Credible Sources for Philosophy

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123518/

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Sample:

“Those against, contend that the benefit to humans does not justify the harm to animals. Many people also believe that animals are inferior to humans and very different from them, hence results from animals cannot be applied to humans. Those in favor of animal testing argue that experiments on animals are necessary to advance medical and biological knowledge. Claude Bernard, known as the father of physiology, stated that “experiments on animals are entirely conclusive for the toxicology and hygiene of man. The effects of these substances are the same on man as on animals, save for differences in degree”. Bernard established animal experimentation as part of the standard scientific method.

Drug testing using animals became important in the twentieth century. In 1937, a pharmaceutical company in the USA created a preparation of sulfanilamide, using diethylene glycol (DEG) as a solvent, and called the preparation ‘Elixir Sulfanilamide’. DEG was poisonous to humans, but the company’s chief pharmacist and chemist was not aware of this. He simply added raspberry flavoring to the sulfa drug, which he had dissolved in DEG, and the company marketed the product. The preparation led to mass poisoning causing the deaths of more than a hundred people. No animal testing was done. The public outcry caused by this incident and other similar disasters led to the passing of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requiring safety testing of drugs on animals before they could be marketed.”

Description:

Article discussing the importance of animal test subjects to medicinal research and current efforts to limit such tests and make them safer.

Author(s):

  • Rachel Hajar

Title:

  • Animal Testing and Medicine

Publisher:

  • Heart Views

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2254450/

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Sample:

“Animal models are widely recognized as being essential to the progress of medical science. In countering the critics’ arguments of the use of animals in medicine, one statement has acquired almost talismanic importance:

‘Virtually every medical achievement of the last century has depended directly or indirectly on research with animals.’

In this essay, the origins and justification of this oft-repeated statement are examined. Despite its endorsement by leading academic bodies, it is far from clear that the statement has been, or even could be, formally validated.”

Description:

In this article the author decides to examine the claim that “Virtually every medical achievement of the last century has depended directly or indirectly on research with animals,” which is often cited when justifying the continued use of animal models in science.

Author(s):

  • Robert AJ Matthews

Title:

  • Medical progress depends on animal models – doesn’t it?

Publisher:

  • Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine

Date:

  • February 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/experiments_1.shtml

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Sample:

“Animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products.

Many of these experiments cause pain to the animals involved or reduce their quality of life in other ways.

If it is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer then experimenting on animals produces serious moral problems.

Animal experimenters are very aware of this ethical problem and acknowledge that experiments should be made as humane as possible.

They also agree that it’s wrong to use animals if alternative testing methods would produce equally valid results.”

Description:

BBC article exploring the ethics of animal experimenting to determine if it is actually humane or effective to conduct experiments on animals.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Experimenting on animals

Publisher:

  • BBC

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594046/

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Sample:

“Nonhuman animal (“animal”) experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.”

Description:

Scholarly article discussing what merit there is to using animal testing for healthcare treatment, concluding it can be dangerous due to misleading results.

Author(s):

  • Aysha Akhtar

Title:

  • The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation

Publisher:

  • Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics

Date:

  • October 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/articles_papers_reports/766

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Sample:

“Most research across disciplines unanimously agrees that it is immoral to detonate an atomic weapon due to both short and long-term catastrophic effects. Therefore, this piece shall not focus on the actual use of nuclear weapons, but instead analyze the latter question. Using various philosophical concepts, it will explore the fundamental question as to whether any implementation of nuclear deterrence that involves a risk to civilians is morally acceptable. The models, though differing in origin and rationale, provide a unique lens from which to view this ethical dilemma.”

MLA Citation:

Giampaolo, Kayla. “Deterrence or Disarmament?: The Ethics of Nuclear Warfare.” carnegiecouncil.org. Carnegie Council, 4 Feb. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/articles_papers_reports/766>.

In-Text: (Giampaolo)

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APA Citation:

Giampaolo, K. (2016, Feb. 4). Deterrence or disarmament?: The ethics of nuclear warfare. Carnegie Council. Retrieved from http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/articles_papers_reports/766

In-Text: (Giampaolo)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/grlg/hd_grlg.htm

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Sample:

“Ancient Greek religious practice, essentially conservative in nature, was based on time-honored observances, many rooted in the Bronze Age (3000–1050 B.C.), or even earlier. Although the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer, believed to have been composed around the eighth century B.C., were powerful influences on Greek thought, the ancient Greeks had no single guiding work of scripture like the Jewish Torah, the Christian Bible, or the Muslim Qu’ran. Nor did they have a strict priestly caste. The relationship between human beings and deities was based on the concept of exchange: gods and goddesses were expected to give gifts. Votive offerings, which have been excavated from sanctuaries by the thousands, were a physical expression of thanks on the part of individual worshippers.”

MLA Citation:

Hemingway, Colette, and Sean Hemingway. “Greek Gods and Religious Practices.” Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2008.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/grlg/hd_grlg.htm>.

In-Text: (Hemingway and Hemingway)

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APA Citation:

Hemingway, C. & S. Hemingway (2008). Greek gods and religious practices. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/grlg/hd_grlg.htm

In-Text: (Hemingway, 2008)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201205/our-hierarchy-needs

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Sample:

“In his influential paper of 1943, A Theory of Human Motivation, the American psychologist Abraham Maslow proposed that healthy human beings have a certain number of needs, and that these needs are arranged in a hierarchy, with some needs (such as physiological and safety needs) being more primitive or basic than others (such as social and ego needs). Maslow’s so-called ‘hierarchy of needs’ is often presented as a five-level pyramid, with higher needs coming into focus only once lower, more basic needs are met.”

MLA Citation:

Burton, Neil. “Our Hierarchy of Needs.” Psychology Today. Psychology Today, 23 May. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201205/our-hierarchy-needs>.

In-Text: (Burton)

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APA Citation:

Burton, N (2012, May 23). Our hierarchy of needs. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201205/our-hierarchy-needs

In-Text: (Burton, 2012)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.iep.utm.edu/greekphi/

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Sample:

“Table of Contents

Presocratics Socrates and his Followers Plato Aristotle Stoicism Epicureanism Skepticism Neoplatonism”

MLA Citation:

“Ancient Greek Philosophy”. iep.utm.edu. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 15 Jan. 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.iep.utm.edu/greekphi/>.

In-Text: (“Ancient Greek Philosophy”)

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APA Citation:

Ancient Greek Philosophy. (15 Jan, 2010). Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/greekphi/

In-Text: (Ancient Greek Philosophy, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.iep.utm.edu/behavior/

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Sample:

“Behaviorism was a movement in psychology and philosophy that emphasized the outward behavioral aspects of thought and dismissed the inward experiential, and sometimes the inner procedural, aspects as well; a movement harking back to the methodological proposals of John B. Watson, who coined the name.  Watson’s 1913 manifesto proposed abandoning Introspectionist attempts to make consciousness a subject of experimental investigation to focus instead onbehavioral manifestations of intelligence.  B. F. Skinner later hardened behaviorist strictures to exclude inner physiological processes along with inward experiences as items of legitimate psychological concern.  Consequently, the successful “cognitive revolution” of the nineteen sixties styled itself a revolt against behaviorism even though the computational processes cognitivism hypothesized would be public and objective — not the sort of private subjective processes Watson banned.  Consequently (and ironically), would-be-scientific champions of consciousness now indict cognitivism for its “behavioristic” neglect of inward experience.”

MLA Citation:

Hauser, Larry. iep.utm.edu. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosphy, 19 Jul. 2005.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.iep.utm.edu/behavior/>.

In-Text: (Hauser)

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APA Citation:

Hauser, L. (19 Jul, 2005). Behaviorism. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/behavior/

In-Text: (Hauser, 2005)

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