Credible Sources for Laws/Legislation

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/trump-signs-bill-revoking-obama-era-gun-checks-people-mental-n727221

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Sample:

“President Donald Trump quietly signed a bill into law Tuesday rolling back an Obama-era regulation that made it harder for people with mental illnesses to purchase a gun.

The rule, which was finalized in December, added people receiving Social Security checks for mental illnesses and people deemed unfit to handle their own financial affairs to the national background check database.

Had the rule fully taken effect, the Obama administration predicted it would have added about 75,000 names to that database.

President Barack Obama recommended the now-nullified regulation in a 2013 memo following the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, which left 20 first graders and six others dead. The measure sought to block some people with severe mental health problems from buying guns.”

Description:

Article detailing the repeal of an Obama-era rule that requires background checks including data on individuals with mental disabilities.

Author(s):

  • Ali Vitali

Title:

  • Trump Signs Bill Revoking Obama-Era Gun Checks for People With Mental Illnesses

Publisher:

  • NBC News

Date:

  • February 28, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/the-cost-of-punishment.aspx

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Sample:

“Many state-initiated analyses—including reports from Michigan, New Mexico and South Dakota—have found administering capital punishment is significantly more expensive than housing prisoners for life without parole.

A study released last month found California has spent more than $4 billion on capital punishment since 1978, executing 13 criminals. That’s about $184 million more a year than life sentences would have cost.

Much of the cost results from litigating numerous appeals during the convict’s time on death row, where the average inmate spends 13 years prior to execution.

This lengthy process also influenced Bateman’s decision to sponsor an abolishment bill. “I spoke to many families who went through trying emotional times during the appeals for death row inmates,” he says. “Transferring an inmate from death row to life without parole allows for the aggrieved families to have a sense of calmness in their life without having to relive the tragic events over and over again.” “

Description:

Article from the National Conference of State Legislatures examining the cost of the death penalty and situations where states have stopped its use.

Author(s):

  • Richard Williams

Title:

  • The Cost of Punishment: July/August 2011

Publisher:

  • National Conference of State Legislatures

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/16/executions-state-by-state/

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Sample:

 

StateExecutions in 1991Total
Utah03
Florida227
Nevada05
Indiana02
Texas542
Virginia213
Alabama08
Georgia115
Louisiana120
Mississippi04
North Carolina14
South Carolina14
Missouri16
Oklahoma01
Arkansas02
Illinois01

Description:

Interactive chart showing the number of executions in each state by year, provided by Pew Research Center.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Number of Executions in Each State Since 1977

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • April 16, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/racial-discrimination-and-capital-punishment-the-indefensible-death-sentence-of-duane-buck

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Sample:

“Racial discrimination is unavoidable in considering the Texas death-penalty case of Duane Buck. In the campaign to reduce his punishment from execution to life in prison, the Inc. Fund has been prominent and tenacious, because the discrimination in his case is blatant. Buck was convicted of murdering two women in 1996. He was sentenced to death in 1997. To sentence an offender to death under Texas law, a jury must unanimously conclude that the defendant is likely to commit future criminal acts of violence. In the Buck case, a psychologist named Walter Quijano provided evidence to that effect. Before trial, he claimed in a report that Buck was more likely to be dangerous because he is black. He wrote, “Race. Black. Increased probability.”

Major studies have disproved the long-standing, prejudicial assumption of a link between race and dangerousness. In 2000, the Texas attorney general said that asserting that connection was both false and unconstitutional. In the case of Victor Hugo Saldaño, who was found guilty of murder, the Supreme Court vacated his death sentence and sent the matter back to a Texas court for a new sentencing hearing at the request of the attorney general. “My position in this matter is taken with full respect and empathy for the suffering experienced by victims of crime and their families,” he said. “But the public cannot have confidence in a criminal justice system if race is going to be considered at all in determining whether the ultimate penalty will be given.” He pledged that in the Buck case and six others, “in which testimony was offered by Dr. Quijano that race should be a factor for the jury to consider in making its determination about the sentence in a capital murder trial,” there would be new and fair sentencing hearings.”

Description:

Piece from The New Yorker which details through multiple criminal cases that the U.S. justice system unfairly favored the death penalty for black men.

Author(s):

  • Lincoln Caplan

Title:

  • Racial Discrimination and Capital Punishment: The Indefensible Death Sentence of Duane Buck

Publisher:

  • The New Yorker

Date:

  • April 20, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/summary-president-obama-gun-proposals.aspx

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Sample:

“On Jan. 5, 2016, President Obama unveiled his new strategy to curb gun violence in America. His proposals focus on new background check requirements that will enhance the effectiveness of the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS), and greater education and enforcement efforts of existing laws at the state level. As more information becomes available, this document will be updated. The 2015 plan:

  • Directs the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) to require any business that engages in the sale of guns to obtain a federal license to do so and conduct background checks.  This requirement applies to gun stores, sellers of guns at gun shows, and sellers of guns over the Internet. The licensing requirement applies to all sellers “engaged in the business” of selling guns, regardless of how frequent or how many sales there are. Failure to obtain a license to sell will carry criminal penalties of up to five years in prison and a fine of up to $250,000.  Failure to conduct a required background check will also carry penalties.
  • Requires the ATF Bureau to issue a rule requiring background checks…”

Description:

Summary of the executive orders issued by President Barack Obama in 2015 and 2013 around gun control issues, largely as a result of gun violence incidents.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • President Obama’s 2015 Executive Actions on Gun Control

Publisher:

  • National Conference of State Legislatures

Date:

  • January 5, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/02/23/support-for-2010-health-care-law-reaches-new-high/

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Sample:

“With congressional Republicans discussing proposals to replace the Affordable Care Act, public support for the 2010 health care law has reached its highest level on record.

Currently, 54% approve of the health care law passed seven years ago by Barack Obama and Congress, while 43% disapprove, according to a national Pew Research Center survey conducted Feb. 7-12 among 1,503 adults.

Throughout the law’s history, opinions about the Affordable Care Act have tended to be more negative than positive — or, less frequently, divided. As recently as December, about as many approved (48%) as disapproved (47%) of the law.

The new survey finds that when those who disapprove of the law are asked about what should happen to it now, more want GOP congressional leaders to focus their efforts on modifying the law than on getting rid of it. One-in-four adults want Republican leaders to modify the law, while 17% want them to get rid of it entirely.”

Description:

According to Pew Research Center, Obamacare reaches highest levels of support amidst political discussions of it being replaced.

Author(s):

  • Hannah Fingerhut

Title:

  • Support for 2010 health care law reaches new high

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • February 23, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/02/24/most-americans-continue-to-oppose-u-s-border-wall-doubt-mexico-would-pay-for-it/

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Sample:

“As was the case throughout the presidential campaign, more Americans continue to oppose (62%) than favor (35%) building a wall along the entire U.S. border with Mexico. And while President Donald Trump has said the U.S. would make Mexico pay for the wall, the public is broadly skeptical: 70% think the U.S. would ultimately pay for the wall, compared with just 16% who think Mexico would pay for it.

The proposal to build the wall was one of several contentious issues that loomed over a meeting between Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and Mexican officials this week to discuss immigration and border issues.

The latest national survey by Pew Research Center, conducted Feb. 7-12, 2017 among 1,503 adults, finds the public holds mixed views on a border wall’s potential impact on illegal immigration. About three-in-ten (29%) think a wall along the entire border with Mexico would lead to a “major reduction” in illegal immigration into the U.S.; another 25% think it would result in a “minor reduction.” A 43% plurality thinks a border wall would not have much impact on illegal immigration into the U.S.”

Description:

February 2017 survey conducted by Pew Research Center showing over 60% of Americans do not support the border wall or think Mexico will pay for it.

Author(s):

  • Rob Suls

Title:

  • Most Americans continue to oppose U.S. border wall, doubt Mexico would pay for it

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • February 24, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment

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Sample:

“What exactly constitutes “cruel and unusual” punishment? The U.S. Supreme Court has struggled to establish a conclusive answer to this question. A few Supreme Court justices subscribe to the idea that what was considered “cruel and unusual” at the time of our nation’s founding more than 200 years ago should still shape our idea of what is considered “cruel and unusual” today. A majority of the Court, however, has determined that what constitutes “cruel and unusual” should be dependent on the “evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.”

Given such a benchmark as “evolving standards of decency,” one might think that Americans are safe from being subjected to punishment that the average person would consider cruel and unusual. Yet that is not so. It should be noted that while the Supreme Court has determined that executing mentally retarded people is “cruel and unusual,” it has left it up to the states to determine whether a particular inmate qualifies as “mentally retarded.” Consequently, mentally retarded inmates are still being executed for lack of uniform guidelines and standards.”

MLA Citation:

“Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment.” The Rutherford Institute. The Rutherford Institute, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment>.

In-Text: (“Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment. (n.d.). The Rutherford Institute. Retrieved from https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment

In-Text: (Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“Next let’s turn to Justice Breyer, who argues that it is “highly likely” that the death penalty as a whole violates the Eighth Amendment, because it is unreliable, arbitrary, slow and rare. This argument went well beyond the specific challenge to the use of the midazolam that was the focus of the case. Rather, Justice Breyer explained that he would stop trying “to patch up the death penalty’s legal wounds one at a time” and likely bury the whole thing. Justice Breyer (whose opinion was joined here by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg) is the first member of the current court to call for such a radical step.”

MLA Citation:

Baude, William. “Is the Death Penalty Unconstitutional?” The New York Times. The New York Times Compnay, July 7. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (Baude)

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APA Citation:

Baude, W. (2015, July 7). Is the death penalty unconstitutional? The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0

In-Text: (Baude, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://time.com/2994922/california-death-penalty-unconstitutional/

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Sample:

“Uncertainties and delays over executions violate the Eighth Amendment’s ban on cruel and unusual punishment, says federal judge”

“‘The dysfunctional administration of California’s death penalty system has resulted, and will continue to result, in an inordinate and unpredictable period of delay preceding their actual execution,” Judge Carney wrote. “Indeed, for most, systemic delay has made their execution so unlikely that the death sentence carefully and deliberately imposed by the jury has been quietly transformed into one no rational jury or legislature could ever impose: life in prison, with the remote possibility of death.'”

MLA Citation:

Sanburn, Josh. “California Judge Rules Death Penalty Unconstitutional.” Time. Time Inc., July 7. 2014.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://time.com/2994922/california-death-penalty-unconstitutional>.

In-Text: (Sanburn)

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APA Citation:

Sanburn, J. (2014, July 7). California judge rules death penalty unconstitutional. Time Inc. Retrieved from http://time.com/2994922/california-death-penalty-unconstitutional/

In-Text: (Sanburn, 2014)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/01/18/a-risky-proposal

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Sample:

“On January 11th, a remarkable legal case opens in a San Francisco courtroom—on its way, it seems almost certain, to the Supreme Court. Perry v. Schwarzenegger challenges the constitutionality of Proposition 8, the California referendum that, in November, 2008, overturned a state Supreme Court decision allowing same-sex couples to marry. Its lead lawyers are unlikely allies: Theodore B. Olson, the former solicitor general under President George W. Bush, and a prominent conservative; and David Boies, the Democratic trial lawyer who was his opposing counsel in Bush v. Gore. The two are mounting an ambitious case that pointedly circumvents the incremental, narrowly crafted legal gambits and the careful state-by-state strategy that leading gay-rights organizations have championed in the fight for marriage equality. The Olson-Boies team hopes for a ruling that will transform the legal and social landscape nationwide, something on the order of Brown v. Board of Education, in 1954, or Loving v. Virginia, the landmark 1967 Supreme Court ruling that invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.”

MLA Citation:

Talbot, Margaret. “A Risky Proposal.” newyorker.com. Conde Naste, January 18 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/01/18/a-risky-proposal>.

In-Text: (Talbot)

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APA Citation:

Talbot, M. (2010, January 18). A Risky Proposal. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/01/18/a-risky-proposal

In-Text: (Talbot, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

– http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2013/09/obamacare_explained_questions_answered_about_how_and_why_to_sign_up_and.html

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Sample:

“Passed in 2010, Obamacare is a national law with two goals: making health insurance better for people who already have it and getting health insurance for more of the 60 million people who are uninsured. To do this, the law makes a bunch of new rules for private insurers (like Aetna and BlueCross/BlueShield), public insurers (like Medicaid), employers, and everyday citizens.”

MLA Citation:

Patel, Kavita and Darshak Sanghavi. “Ten Questions About Obamacare You Were Too Embarrassed to Ask”. www.slate.com. The Slate Group LLC, 30 Sep. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2013/09/obamacare_explained_questions_answered_about_how_and_why_to_sign_up_and.html>.

In-Text: (Patel, Sanghavi)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Patel, K and Sanghavi, D. (30 Sep, 2013). Ten Questions About Obamacare You Were Too Embarrassed to Ask. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2013/09/obamacare_explained_questions_answered_about_how_and_why_to_sign_up_and.html

In-Text: (Patel, Sanghavi)

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Read More Comments Off on Obamacare, Affordable Care Act Explanation – Slate.com

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

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Sample:

“We don’t have the highest crime rate among developed nations, according to that 2012 U.N. survey, but we do have the highest firearm-homicide rate, according to a Council on Foreign Relations analysis of that study and the Small Arms Survey.”

MLA Citation:

Phillips, Amber. “The gun control debate, explained in 5 questions.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 3 Dec. 2015. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). < https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/>.

In-Text: (Phillips)

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APA Citation:

Phillips, A. (3 Dec, 2015). The gun control debate, explained in 5 questions. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE) from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

In-Text: (Phillips, 2015)

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Read More Comments Off on Arguments For and Against Gun Control

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/

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Sample:

47% Percentage of Americans who say they have a gun in their home or elsewhere on their property, according to Gallup, the highest reported number in two decades

$6 billion Estimated revenue generated by the gun and ammunition industry in the U.S., according to an analysis by business research firm Hoovers

310 million Estimated number of firearms in the U.S., according to the federal government, which includes 114 million handguns, 110 million rifles, and 86 million shotguns”

MLA Citation:

Sanburn, Josh. “America’s Gun Economy, By the Numbers”. Time Inc., 18 Dec. 2012. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/>.

In-Text: (Sanburn)

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APA Citation:

Sanburn, J. (18 Dec, 2012). America’s Gun Economy, By the Numbers. Retrieved from http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/

In-Text: (Sanburn)

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Read More Comments Off on Gun Ownership, Spending, and Lobbying Statistics in the US

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/09/the-secret-history-of-guns/308608/

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Sample:

“The Ku Klux Klan, Ronald Reagan, and, for most of its history, the NRA all worked to control guns. The Founding Fathers? They required gun ownership—and regulated it. And no group has more fiercely advocated the right to bear loaded weapons in public than the Black Panthers—the true pioneers of the modern pro-gun movement. In the battle over gun rights in America, both sides have distorted history and the law, and there’s no resolution in sight.”

MLA Citation:

Winkler, Adam. theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 24 Jul. 2011. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). < http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/09/the-secret-history-of-guns/308608/ >.

In-Text: (Winkler)

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APA Citation:

Winkler, A.  (24 Jul, 2011). The Secret History of Guns. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/09/the-secret-history-of-guns/308608/

In-Text: (Winkler, 2011)

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Read More Comments Off on History of the Gun Rights Movement, Reagan, NRA, Black Panthers – Article

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html

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Sample:

“The Bill of Rights: A Transcription

The Preamble to The Bill of Rights

Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.

THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.”

MLA Citation:

“Bill of Rights”. Archives.gov. National Archives and Records Administration, 2013. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). < http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html>.

In-Text: (“Bill of Rights”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Bill of Rights. (2013).Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html

In-Text: (Bill of Rights)

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Read More Comments Off on Second Amendment, Bill of Rights – Archives.gov

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/12/17/some-observations-on-the-gun-control-debate/

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Sample:

“Instead, I’ll just make a few general observations. First, I doubt the level of gun violence in the United States has much to do with the kinds of gun laws that are in effect. This country would have a high rate of gun violence regardless of the laws on the books, just because of our culture. “

MLA Citation:

Carson, Kevin. counterpunch.org. CounterPunch, 17 Dec. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/12/17/some-observations-on-the-gun-control-debate/>.

In-Text: (Carson)

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APA Citation:

Carson, K. (17 Dec, 2012). Some Observations on the Gun Control Debate. Retrieved from http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/12/17/some-observations-on-the-gun-control-debate/

In-Text: (Carson, 2012)

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Read More Comments Off on Gun Violence in US is a Cultural Issue

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/gun-debate-culture-debate?gclid=CMeyjor_-rcCFbNQOgodMDYA8A

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Sample:

“The National Academy of Sciences found that gun-control laws have had no measurable effect on gun violence rates. The study was not written by gun-rights advocates—in fact, all but one member of the committee were gun-control advocates. Programs ranging from gun buybacks, to the famous “assault weapons” ban, to “gun-free zones,” were all found to be ineffective at curbing gun crime.”

MLA Citation:

Burrus, Trevor. cato.org. Cato Institute, 19 Mar. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/gun-debate-culture-debate?gclid=CMeyjor_-rcCFbNQOgodMDYA8A>.

In-Text: (Burrus)

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APA Citation:

Burrus, T. (19 Mar, 2013). The Gun Debate is a Culture Debate. Retrieved from http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/gun-debate-culture-debate?gclid=CMeyjor_-rcCFbNQOgodMDYA8A

In-Text: (Burrus, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

Samples:

“The Dec. 14, 2012 shootings in Newtown, Conn., which resulted in 28 deaths, including that of the gunman, Adam Lanza, once again turned the spotlight on the debate over gun ownership in the U.S. It has been a political hot potato for years, and one that Congress has dealt with gingerly — too gingerly, in the view of groups favoring tighter regulation of firearms.”

“The last major piece of gun control legislation to make it into the U.S. Code was the assault weapons ban, which passed in 1994 as part of a larger crime bill passed by Congress and signed by then-President Bill Clinton. The ban applied to the manufacture of 19 specific models of semi-automatic firearms and to other guns with assault-weapons features. But the ban expired in 2004, and repeated attempts to renew it have failed.”

“Several new groups on the scene could alter the balance a bit. New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg started a pro-gun control super PAC, Independence USA PAC, in 2012; it spent more than $8.3 million in several congressional races that year, with mixed results. Former Rep. Giffords started a super PAC in January, 2013, to counter the NRA’s influence; it set a fundraising goal of $16 million to $20 million to spend in the 2014 House and Senate elections. And another anti-NRA PAC launched in February, calling itself Americans for the Protection of Children.”

MLA Citation:

“Gun Control vs. Gun Rights.” opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics, March. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/>.

In-Text: (“Gun Control vs. Gun Rights”)

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APA Citation:

Gun Control vs. Gun Rights. (March, 2013). Retrieved from http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/

In-Text: (“Gun Control vs. Gun Rights”, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://corporate.findlaw.com/law-library/major-provisions-of-the-personal-responsibility-and-work.html

Samples:

“The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 eliminates AFDC’s open-ended entitlement and creates a block grant for states to provide time-limited cash assistance for needy families, with work requirements for most recipients. The law also makes far-reaching changes to child care, the Child Support Enforcement Program, benefits for legal immigrants, the Food Stamp Program, and SSI for children. Modifications to the child nutrition program and reductions in the Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) are also included.”

“States may use their TANF funding in any manner “reasonably calculated to accomplish the purposes of TANF.” These purposes are: to provide assistance to needy families so that children can be cared for in their own homes; to reduce dependency by promoting job preparation, work and marriage; to prevent out-of-wedlock pregnancies; and to encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families. States have broad flexibility to determine eligibility, method of assistance, and benefit levels. Individual Development Accounts, restricted accounts which can only be used for education, homeownership, or other self-sufficiency activity, are specifically mentioned as a possible use of funds. The state plan must have “objective criteria” which are “fair” and “equitable” for eligibility and benefits and must explain appeal rights.”

“New definition of disability for children: The law changes the definition of disability for children that requires a child, in order to be eligible for SSI benefits, to have a specific medically determinable physical or mental impairment which results in “marked and severe” functional limitations and which can be expected to last for at least 12 months or to result in death. The Social Security Administration (SSA) is required to remove the references to “maladaptive behavior” as a medical criterion for evaluating mental disabilities in children.”

MLA Citation:

“Major Provisions of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.” corporate.findlaw.com. FindLaw, 14 Nov. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://corporate.findlaw.com/law-library/major-provisions-of-the-personal-responsibility-and-work.html>.

In-Text: (“Major Provisions”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Major Provisions of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. (14 Nov, 2012). Retrieved from http://corporate.findlaw.com/law-library/major-provisions-of-the-personal-responsibility-and-work.html

In-Text: (“Major Provisions”, 2012)

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