Credible Sources for Death Penalty

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/the-cost-of-punishment.aspx

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Sample:

“Many state-initiated analyses—including reports from Michigan, New Mexico and South Dakota—have found administering capital punishment is significantly more expensive than housing prisoners for life without parole.

A study released last month found California has spent more than $4 billion on capital punishment since 1978, executing 13 criminals. That’s about $184 million more a year than life sentences would have cost.

Much of the cost results from litigating numerous appeals during the convict’s time on death row, where the average inmate spends 13 years prior to execution.

This lengthy process also influenced Bateman’s decision to sponsor an abolishment bill. “I spoke to many families who went through trying emotional times during the appeals for death row inmates,” he says. “Transferring an inmate from death row to life without parole allows for the aggrieved families to have a sense of calmness in their life without having to relive the tragic events over and over again.” “

Description:

Article from the National Conference of State Legislatures examining the cost of the death penalty and situations where states have stopped its use.

Author(s):

  • Richard Williams

Title:

  • The Cost of Punishment: July/August 2011

Publisher:

  • National Conference of State Legislatures

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/16/executions-state-by-state/

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Sample:

 

StateExecutions in 1991Total
Utah03
Florida227
Nevada05
Indiana02
Texas542
Virginia213
Alabama08
Georgia115
Louisiana120
Mississippi04
North Carolina14
South Carolina14
Missouri16
Oklahoma01
Arkansas02
Illinois01

Description:

Interactive chart showing the number of executions in each state by year, provided by Pew Research Center.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Number of Executions in Each State Since 1977

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • April 16, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/racial-discrimination-and-capital-punishment-the-indefensible-death-sentence-of-duane-buck

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Sample:

“Racial discrimination is unavoidable in considering the Texas death-penalty case of Duane Buck. In the campaign to reduce his punishment from execution to life in prison, the Inc. Fund has been prominent and tenacious, because the discrimination in his case is blatant. Buck was convicted of murdering two women in 1996. He was sentenced to death in 1997. To sentence an offender to death under Texas law, a jury must unanimously conclude that the defendant is likely to commit future criminal acts of violence. In the Buck case, a psychologist named Walter Quijano provided evidence to that effect. Before trial, he claimed in a report that Buck was more likely to be dangerous because he is black. He wrote, “Race. Black. Increased probability.”

Major studies have disproved the long-standing, prejudicial assumption of a link between race and dangerousness. In 2000, the Texas attorney general said that asserting that connection was both false and unconstitutional. In the case of Victor Hugo Saldaño, who was found guilty of murder, the Supreme Court vacated his death sentence and sent the matter back to a Texas court for a new sentencing hearing at the request of the attorney general. “My position in this matter is taken with full respect and empathy for the suffering experienced by victims of crime and their families,” he said. “But the public cannot have confidence in a criminal justice system if race is going to be considered at all in determining whether the ultimate penalty will be given.” He pledged that in the Buck case and six others, “in which testimony was offered by Dr. Quijano that race should be a factor for the jury to consider in making its determination about the sentence in a capital murder trial,” there would be new and fair sentencing hearings.”

Description:

Piece from The New Yorker which details through multiple criminal cases that the U.S. justice system unfairly favored the death penalty for black men.

Author(s):

  • Lincoln Caplan

Title:

  • Racial Discrimination and Capital Punishment: The Indefensible Death Sentence of Duane Buck

Publisher:

  • The New Yorker

Date:

  • April 20, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment

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Sample:

“What exactly constitutes “cruel and unusual” punishment? The U.S. Supreme Court has struggled to establish a conclusive answer to this question. A few Supreme Court justices subscribe to the idea that what was considered “cruel and unusual” at the time of our nation’s founding more than 200 years ago should still shape our idea of what is considered “cruel and unusual” today. A majority of the Court, however, has determined that what constitutes “cruel and unusual” should be dependent on the “evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.”

Given such a benchmark as “evolving standards of decency,” one might think that Americans are safe from being subjected to punishment that the average person would consider cruel and unusual. Yet that is not so. It should be noted that while the Supreme Court has determined that executing mentally retarded people is “cruel and unusual,” it has left it up to the states to determine whether a particular inmate qualifies as “mentally retarded.” Consequently, mentally retarded inmates are still being executed for lack of uniform guidelines and standards.”

MLA Citation:

“Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment.” The Rutherford Institute. The Rutherford Institute, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment>.

In-Text: (“Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment. (n.d.). The Rutherford Institute. Retrieved from https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment

In-Text: (Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“Next let’s turn to Justice Breyer, who argues that it is “highly likely” that the death penalty as a whole violates the Eighth Amendment, because it is unreliable, arbitrary, slow and rare. This argument went well beyond the specific challenge to the use of the midazolam that was the focus of the case. Rather, Justice Breyer explained that he would stop trying “to patch up the death penalty’s legal wounds one at a time” and likely bury the whole thing. Justice Breyer (whose opinion was joined here by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg) is the first member of the current court to call for such a radical step.”

MLA Citation:

Baude, William. “Is the Death Penalty Unconstitutional?” The New York Times. The New York Times Compnay, July 7. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (Baude)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Baude, W. (2015, July 7). Is the death penalty unconstitutional? The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0

In-Text: (Baude, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://time.com/2994922/california-death-penalty-unconstitutional/

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Sample:

“Uncertainties and delays over executions violate the Eighth Amendment’s ban on cruel and unusual punishment, says federal judge”

“‘The dysfunctional administration of California’s death penalty system has resulted, and will continue to result, in an inordinate and unpredictable period of delay preceding their actual execution,” Judge Carney wrote. “Indeed, for most, systemic delay has made their execution so unlikely that the death sentence carefully and deliberately imposed by the jury has been quietly transformed into one no rational jury or legislature could ever impose: life in prison, with the remote possibility of death.'”

MLA Citation:

Sanburn, Josh. “California Judge Rules Death Penalty Unconstitutional.” Time. Time Inc., July 7. 2014.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://time.com/2994922/california-death-penalty-unconstitutional>.

In-Text: (Sanburn)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Sanburn, J. (2014, July 7). California judge rules death penalty unconstitutional. Time Inc. Retrieved from http://time.com/2994922/california-death-penalty-unconstitutional/

In-Text: (Sanburn, 2014)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***