choixdecarriere.com/pdf/6573/2010/ColliganHiggins2005.pdf>.

In-Text: (Colligan and Higgins)

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APA Citation:

Colligan, T.W. & Higgins, E.H. (2005). Workplace stress: Etiology and consequences. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 21(2): 89-97. Retrieved from http://www.choixdecarriere.com/pdf/6573/2010/ColliganHiggins2005.pdf

In-Text: (Colligan and Higgins)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/emerging_practices_report.pdf

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Sample:

“Recognition of the need to reduce the risks faced by vulnerable children can be found in current public and private efforts aimed at strengthening families and building capacities and resilience. The Healthy Marriage and Responsible Fatherhood initiatives from the Administration for Children and Families are both designed to protect children through approaches that encourage the enrichment of relationships between parents, and between parents and their children. In one-parent households, new initiatives are focusing on increasing access and visitation, developing the nurturing capabilities of noncustodial parents, and improving the relationship between custodial and noncustodial parents. Other important initiatives are focusing on reducing teen pregnancy and out-ofwedlock births, addressing substance use and abuse among parents, improving opportunities for adoption, increasing child support compliance, ensuring safe and adequate child care, promoting safe and stable families, and providing work opportunities for ex-offenders who are parents.”

MLA Citation:

Thomas, David, Christine Lecht, Candy Hughes, Amy Hadigan, and Kathy Dowell. “Emerging Practices In the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect.” U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/emerging_practices_report.pdf>.

In-Text: (Thomas et al.)

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APA Citation:

Thomas, D., Lecht, C., Hughes, C., Hadigan, A., & Dowell, K. (n.d.). Emerging practices in the prevention of child abuse and neglect. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/emerging_practices_report.pdf

In-Text: (Thomas, Lecht, Hughes, Hadigan, Dowell)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://brainimaging.waisman.wisc.edu/~perlman/0903-EmoPaper/BishopMindfulnessDefinition2004.pdf

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“There has been substantial interest in mindfulness as an approach to reduce cognitive vulnerability to stress and emotional distress in recent years. However, thus far mindfulness has not been defined operationally. This paper describes the results of recent meetings held to establish a consensus on mindfulness and to develop conjointly a testable operational definition. We propose a two-component model of mindfulness and specify each component in terms of specific behaviors, experiential manifestations, and implicated psychological processes. We then address issues regarding temporal stability and situational specificity and speculate on the conceptual and operational distinctiveness of mindfulness. We conclude this paper by discussing implications for instrument development and briefly describing our own approach to measurement.”

MLA Citation:

Bishop, Scott R. et al. “Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition.” Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 11.3 (2004): 230-241.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://brainimaging.waisman.wisc.edu/~perlman/0903-EmoPaper/BishopMindfulnessDefinition2004.pdf>.

In-Text: (Bishop et al.)

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APA Citation:

Bishop, S., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N.D., Carmody, J. … Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Pyschology: Science and Practice 11(3), 230-241. doi:10.1093/clipsy/bph077

In-Text: (Bishop et al., 2004)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2693206/

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Sample:

“This article provides a review of recent studies examining the effects of meditation training on attention and emotion. Despite a large number of scientific reports and theoretical proposals 4–8, little is known about the neurophysiological processes involved in meditation and the long-term impact of meditation on the brain. The lack of statistical evidence, control populations and rigor of many of the early studies, the heterogeneity of the studied meditative states, and the difficulty in controlling the degree of expertise of practitioners can in part account for the limited contributions made by neuroscience-oriented research on meditation. The absence of a clear operational definition of meditation limits this research. Here we offer a theoretical framework, based on traditional meditation texts and modern neuroscientific conceptions, in which some standard meditations are grouped into two broad categories: focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) meditation (box 1–box 2, table 1). These categories are used to delineate the specific psychological processes implicated in these two practices and to derive neuro-functional predictions. We also present key findings illustrating how meditation may affect mental processing and the brain. The overall purpose of this framework is to produce an operational definition for FA and OM meditative practices that can be adopted in the scientific study of effects of meditation training on the mind and the brain (see also 9–11).”

MLA Citation:

Lutz, Antoine, Heleen A. Slagter, John D. Dunne, and Richard J. Davidson. “Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation.” Trends in Cognitive Science 12.4 (Apr., 2008): 163-169. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2693206/>.

In-Text: (Lutz et al.)

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APA Citation:

Lutz, A., Slagter, H., Dunne, J., & Davidson, R. (2008, Apr.). Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends in Cognitive Science, 12(4), p. 163-169. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2008.01.005

In-Text: (Lutz, Slagter, Dunne, Davidson, 2008)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.htm

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Sample:

“Under DSM–IV, the diagnostic criteria for abuse and dependence were distinct: anyone meeting one or more of the “abuse” criteria (see items 1 through 4) within a 12-month period would receive the “abuse” diagnosis. Anyone with three or more of the “dependence” criteria (see items 5 through 11) during the same 12-month period would receive a “dependence” diagnosis.

Under DSM–5, anyone meeting any two of the 11 criteria during the same 12-month period would receive a diagnosis of AUD. The severity of an AUD—mild, moderate, or severe—is based on the number of criteria met.”

 

MLA Citation:

“Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5.” pubs.nih.niaa.gov. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Jul. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.htm>.

In-Text: (“Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5”)

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APA Citation:

Alcohol Use Disorder: A comparison between DSM–IV and DSM–5. (2015, Jul.). National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.htm

In-Text: (“Alcohol Use Disorder: A comparison between DSM–IV and DSM–5”, 2015)

Note: You can shorten the in-text citation to just the first few words when citing a long title, but may not want to if you have similarly titled references you will be citing in-text. As long as it is still clear which reference you are citing from your bibliography you can shorten the in-text citation. The in-text citation MUST always start the same way the citation on your reference page or bibliography does. 

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm

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Sample:

“Clear, accurate definitions of medical conditions and disorders are important for research and clinical practice. The most widely used definitions for alcohol use disorders are found in two major classification systems of disease: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals of Mental Disorders (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Research on treatment, human genetics, and epidemiology relies on these sets of criteria to define alcohol abuse and dependence diagnoses. For example, alcoholism treatment studies often use definitions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM–IV) (APA 1994) to define inclusion criteria for subjects. Genetics studies use definitions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM–III–R) (APA 1987); the DSM–IV; or the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) (WHO 1993) to define sets of alcohol–related characteristics (i.e., phenotypes) under study. Epidemiologic research relies on DSM–IV definitions to define the alcohol use disorders enumerated in the general population and in various population subgroups. In addition, clinicians use DSM or ICD definitions as a common language in their communication about patients. DSM and ICD systems also serve an important educational function because they are used as introductory material on alcoholism for students and trainees from a variety of disciplines. As such, the concepts and definitions of DSM and ICD alcohol diagnoses form a unifying framework that underlies research and discussion of alcoholism in the United States and in other countries.”

MLA Citation:

Hasin, Deborah. “Classification of Alcohol Use Disorders.” pubs.niaaa.nih.gov. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Dec. 2003.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm>.

In-Text: (Hasin)

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APA Citation:

Hasin, D. (2003, Dec.). Classification of alcohol use and disorders. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm

In-Text: (Hasin)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160202110714.htm (Copy and paste if link doesn’t work)

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Sample:

“Many K-12 school efforts to reduce bullying have proven not very effective, leading educators to wonder what bullying prevention approach works best. A new study finds one anti-bullying program works extremely well. The study of more than 7,000 students in 77 elementary schools in Finland found that one program greatly benefited the mental health of sixth graders who were bullied the most, significantly improving their self-esteem and reducing their depression.”

MLA Citation:

“Anti-bullying program focused on bystanders helps the students who need it the most.” sciencedaily.com. Science Daily, 2 Feb. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160202110714.htm>.

In-Text: (“Anti-bullying program focused on bystanders helps the students who need it the most”)

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APA Citation:

Anti-bullying program focused on bystanders helps the students who need it the most. (2016, Feb. 2). Science Daily. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160202110714.htm

In-Text: (Anti-bullying program focused on bystanders helps the students who need it the most)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://myweb.usf.edu/~jdorio/Articles/The%20cultural%20relativity%20of%20the%20quality%20of%20life%20concept.pdf

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Sample:

“What people see as the meaning of their lives and the kind of living they consider desirable or undesirable are matters of personal choice par excellence. However, personal choices are affected by the cultural environment in which people are brought up. Thus one can expect definitions of the quality of life concept to be culturally dependent as well. For example, in some cultures the quality of life is strongly associated with the degree of satisfaction of material needs. In others, it is associated with the degree to which people succeed in subduing and reducing their material needs.”

MLA Citation:

Hofstede, Geert. “The Cultural Relativity of the Quality of Life Concept.” The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 9, No. 3 (1984): 389-398.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://myweb.usf.edu/~jdorio/Articles/The%20cultural%20relativity%20of%20the%20quality%20of%20life%20concept.pdf>.

In-Text: (Hofstede)

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APA Citation:

Hofstede, G. (1984). The cultural relativity of the quality of life concept. The Academy of Management Review, 9(3): 389-398. Retrieved from http://myweb.usf.edu/~jdorio/Articles/The%20cultural%20relativity%20of%20the%20quality%20of%20life%20concept.pdf

In-Text: (Hofstede, 1984)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/psp-101-2-354.pdf

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Sample:

“In the current study, we examined the association between need fulfillment and subjective well-being (SWB). For many years, the idea of universal needs was out of favor because it was widely believed that socialization uniquely shapes the causes of wellbeing for each person and in each culture. Furthermore, it was often assumed that people adapt to circumstances so that in the long run only temperament influences SWB. However, in recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in universal influences on “happiness” that might derive from universal aspects of human nature (Konner, 2002). For instance, Howell and Howell (2008) suggested that the declining marginal utility of money might be due to the fact that income influences SWB primarily when it is associated with the fulfillment of basic physical needs. Kenrick, Griskevicius, Neuberg, and Schaller (2010) suggested that Maslow’s (1954) list of needs might be derivable from evolutionary theory (see also Hill & Buss, 2007). These approaches are compatible with the idea that the respect of others, learning new things, and supportive social relationships are fundamental universal needs that do not require secondary pairing with more basic needs to influence SWB.”

MLA Citation:

Tay, Louis and Ed Diener. “Needs and Subjective Well-Being Around the World.” apa.org. American Psychological Association, 10 Feb. 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/psp-101-2-354.pdf>.

In-Text: (Louis and Diener)

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APA Citation:

Tay, L. & Diesner, E. (2011, Feb. 10). Needs and subjective well-being around the world. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/psp-101-2-354.pdf

In-Text: (Tay & Diesner, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sex-murder-and-the-meaning-life/201005/rebuilding-maslow-s-pyramid-evolutionary-foundation

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Sample:

“But the modern integration of ideas from neuroscience, developmental biology, and evolutionary psychology suggests that Maslow had a few things wrong. For one thing, he never gave much thought to reproduction. He conceived of “higher needs” as completely personal strivings, unconnected from other people, and totally divorced from biological needs. Parental motivations were completely missing from his hierarchy, and he placed “sexual needs” down at the bottom— along with hunger and thirst. Presumably, sexual urges were biological annoyances that could be as well dispatched by masturbation as by having intercourse, before one moved back to higher pursuits like playing the guitar or writing poetry.

From a modern evolutionary perspective, that is a curious set of assumptions. For one thing, all living organisms, including you and I, inherited a set of motivational mechanisms that inspired us to reproduce. Like other mammals, humans also have strong attachments to the offspring they produce, and unlike most mammals, both sexes develop attachments to their mates and their offspring. In the renovated pyramid, reproductive goals are at the top, not the bottom. Furthermore, there is more than one independent set of motivations involved in reproduction. First, one needs to attract a mate. After that is accomplished, one needs to maintain a relationship (a very different set of problems, as some of us have learned). Finally, one needs to care for one’s offspring.”

MLA Citation:

Kenrick, Douglas T. “Rebuilding Maslow’s Pyramid on an Evolutionary Foundation.” psychologytoday.com. Sussex Publishers, 10 May 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sex-murder-and-the-meaning-life/201005/rebuilding-maslow-s-pyramid-evolutionary-foundation>.

In-Text: (Kenrick)

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APA Citation:

Kenrick, D. (2010, May 10). Rebuilding Maslow’s pyramid on an evolutionary foundation. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sex-murder-and-the-meaning-life/201005/rebuilding-maslow-s-pyramid-evolutionary-foundation

In-Text: (Kenrick, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2011/08/maslow-20-a-new-and-improved-recipe-for-happiness/243486/

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Sample:

“To find proof that Maslow’s theory translated into real life, Diener, a University of Illinois psychologist and senior scientist for the Gallup Organization, helped design the Gallup World Poll, a landmark survey on well-being with 60,865 participants from 123 countries that was conducted from 2005 to 2010. Respondents answered questions about six needs that closely resemble those in Maslow’s model: basic needs (food, shelter); safety; social needs (love, support); respect; mastery; and autonomy. They also rated their well-being across three discrete measures: life evaluation (a person’s view of his or her life as a whole), positive feelings (day-to-day instances of joy or pleasure), and negative feelings (everyday experiences of sorrow, anger, or stress). Finally, Diener analyzed the poll data with fellow University of Illinois psychology professor Louis Tay for a study in the current edition of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.”

MLA Citation:

Villarica, Hans. “Maslow 2.0: A New and Improved Recipe for Happiness.” theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 17 Aug. 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2011/08/maslow-20-a-new-and-improved-recipe-for-happiness/243486/>.

In-Text: (Villarica)

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APA Citation:

Villarica, H. (2011, Aug. 17). Maslow 2.0: A new and improved recipe for happiness. The Altantic Monthly Group. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2011/08/maslow-20-a-new-and-improved-recipe-for-happiness/243486/

In-Text: (Villarica, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/twins/

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Sample:

“To illustrate, for twins with schizophrenia, 50% identical twins share the disease, while only about 10-15% of fraternal twins do. This difference is evidence for a strong genetic component in susceptibility to schizophrenia. However, the fact that both identical twins in a pair don’t develop the disease 100% of the time indicates that other factors are involved.”

MLA Citation:

“Insights From Identical Twins.” learn.genetics.utah.edu. University of Utah, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/twins/>.

In-Text: (“Insights From Identical Twins”)

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APA Citation:

Insights from identical twins. (n.d.). University of Utah. Retrieved from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/twins/

In-Text: (Insights from identical twins)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.msu.edu/~jsherry/Site/NatureNurture.pdf

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Sample:

“Nearly 30 years ago, Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess (1977) offered a version of human development that consisted of a compromise between the nature and nurture perspectives. In the time since, great advances have been made in understanding human psychology. It is past time for media effects researchers to embrace the interactionist perspective offered by Thomas and Chess and embraced by legions of human behavior researchers. There is no longer any question among most developmental psychologists, cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, and biologists that nature interacts with nurture to determine human behavior.”

MLA Citation:

Sherry, John L. “Media Effects Theory and the Nature/Nurture Debate: A Historical Overview and Directions for Future Research.” msu.edu. Michigan State University, 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.msu.edu/~jsherry/Site/NatureNurture.pdf>.

In-Text: (Sherry)

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APA Citation:

Sherry, J. L. (2004). Media Effects Theory and the Nature/Nurture debate: A historical overview and directions for future research. Michigan State University. Retrieved from https://www.msu.edu/~jsherry/Site/NatureNurture.pdf

In-Text: (Sherry, 2004)

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Note on citations: We used the format for citing a website page for the MLA citation. The research paper itself lists Purdue University, where the author had done the research; However, the credible source is found on Michigan State University’s website, where the author now seems to be employed. The OWL guide states one should list the website name and organization affiliated with the website (msu.edu and Michigan State University, respectively) in the citation. Since the source is being accessed through the web this is appropriate, though the original publisher does not appear to be MSU. Please consider your specific requirements and guidelines when preparing your bibliography.

 

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/8/588.full

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Sample:

“In its brief history, epigenetics research has concentrated mostly on the early development of organisms. One strain of these investigations is development of behavior, and this line of research now has its own name: Behavioral epigenetics refers to the study of how signals from the environment trigger molecular biological changes that modify what goes on in brain cells. Here, the term environment encompasses pretty much everything that happens in every stage of life: social experience; nutrition; hormones; and toxicological exposures that occur prenatally, postnatally, and in adulthood. If research on epigenetics is in its infancy, research on behavioral epigenetics is in embryo.”

MLA Citation:

Powledge, Tabitha. “Behavioral Epigenetics: How Nurture Shapes Nature.” Bioscience 61.8 (2011): 588-592.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/8/588.full>.

In-Text: (Powledge)

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APA Citation:

Powledge, T. (2011). Behavioral Epigenetics: How nurture shapes nature. Bioscience, 68(8), 588-592. doi: 10.1525/bio.2011.61.8.4

In-Text: (Powledge, 2011)

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