Credible Sources for Mass Shootings/Violence

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.thetrace.org/2015/08/gun-deaths-charleston-chattanooga-lafayette/

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Sample:

“In the 37 days between the shootings in Charleston and Lafayette, at least 1,433 people were killed with a gun in the United States. On July 23, when a man with a checkered history opened fire in a Louisiana movie theater with a legally-purchased handgun, there were a total of 67 shooting incidents. Twenty-eight people died.

In the wake of this year’s most recent mass shootings, the daily tally of gun violence victims continues to rise, particularly in our nation’s urban centers. In Baltimore — which in July suffered the deadliest month in more than four decades, with 45 homicides — 11 people were shot last weekend, three of them fatally. In New York City, where the number of gun injuries and deaths has dropped dramatically since a period of violence spanning the 1970s through the 1990s, as many as 22 people were shot from Friday to Sunday.”

Description:

This article analyzes data showing a high-frequency of gun-related violence and deaths during a short period in 2015 between the high-profile Charleston and Lafayette shootings.

Author(s):

  • Jennifer Mascia and Emily Fuhrman

Title:

  • At Least 1,433 People Were Killed With a Gun in the U.S. Between the Charleston and Lafayette Shootings

Publisher:

  • The Trace

Date:

  • August 4, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/trump-signs-bill-revoking-obama-era-gun-checks-people-mental-n727221

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Sample:

“President Donald Trump quietly signed a bill into law Tuesday rolling back an Obama-era regulation that made it harder for people with mental illnesses to purchase a gun.

The rule, which was finalized in December, added people receiving Social Security checks for mental illnesses and people deemed unfit to handle their own financial affairs to the national background check database.

Had the rule fully taken effect, the Obama administration predicted it would have added about 75,000 names to that database.

President Barack Obama recommended the now-nullified regulation in a 2013 memo following the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, which left 20 first graders and six others dead. The measure sought to block some people with severe mental health problems from buying guns.”

Description:

Article detailing the repeal of an Obama-era rule that requires background checks including data on individuals with mental disabilities.

Author(s):

  • Ali Vitali

Title:

  • Trump Signs Bill Revoking Obama-Era Gun Checks for People With Mental Illnesses

Publisher:

  • NBC News

Date:

  • February 28, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/summary-president-obama-gun-proposals.aspx

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Sample:

“On Jan. 5, 2016, President Obama unveiled his new strategy to curb gun violence in America. His proposals focus on new background check requirements that will enhance the effectiveness of the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS), and greater education and enforcement efforts of existing laws at the state level. As more information becomes available, this document will be updated. The 2015 plan:

  • Directs the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) to require any business that engages in the sale of guns to obtain a federal license to do so and conduct background checks.  This requirement applies to gun stores, sellers of guns at gun shows, and sellers of guns over the Internet. The licensing requirement applies to all sellers “engaged in the business” of selling guns, regardless of how frequent or how many sales there are. Failure to obtain a license to sell will carry criminal penalties of up to five years in prison and a fine of up to $250,000.  Failure to conduct a required background check will also carry penalties.
  • Requires the ATF Bureau to issue a rule requiring background checks…”

Description:

Summary of the executive orders issued by President Barack Obama in 2015 and 2013 around gun control issues, largely as a result of gun violence incidents.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • President Obama’s 2015 Executive Actions on Gun Control

Publisher:

  • National Conference of State Legislatures

Date:

  • January 5, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/14/upshot/compare-these-gun-death-rates-the-us-is-in-a-different-world.html

Note: The data in this article would make a great opening “hook” for research paper. 

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Sample:

“Around the world, those countries have substantially lower rates of deaths from gun homicide. In Germany, being murdered with a gun is as uncommon as being killed by a falling object in the United States. About two people out of every million are killed in a gun homicide. Gun homicides are just as rare in several other European countries, including the Netherlands and Austria. In the United States, two per million is roughly the death rate for hypothermia or plane crashes.

In Poland and England, only about one out of every million people die in gun homicides each year — about as often as an American dies in an agricultural accident or falling from a ladder. In Japan, where gun homicides are even rarer, the likelihood of dying this way is about the same as an American’s chance of being killed by lightning — roughly one in 10 million.

In the United States, the death rate from gun homicides is about 31 per million people — the equivalent of 27 people shot dead every day of the year. The homicides include losses from mass shootings, like Sunday’s Orlando attack, or the San Bernardino, Calif., shooting last December. And of course, they also include the country’s vastly more common single-victim killings.”

Description:

The New York Times compares the rates of gun-related deaths in other western countries to the U.S., showing a drastically higher rate in the U.S. Someone in Canada is as likely to die from a gun as someone in the U.S. is from alcohol poisoning, and someone in Japan is as likely to die from a gun as someone in the U.S. is from a lightning strike.

Author(s):

  • Kevin Quealy and Margot Sanger-Katz

Title:

  • Compare These Gun Death Rates: The U.S. Is in a Different World

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • June 13, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/black-tweets-matter-180960117/

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Sample:

“In July 2013, a 32-year-old writer named Alicia Garza was sipping bourbon in an Oakland bar, eyes on the television screen as the news came through: George Zimmerman had been acquitted by a Florida jury in the killing of Trayvon Martin, an African-American teenager. As the decision sank in, Garza logged onto Facebook and wrote, “Black people. I love you. I love us. Our lives matter.” Garza’s friend Patrisse Cullors wrote back, closing her post with the hashtag “#blacklivesmatter.”

Though it began on Facebook, the phrase exploded on Twitter, electrifying digital avenues where black users were already congregating to discuss the issues and narratives that are often absent from the national conversation. A year later Black Lives Matter had become a series of organized activist movements, with Twitter its lifeblood. Since that first utterance, the phrase “Black Lives Matter” has been tweeted 30 million times on Twitter, the company says. Twitter, it can be said, completely changed the way activism is done, who can participate and even how we define it.”

Description:

Article from Smithsonian Magazine about the origin of the term “Black Lives Matter” and how Twitter has been an important tool for the movement.

Author(s):

  • Jenna Wortham

Title:

  • Black Tweets Matter

Publisher:

  • Smithsonian Magazine

Date:

  • September 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/10/22/black-lives-matter-should-also-take-on-black-on-black-crime/?utm_term=.761aeb006c44

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Sample:

“Black Lives Matter has done the nation a service by forcing Americans to reckon with a horrifying spate of police killings of unarmed African Americans. Without the movement, the names Eric Garner and Walter Scott wouldn’t resonate. Nor would Sandra Bland, who died in police custody and whose name was invoked during the most recent presidential debate. Despite this, Black Lives Matter has been severely taken to task, if not outright scorned, for its focus on police killings when, as its critics readily note, people in black neighborhoods are often at much more danger of being killed by other black people.

Why, they ask, hasn’t the Black Lives Matter movement been more concerned with — in wording sometimes fraught with condescension — “black-on-black crime?”

It’s a criticism typically associated with the political right, frequently thought (and frankly, frequently meant) to suggest that what black people need is to simply comport themselves differently, rather than endlessly complain about the depredations of (presumably) white police. However, even without such acrid, tribalistic intent, it’s possible to think BLM’s mission is currently incomplete.”

Description:

Article from the Washington Post about the Black Lives Matter movement and whether or not it should address the issue of ‘black-on-black’ violence.

Author(s):

  • John McWhorter

Title:

  • Black Lives Matter should also take on ‘black-on-black crime’

Publisher:

  • The Washington Post

Date:

  • October 22, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/01/10/upshot/100000004491000.mobile.html?_r=1

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Sample:

“The two policies ranked most effective were those requiring all sellers to run background checks on anyone who buys a gun, and barring gun sales to people convicted of violent misdemeanors, including domestic assaults. The experts were more skeptical of other much-debated proposals, including a national gun registry and an assault weapons ban. The idea of requiring states to honor out-of-state concealed weapon permits was ranked low.

The academics in our panel — many of the country’s best empirical researchers on gun policy — were far more likely than the general public to support gun control. But nearly all of the policies that experts think could work have widespread support from the general public.

While Americans remain sharply divided in their overall view of the tension between gun control and gun rights, individual proposals are widely favored. The most popular measures in our survey — policies like universal background checks and keeping guns from convicted stalkers — were supported by more than 85 percent of registered voters. Even the least popular idea, a law that would limit gun sales to people who had to demonstrate a “genuine need” for the weapon, was favored by nearly 50 percent.”

MLA Citation:

Bui, Quoctraung and Margot Sanger-Katz. “How to Prevent Gun Deaths? Where Experts and the Public Agree.” The New York Times, 10 Jan. 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/01/10/upshot/100000004491000.mobile.html?_r=1. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Bui and Sanger-Katz)

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APA Citation:

Bui, Q. & Sanger-Katz, M. (2017, Jan. 10). How to Prevent Gun Deaths? Where Experts and the Public Agree. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/01/10/upshot/100000004491000.mobile.html?_r=1

In-Text: (Bui & Sanger-Katz, 2017)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/strict-gun-laws-ended-mass-shootings-australia

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Sample:

“Twenty years ago, Australia passed strict laws to control what types of guns people could own. The country also required people to sell to the government any guns that were made illegal. Since then, Australia has seen zero mass shootings, a new study finds.”

“‘Here’s a society that recognized a public safety threat, found it unacceptable and took measures to address the problem,’ Webster says.”

“The laws banned semiautomatic long guns. These include the guns used by the Port Arthur shooter. The new agreement made buying other guns a lot harder too. People have to show a “genuine need” for a weapon that they want to buy. They must pass a safety test, show good moral character and wait at least 28 days. They also cannot have any restraining orders for violence, among other restrictions, Webster notes.”

MLA Citation:

Rosen, Meghan. “Strict gun laws ended mass shootings in Australia.” sciencenewsforstudents.orgSociety for Science and the Public, 12 July, 2016, https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/strict-gun-laws-ended-mass-shootings-australia. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Rosen)

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APA Citation:

Rosen, M. (2016, July 12). Strict gun laws ended mass shootings in Australia. Society for Science and the Public. Retrieved from https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/strict-gun-laws-ended-mass-shootings-australia

In-Text: (Rosen, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/

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Sample:

“Roughly four-in-ten Americans support the Black Lives Matter movement. All told, 43% support the movement, including 18% who strongly support it. About one-in-five Americans (22%) oppose the movement, and a sizable share (30%) said they have not heard anything about the Black Lives Matter movement or did not offer an opinion.”

MLA Citation:

Horowitz, Juliana Menasce and Gretchen Livingston. “How Americans view the Black Lives Matter movement.” pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center, 8 July 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/>.

In-Text: (Horowitz and Livingston)

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APA Citation:

Horowitz, J.M. & Livingston, G. (2016, July 8). How Americans view the Black Lives Matter movement. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/

In-Text: (Horowitz & Livingston, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800748/

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Sample:

“This paper provides historical context for considering the connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the US; reviews erosions to the 4th Amendment to the US Constitution (which protects against unreasonable search and seizure) and the Posse Comitatus Act (which prohibits the Armed Forces from performing law enforcement functions) that helped set the groundwork for two vital War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams; and describes how stop and frisk and SWAT teams create conditions conducive to police brutality, particularly brutality that targets Black communities. While many laws and policies have created the foundations for police brutality, I have chosen to focus exclusively on the 4th Amendment and the Posse Comitatus Act in order to delve into detail on both, rather than present brief summaries of several policies. Additionally, the rich literature on the intertwined nature of racism, social control, and decisions about which substances should be classified as “illegal” is beyond the purview of this paper. Readers interested in these topics could review David Musto’s “The American Disease: The Origins of Narcotic Control” and David Courtwright’s “Dark Paradise: The History of Opiate Addiction in America” to learn more about this important topic.”

MLA Citation:

Cooper, Hannah LF. “War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.” Substance Use and Misuse 50.8 (2015): 1188-1194.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800748/>.

In-Text: (Cooper)

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APA Citation:

Cooper, H. L.F. (2015). War on Drugs policing and police brutality. Substance Use and Misuse, 50(8), 1188-1194. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2015.1007669

In-Text: (Cooper, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx

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Sample:

“The deaths of five police officers in Dallas, along with the recent deaths of two black men in Louisiana and Minnesota at the hands of police, highlighted — again — the importance of understanding attitudes of the American public, including blacks and whites, toward the police and criminal justice system.

A review of Gallup data, all collected prior to these most recent incidents, provides a social and cultural context for these issues.”

MLA Citation:

Newport, Frank. “Public Opinion Context: Americans, Race and Police.” gallup.com. Gallup, Inc. 8 Jul. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx>.

In-Text: (Newport)

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APA Citation:

Newport, F. (2016, Jul. 8). Public opinion context: Americans, race and police. Gallup, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx

In-Text: (Newport, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/

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Sample:

“In a year-long study, The Washington Post found that the kind of incidents that have ignited protests in many U.S. communities — most often, white police officers killing unarmed black men — represent less than 4 percent of fatal police shootings. Meanwhile, The Post found that the great majority of people who died at the hands of the police fit at least one of three categories: they were wielding weapons, they were suicidal or mentally troubled, or they ran when officers told them to halt.”

MLA Citation:

Kindy, Kimberly, Marc Fisher, Julie Tate, and Jennifer Jenkins. “A year of reckoning: Police fatally shoot nearly 1,000.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 26 Dec. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/>.

In-Text: (Kindy, FIsher, Tate, and Jenkins)

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APA Citation:

Kindy, K., Fisher, M., Tate, J., Jenkins, J. (2015, Dec. 26). A year of reckoning: Police fatally shoot nearly 1,000. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/

In-Text: (Kindy, Fisher, Tate, and Jenkins, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.wsj.com/articles/hundreds-of-police-killings-are-uncounted-in-federal-statistics-1417577504

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Sample:

“WASHINGTON—When 24-year-old Albert Jermaine Payton wielded a knife in front of the police in this city’s southeast corner, officers opened fire and killed him.

Yet according to national statistics intended to track police killings, Mr. Payton’s death in August 2012 never happened. It is one of hundreds of homicides by law-enforcement agencies between 2007 and 2012 that aren’t included in records kept by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.”

MLA Citation:

Barry, Rob and Coulter Jones. “Hundreds of Police Killings Are Uncounted in Federal Stats.” wsj.com. Dow Jones & Company Inc., 3 Dec. 2014.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.wsj.com/articles/hundreds-of-police-killings-are-uncounted-in-federal-statistics-1417577504>.

In-Text: (Barry and Jones)

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APA Citation:

Barry, R. & Jones, C. (2014, Dec. 3). Hundreds of police killings are uncounted in federal stats. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/hundreds-of-police-killings-are-uncounted-in-federal-statistics-1417577504

In-Text: (Barry and Jones, 2014)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/21/gun-homicides-steady-after-decline-in-90s-suicide-rate-edges-up/

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Sample:

“The nation’s overall gun death rate has declined 31% since 1993. This total includes homicides and suicides, in addition to a smaller number of fatal police shootings, accidental shooting deaths and those of undetermined intent. For example, in 2014 there were 464 fatal police shootings, up from 333 in 2009. (Government data on fatal police shootings are also collected and reported by the FBI, though the agency acknowledges there are discrepancies between federal and local law enforcement counts.)”

MLA Citation:

Krongstad, Jens Manuel. “Gun homicides steady after decline in ’90s; suicide rate edges up.” pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center, 21 Oct. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/21/gun-homicides-steady-after-decline-in-90s-suicide-rate-edges-up/>.

In-Text: (Krongstad)

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APA Citation:

Krongstad, J.M. (2015, Oct. 21). Gun homicides steady after decline in ’90s; suicide rate edges up. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/21/gun-homicides-steady-after-decline-in-90s-suicide-rate-edges-up/

In-Text: (Krongstad, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.people-press.org/2015/08/13/continued-bipartisan-support-for-expanded-background-checks-on-gun-sales/

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Sample:

“Two years after the failure of Senate legislation to expand background checks on gun purchases, the public continues to overwhelmingly support making private gun sales and sales at gun shows subject to background checks. Currently, 85% of Americans – including large majorities of Democrats (88%) and Republicans (79%) – favor expanded background checks, little changed from May 2013 (81%).”

MLA Citation:

“Continued Bipartisan Support for Expanded Background Checks on Gun Sales.” people-press.org. Pew Research Center, 13 Aug. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.people-press.org/2015/08/13/continued-bipartisan-support-for-expanded-background-checks-on-gun-sales/>.

In-Text: (“Continued Bipartisan Support for Expanded Background Checks on Gun Sales”)

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APA Citation:

Continued bipartisan support for expanded background checks on gun sales. (2015, Aug. 13). Pew Research Center.  Retrieved from http://www.people-press.org/2015/08/13/continued-bipartisan-support-for-expanded-background-checks-on-gun-sales/

In-Text: (“Continued bipartisan support for expanded background checks on gun sales,” 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/united-states-machine-gun-ban/

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Sample:

“Consider the situation: Gun crimes are on the rise, and the guns that criminals use are military-style weapons, capable of firing rounds with unprecedented speed and ferocity. Cities—where more people live than ever before—are becoming unsafe. The United States leads other industrialized countries in gun-related deaths. And scores of citizens, including the liberal president, are calling for action.

But this isn’t 2016. It’s 1934—a year in which the United States faced unprecedented challenges from a new kind of gun and a new kind of criminal, and the country responded with new laws.”

MLA Citation:

Bullard, Gabe. “Gun Control in America.” news.nationalgeographic.com. National Geographic, 14 Jun. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/united-states-machine-gun-ban/>.

In-Text: (Bullard)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Bullard, G. Gun control in America. National Geographic. Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/united-states-machine-gun-ban/

In-Text: (Bullard, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCES

1.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

This link leads to an article covering a study that showed implementation of 3 specific laws can drastically reduce gun-related crimes. The study analyzed state crime and gun data from all over the U.S. and found a larger group of laws that have a positive impact on gun-related crimes, but narrows it down to the 3 most effective laws – which, according to the study, can reduce gun-related deaths by 80%. Click here for MLA/APA citations. 

2.

http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext

Referenced here is a scholarly journal article that reveals the U.S. homicide rate is 7 times higher than other high income countries, while the gun-homicide rate is 25 times higher. Also of importance, the gun homicide rate in the U.S. for ages 15 through 24 was 49 times higher than other high-income countries. There is much more data on many different demographics, including that 90% of all women, children under 14, and 82% of total gun-related deaths in high-income countries occurred in the U.S. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

3.

http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/

Above is a link to a frequently updated page with information on gun-lobbying and U.S. politicians. This article provides background on the gun control debate in legislation along with data on amount of funding received by politicians and presidential candidates. The data shows a heavy proportion of these funds go to republican candidates, and that the National Rifle Association is a large proponent of such funding and other forms of support. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

4.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

This is a great article from the Washington Post that provides data on the most popular gun control talking points from this ongoing debate. This article covers the frequency of mass-shootings and other gun violence, as well as support for gun ownership in the U.S. There is some very compelling data in this article, most prominently that “states with stricter gun control laws have fewer deaths from gun-related violence” (emphasis ours, this would be key to a research assignment on this topic) and that “active shooter events have become more common” since 2000. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

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Sample:

“Gun-related deaths in the U.S. could be reduced by more than 80 percent if three laws implemented in some states were extended nationally, an analysis led by Boston University researchers shows. In a study published in The Lancet, a research team analyzing state-level data from 2010 on gun-related deaths and 25 state-specific gun laws identified three laws that were most strongly associated with reductions in overall gun-related mortality. Laws requiring firearm identification through ballistic imprinting or microstamping were found to reduce the projected mortality risk by 84 percent; ammunition background checks, by 82 percent; and universal background checks for all gun purchases, by 61 percent.”

MLA Citation:

“Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 March 2016. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm>.

In-Text: (“Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths. (2016, Mar. 10). ScienceDaily. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

In-Text: (“Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

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Sample:

“In this post… we explore America’s unique role among advanced countries as a place where support for guns is widespread — and violence involving firearms is equally widespread. There are some perhaps surprising findings — gun ownership in the United States is declining overall, for instance. But despite mass killings — which have occurred with increasing frequency in recent years — support for gun rights is still resolute in America.”

MLA Citation:

Ehrenfreund, Max and Zachary A. Goldfarb. “11 essential facts about guns and mass shootings in the United States.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 18 Jun. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/>.

In-Text: (Ehrenfreund and Goldfarb)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Ehrenfreund, M. & Goldfarb, Z. A. (2015, Jun. 18). 11 essential facts about guns and mass shootings in the United States. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

In-Text: (Ehrenfreund & Goldfarb, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext

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Sample:

“US homicide rates were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher. For 15- to 24-year-olds, the gun homicide rate in the United States was 49.0 times higher. Firearm-related suicide rates were 8.0 times higher in the United States, but the overall suicide rates were average. Unintentional firearm deaths were 6.2 times higher in the United States. The overall firearm death rate in the United States from all causes was 10.0 times higher. Ninety percent of women, 91% of children aged 0 to 14 years, 92% of youth aged 15 to 24 years, and 82% of all people killed by firearms were from the United States.”

MLA Citation:

Grinshteyn, Erin and David Hemenway. “Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010.” The American Journal of Medicine (2015): n.p.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext>.

In-Text: (Grinshteyn and Hemenway)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Grinshteyn, E. & Hemenway, D. (2015, Nov. 6). Violent death rates: The US compared with other high-income OECD countries, 2010. The American Journal of Medicine, n.p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025

In-Text: (Grinshteyn & Hemenway, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/

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Sample:

“National rates of gun homicide and other violent gun crimes are strikingly lower now than during their peak in the mid-1990s, paralleling a general decline in violent crime, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of government data. Beneath the long-term trend, though, are big differences by decade: Violence plunged through the 1990s, but has declined less dramatically since 2000.”

MLA Citation:

Cohn, D’Vera, Paul Taylor, Mark Hugo Lopez, Catherine A. Gallagher, Kim Parker, and Kevin T. Maas. “Gun Homicide Rate Down 49% Since 1993 Peak; Public Unaware.” pewsocialtrends.org. Pew Research Center, May 7. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/>.

In-Text: (Cohn et al. ) Because there are multiple pages, you should include the page number for this in-text citation

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Cohn, D., Taylor, P., Lopez, M. H., Gallagher, C. A., Parker, K., & Maass, K. T (2013, May 7). Gun homicide rate down 49% since 1993 peak; public unaware. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/

In-Text: (Cohn et al., 2013)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2012/12/14/schoo-shooting-how-do-u-s-gun-homicides-compare-with-the-rest-of-the-world/

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Sample:

“When a person kills another in the United States, though, he or she generally uses a gun: 60 percent of U.S. homicides occur using a firearm, which is the 26th-highest rate in the world. (In other gun-permeated countries, such as Finland (45.3 guns per 100 people), only about 19 percent of homicides involve a firearm.”

MLA Citation:

Khazan, Olga. “Here’s how U.S. gun violence compares with the rest of the world.” The Washington Post. The Washington Post, Dec 14. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2012/12/14/schoo-shooting-how-do-u-s-gun-homicides-compare-with-the-rest-of-the-world/>.

In-Text: (Khazan)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Khazan, O. (2012, Dec 14). Here’s how U.S. gun violence compares with the rest of the world. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2012/12/14/schoo-shooting-how-do-u-s-gun-homicides-compare-with-the-rest-of-the-world/

In-Text: (Khazan, 2012)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/03/us/chris-harper-mercer-umpqua-community-college-shooting.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“ROSEBURG, Ore. — Christopher Harper-Mercer was withdrawn and quiet as he grew up in southern California, spending most of his time indoors at his mother’s apartment and deflecting neighbors when they asked him how he was doing, or why he always wore the same outfit of combat boots and green Army pants. But there was one subject that got him to open up: guns.”

MLA Citation:

Healy, Jack, and Ian Lovett. “Oregon Killer Described as Man of Few Words, Except on Topic of Guns.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, Oct 10. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/03/us/chris-harper-mercer-umpqua-community-college-shooting.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (Healy and Lovett)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Healy, J., & Lovett, J. (2015, Oct 10). Oregon killer described as man of few words, except on topic of guns. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/03/us/chris-harper-mercer-umpqua-community-college-shooting.html?_r=0

In-Text: (Healy & Lovett, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/

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Sample:

“According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 467,321 persons were victims of a crime committed with a firearm in 2011.[1] In the same year, data collected by the FBI show that firearms were used in 68 percent of murders, 41 percent of robbery offenses and 21 percent of aggravated assaults nationwide.[2]”

MLA Citation:

“Gun Violence”. nij.gov. National Institute of Justice, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/>.

In-Text: (“Gun Violence”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Gun Violence. (n.d.).  Retrieved from http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/

In-Text: (Gun Violence)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Gun Violence Statistics – nij.gov

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

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Sample:

“We don’t have the highest crime rate among developed nations, according to that 2012 U.N. survey, but we do have the highest firearm-homicide rate, according to a Council on Foreign Relations analysis of that study and the Small Arms Survey.”

MLA Citation:

Phillips, Amber. “The gun control debate, explained in 5 questions.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 3 Dec. 2015. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). < https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/>.

In-Text: (Phillips)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Phillips, A. (3 Dec, 2015). The gun control debate, explained in 5 questions. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE) from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

In-Text: (Phillips, 2015)

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Read More Comments Off on Arguments For and Against Gun Control

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/

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Sample:

47% Percentage of Americans who say they have a gun in their home or elsewhere on their property, according to Gallup, the highest reported number in two decades

$6 billion Estimated revenue generated by the gun and ammunition industry in the U.S., according to an analysis by business research firm Hoovers

310 million Estimated number of firearms in the U.S., according to the federal government, which includes 114 million handguns, 110 million rifles, and 86 million shotguns”

MLA Citation:

Sanburn, Josh. “America’s Gun Economy, By the Numbers”. Time Inc., 18 Dec. 2012. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/>.

In-Text: (Sanburn)

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APA Citation:

Sanburn, J. (18 Dec, 2012). America’s Gun Economy, By the Numbers. Retrieved from http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/

In-Text: (Sanburn)

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Read More Comments Off on Gun Ownership, Spending, and Lobbying Statistics in the US

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/09/the-secret-history-of-guns/308608/

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Sample:

“The Ku Klux Klan, Ronald Reagan, and, for most of its history, the NRA all worked to control guns. The Founding Fathers? They required gun ownership—and regulated it. And no group has more fiercely advocated the right to bear loaded weapons in public than the Black Panthers—the true pioneers of the modern pro-gun movement. In the battle over gun rights in America, both sides have distorted history and the law, and there’s no resolution in sight.”

MLA Citation:

Winkler, Adam. theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 24 Jul. 2011. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). < http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/09/the-secret-history-of-guns/308608/ >.

In-Text: (Winkler)

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APA Citation:

Winkler, A.  (24 Jul, 2011). The Secret History of Guns. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/09/the-secret-history-of-guns/308608/

In-Text: (Winkler, 2011)

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Read More Comments Off on History of the Gun Rights Movement, Reagan, NRA, Black Panthers – Article

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gun%20control

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Sample:

: regulation of the selling, owning, and use of guns”

MLA Citation:

“Gun Control”.  merriam-webster.com. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 2013. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE) < http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gun%20control>.

In-Text: (merriam-webster.com)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Gun Control. (2013). Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gun%20control

In-Text: (merriam-webster.com, 2013)

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Read More Comments Off on Gun Control Definition – Merriam-Webster

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.kensingtonandchelseatoday.co.uk/business-and-finance/b1ix929au8.html

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Sample:

  • London boroughs make up 18 of the 20 most violent local authorities (LA) in the UK
  • Richmond-upon-Thames is the most peaceful LA in London, Lewisham is the least peaceful
  • Violence linked to poverty – introduction of a London Living Wage could increase peacefulness
  • London is 4x more peaceful than New York City, and has a homicide rate lower than Moscow, Amsterdam, Glasgow and even Brussels
  • Fear of crime is greater than the reality: 17% of Britons think they will be a victim of violent crime, but less than  4% will experience violent crime
  • Whilst peacefulness has increased across all English regions in the last ten years, the change has not been as great in London.
  • Violence is unequally distributed in London, with most boroughs improving but others becoming less peaceful in the past ten years. “

MLA Citation:

“Violence impacts the UK by £124 billion annually”. kensingtonandchelseatoday.com. Kensington and Chelsea Today, 24 Apr. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.kensingtonandchelseatoday.co.uk/business-and-finance/b1ix929au8.html>.

In-Text: (“Violence impacts the UK by £124 billion annually”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Violence impacts the UK by £124 billion annually. (24 Apr, 2013). Retrieved from http://www.kensingtonandchelseatoday.co.uk/business-and-finance/b1ix929au8.html

In-Text: (Violence impacts the UK by £124 billion annually)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Violence in London, UK, Compared to NY, Moscow, Amsterdam, Others

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/12/17/some-observations-on-the-gun-control-debate/

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Sample:

“Instead, I’ll just make a few general observations. First, I doubt the level of gun violence in the United States has much to do with the kinds of gun laws that are in effect. This country would have a high rate of gun violence regardless of the laws on the books, just because of our culture. “

MLA Citation:

Carson, Kevin. counterpunch.org. CounterPunch, 17 Dec. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/12/17/some-observations-on-the-gun-control-debate/>.

In-Text: (Carson)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Carson, K. (17 Dec, 2012). Some Observations on the Gun Control Debate. Retrieved from http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/12/17/some-observations-on-the-gun-control-debate/

In-Text: (Carson, 2012)

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Read More Comments Off on Gun Violence in US is a Cultural Issue

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/gun-debate-culture-debate?gclid=CMeyjor_-rcCFbNQOgodMDYA8A

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Sample:

“The National Academy of Sciences found that gun-control laws have had no measurable effect on gun violence rates. The study was not written by gun-rights advocates—in fact, all but one member of the committee were gun-control advocates. Programs ranging from gun buybacks, to the famous “assault weapons” ban, to “gun-free zones,” were all found to be ineffective at curbing gun crime.”

MLA Citation:

Burrus, Trevor. cato.org. Cato Institute, 19 Mar. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/gun-debate-culture-debate?gclid=CMeyjor_-rcCFbNQOgodMDYA8A>.

In-Text: (Burrus)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Burrus, T. (19 Mar, 2013). The Gun Debate is a Culture Debate. Retrieved from http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/gun-debate-culture-debate?gclid=CMeyjor_-rcCFbNQOgodMDYA8A

In-Text: (Burrus, 2013)

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Read More Comments Off on Firearms Ban Argued as Ineffective, Gun Control Cultural Debate

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-22288564

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Sample:

“Crimes in Iceland – when they occur – usually do not involve firearms, though Icelanders own plenty of guns.”

MLA Citation:

“Why is violent crime so rare in Iceland?”. bbc.co.uk. BBC, 16 May. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-22288564>.

In-Text: (“Why is violent crime so rare in Iceland?”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Why is violent crime so rare in Iceland?. (16 May, 2013). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-22288564

In-Text: (Why is violent crime so rare in Iceland?)

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Read More Comments Off on Iceland’s High Gun Ownership and Low Firearm Crime Rate

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0404.html

Samples:

“Memphis, Friday, April 5 — The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., who preached nonviolence and racial brotherhood, was fatally shot here last night by a distant gunman who raced away and escaped.”

“But the police said the tragedy had been followed by incidents that included sporadic shooting, fires, bricks and bottles thrown at policemen, and looting that started in Negro districts and then spread over the city.”

“Dr. King was shot while he leaned over a second-floor railing outside his room at the Lorraine Motel. He was chatting with two friends just before starting for dinner.”

MLA Citation:

Caldwell, Earl. “Martin Luther King Is Slain in Memphis; A White Is Suspected; Johnson Urges Calm”. nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 5 April. 1968.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0404.html>.

In-Text: (Caldwell)

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APA Citation:

Caldwell, E. (5 April, 1968). Martin Luther King Is Slain in Memphis; A White Is Suspected; Johnson Urges Calm. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0404.html

In-Text: (Caldwell)

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Read More Comments Off on Martin Luther King Jr. Murder, NYTimes from Next Morning

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/the-power-of-non-violence/

Samples:

“From the very beginning there was a philosophy undergirding the Montgomery boycott, the philosophy of nonviolent resistance. There was always the problem of getting this method over because it didn’t make sense to most of the people in the beginning. We had to use our mass meetings to explain nonviolence to a community of people who had never heard of the philosophy and in many instances were not sympathetic with it. We had meetings twice a week on Mondays and on Thursdays, and we had an institute on nonviolence and social change. We had to make it clear that nonviolent resistance is not a method of cowardice. It does resist. It is not a method of stagnant passivity and deadening complacency. The nonviolent resister is just as opposed to the evil that he is standing against as the violent resister but he resists without violence. This method is nonaggressive physically but strongly aggressive spiritually.”

“Another basic thing we had to get over is that nonviolent resistance is also an internal matter. It not only avoids external violence or external physical violence but also internal violence of spirit. And so at the center of our movement stood the philosophy of love. The attitude that the only way to ultimately change humanity and make for the society that we all long for is to keep love at the center of our lives. Now people used to ask me from the beginning what do you mean by love and how is it that you can tell us to love those persons who seek to defeat us and those persons who stand against us; how can you love such persons? And I had to make it clear all along that love in its highest sense is not a sentimental sort of thing, not even an affectionate sort of thing.”

“Modern psychology has a word that is probably used more than any other word. It is the word “maladjusted.” Now we all should seek to live a well—adjusted life in order to avoid neurotic and schizophrenic personalities. But there are some things within our social order to which I am proud to be maladjusted and to which I call upon you to be maladjusted. I never intend to adjust myself to segregation and discrimination. I never intend to adjust myself to mob rule. I never intend to adjust myself to the tragic effects of the methods of physical violence and to tragic militarism. I call upon you to be maladjusted to such things. I call upon you to be as maladjusted to such things. I call upon you to be as maladjusted as Amos who in the midst of the injustices of his day cried out in words that echo across the generation, “Let judgment run down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.” As maladjusted as Abraham Lincoln who had the vision to see that this nation could not exist half slave and half free. As maladjusted as Jefferson, who in the midst of an age amazingly adjusted to slavery could cry out, “All men are created equal and are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights and that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” As maladjusted as Jesus of Nazareth who dreamed a dream of the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. God grant that we will be so maladjusted that we will be able to go out and change our world and our civilization. And then we will be able to move from the bleak and desolate midnight of man’s inhumanity to man to the bright and glittering daybreak of freedom and justice.”

MLA Citation:

“The Power of Non-Violence”. teachingamericanhistory.org. Ashbrook Center at Ashland University, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/the-power-of-non-violence/>.

In-Text: (“The Power of Non-violence”)

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APA Citation:

The Power of Non-violence. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/the-power-of-non-violence/

In-Text: (The Power of Non-violence, n.d.)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

Samples:

“The Dec. 14, 2012 shootings in Newtown, Conn., which resulted in 28 deaths, including that of the gunman, Adam Lanza, once again turned the spotlight on the debate over gun ownership in the U.S. It has been a political hot potato for years, and one that Congress has dealt with gingerly — too gingerly, in the view of groups favoring tighter regulation of firearms.”

“The last major piece of gun control legislation to make it into the U.S. Code was the assault weapons ban, which passed in 1994 as part of a larger crime bill passed by Congress and signed by then-President Bill Clinton. The ban applied to the manufacture of 19 specific models of semi-automatic firearms and to other guns with assault-weapons features. But the ban expired in 2004, and repeated attempts to renew it have failed.”

“Several new groups on the scene could alter the balance a bit. New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg started a pro-gun control super PAC, Independence USA PAC, in 2012; it spent more than $8.3 million in several congressional races that year, with mixed results. Former Rep. Giffords started a super PAC in January, 2013, to counter the NRA’s influence; it set a fundraising goal of $16 million to $20 million to spend in the 2014 House and Senate elections. And another anti-NRA PAC launched in February, calling itself Americans for the Protection of Children.”

MLA Citation:

“Gun Control vs. Gun Rights.” opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics, March. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/>.

In-Text: (“Gun Control vs. Gun Rights”)

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APA Citation:

Gun Control vs. Gun Rights. (March, 2013). Retrieved from http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/

In-Text: (“Gun Control vs. Gun Rights”, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://science.time.com/2013/05/03/evil-brain/

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

Samples:

“Homicidal madmen don’t have much of a capacity for gratitude, but if they did, they’d offer a word of thanks to Charles Whitman. Whitman was the 25-year-old engineering student and former Marine who, in 1966, killed 17 people and wounded 32 in a mass shooting at the University of Texas, before being shot and killed himself by police. Earlier that day, he also murdered his wife and mother. Criminal investigators looking for a reason for the rampage got what seemed to be their answer quickly, in the form of a suicide note Whitman left at his home:”

“For as long as evil has existed, people have wondered about its source, and you don’t have to be too much of a scientific reductionist to conclude that the first place to look is the brain. There’s not a thing you’ve ever done, thought or felt in your life that isn’t ultimately traceable to a particular webwork of nerve cells firing in a particular way, allowing the machine that is you to function as it does. So if the machine is busted — if the operating system in your head fires in crazy ways — are you fully responsible for the behavior that follows?”

“Even before Whitman made it into the medical texts, scientists were already familiar with the case of Phineas Gage, the 25-year-old railroad worker who, in 1848, was helping to blast a path for a new rail line in Vermont when an errant explosion drove an iron rod into the top of his head, through his left frontal lobe and out his cheekbone. Gage, incredibly, didn’t die and nor did he even exhibit much loss of function. But after the bar was removed, there was a sudden change in his personality. Always a peaceable man, he become volatile, combative and, after a lifetime of polite speaking, wildly profane. It was science’s first glimpse at the seemingly direct cause-and-effect connection between trauma to the brain and the very essence of personality. As our ability to image and repair the brain has improved, we’ve been able to detect far less obvious damage than a railroad spike through the skull — damage that nonetheless has every bit as great an effect.”

MLA Citation:

Kluger, Jeffrey. “The Evil Brain: What Lurks Inside a Killer’s Mind.” Time.com. Time Inc, 3 May. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://science.time.com/2013/05/03/evil-brain/?xid=rss-topstories&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+time%2Ftopstories+%28TIME%3A+Top+Stories%29>.

In-Text: (Kluger)

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APA Citation:

Kluger, J. (3 May, 2013). The Evil Brain: What Lurks Inside a Killer’s Mind. Retrieved from http://science.time.com/2013/05/03/evil-brain/?xid=rss-topstories&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+time%2Ftopstories+%28TIME%3A+Top+Stories%29

In-Text: (Kluger, 2013)

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