Credible Sources for Civil Rights

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment

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Sample:

“What exactly constitutes “cruel and unusual” punishment? The U.S. Supreme Court has struggled to establish a conclusive answer to this question. A few Supreme Court justices subscribe to the idea that what was considered “cruel and unusual” at the time of our nation’s founding more than 200 years ago should still shape our idea of what is considered “cruel and unusual” today. A majority of the Court, however, has determined that what constitutes “cruel and unusual” should be dependent on the “evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.”

Given such a benchmark as “evolving standards of decency,” one might think that Americans are safe from being subjected to punishment that the average person would consider cruel and unusual. Yet that is not so. It should be noted that while the Supreme Court has determined that executing mentally retarded people is “cruel and unusual,” it has left it up to the states to determine whether a particular inmate qualifies as “mentally retarded.” Consequently, mentally retarded inmates are still being executed for lack of uniform guidelines and standards.”

MLA Citation:

“Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment.” The Rutherford Institute. The Rutherford Institute, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment>.

In-Text: (“Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment”)

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APA Citation:

Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment. (n.d.). The Rutherford Institute. Retrieved from https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment

In-Text: (Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“Next let’s turn to Justice Breyer, who argues that it is “highly likely” that the death penalty as a whole violates the Eighth Amendment, because it is unreliable, arbitrary, slow and rare. This argument went well beyond the specific challenge to the use of the midazolam that was the focus of the case. Rather, Justice Breyer explained that he would stop trying “to patch up the death penalty’s legal wounds one at a time” and likely bury the whole thing. Justice Breyer (whose opinion was joined here by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg) is the first member of the current court to call for such a radical step.”

MLA Citation:

Baude, William. “Is the Death Penalty Unconstitutional?” The New York Times. The New York Times Compnay, July 7. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (Baude)

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APA Citation:

Baude, W. (2015, July 7). Is the death penalty unconstitutional? The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0

In-Text: (Baude, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/09/the-secret-history-of-guns/308608/

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Sample:

“The Ku Klux Klan, Ronald Reagan, and, for most of its history, the NRA all worked to control guns. The Founding Fathers? They required gun ownership—and regulated it. And no group has more fiercely advocated the right to bear loaded weapons in public than the Black Panthers—the true pioneers of the modern pro-gun movement. In the battle over gun rights in America, both sides have distorted history and the law, and there’s no resolution in sight.”

MLA Citation:

Winkler, Adam. theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 24 Jul. 2011. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). < http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/09/the-secret-history-of-guns/308608/ >.

In-Text: (Winkler)

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APA Citation:

Winkler, A.  (24 Jul, 2011). The Secret History of Guns. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/09/the-secret-history-of-guns/308608/

In-Text: (Winkler, 2011)

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Read More Comments Off on History of the Gun Rights Movement, Reagan, NRA, Black Panthers – Article

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html

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Sample:

“The Bill of Rights: A Transcription

The Preamble to The Bill of Rights

Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.

THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.”

MLA Citation:

“Bill of Rights”. Archives.gov. National Archives and Records Administration, 2013. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). < http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html>.

In-Text: (“Bill of Rights”)

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APA Citation:

Bill of Rights. (2013).Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html

In-Text: (Bill of Rights)

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Read More Comments Off on Second Amendment, Bill of Rights – Archives.gov

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html

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Sample:

“The Board of Education’s defense was that, because segregation in Topeka and elsewhere pervaded many other aspects of life, segregated schools simply prepared black children for the segregation they would face during adulthood. The board also argued that segregated schools were not necessarily harmful to black children; great African Americans such as Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and George Washington Carver had overcome more than just segregated schools to achieve what they achieved. [7]”

MLA Citation:

Cozzens, Lisa. watson.org. Lisa Cozzens, 1998 (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html>.

In-Text: (Cozzens)

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APA Citation:

Cozzens, L. (1998). Brown v. Board of Education. Retrieved from http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html

In-Text: (Cozzens, 1998)

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Read More Comments Off on Brown vs Board of Education, Segregation, Civil Rights Movement

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/obama-orders-closure-of-gitmo/story-e6frg6n6-1111118649888

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Sample:

“To resolve the issues, Mr Obama has commissioned a taskforce to report on where the Guantanamo detainees should be sent, how they should be prosecuted and whether they should have the same legal rights as US citizens.”

MLA Citation:

Nason, David. theaustralian.com.au. The Australian, 24 Jan. 2009.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/obama-orders-closure-of-gitmo/story-e6frg6n6-1111118649888>.

In-Text: (Nason)

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APA Citation:

Nason, David. (24 Jan, 2009). Barack Obama orders closure of Guantanamo Bay prison. Retrieved from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/obama-orders-closure-of-gitmo/story-e6frg6n6-1111118649888

In-Text: (Nason, 2009)

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Read More Comments Off on Guantanamo Bay, Closing, Barack Obama, 2009

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0404.html

Samples:

“Memphis, Friday, April 5 — The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., who preached nonviolence and racial brotherhood, was fatally shot here last night by a distant gunman who raced away and escaped.”

“But the police said the tragedy had been followed by incidents that included sporadic shooting, fires, bricks and bottles thrown at policemen, and looting that started in Negro districts and then spread over the city.”

“Dr. King was shot while he leaned over a second-floor railing outside his room at the Lorraine Motel. He was chatting with two friends just before starting for dinner.”

MLA Citation:

Caldwell, Earl. “Martin Luther King Is Slain in Memphis; A White Is Suspected; Johnson Urges Calm”. nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 5 April. 1968.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0404.html>.

In-Text: (Caldwell)

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APA Citation:

Caldwell, E. (5 April, 1968). Martin Luther King Is Slain in Memphis; A White Is Suspected; Johnson Urges Calm. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0404.html

In-Text: (Caldwell)

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Read More Comments Off on Martin Luther King Jr. Murder, NYTimes from Next Morning

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/06/opinion/06gates.1.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Samples:

“In 1790, only 1.7 percent of Virginia’s population consisted of free people of color; in the 13 former colonies and the territories of Kentucky, Maine and Vermont, the combined figure was even smaller. Historians estimate that only 5,000 black men served in the Continental Army, whereas tens of thousands fled slavery to join the British.”

“The story of John Redman is illuminating because it opens a window on an aspect of the Revolutionary War that remains too little known: the contributions and sacrifices of a band of black patriots. But it is particularly fascinating to me because, as I learned just recently, John Redman was my ancestor.”

“Like most African-Americans of my generation, I had heard of the Daughters of the American Revolution, unfortunately, because of their refusal in 1939 to allow the great contralto, Marian Anderson, the right to perform at Constitution Hall. Anderson responded to the group’s racism with sonorous defiance, holding her Easter Sunday concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial instead.”

MLA Citation:

Gates, Henry Louis. nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 6 Aug. 2006.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/06/opinion/06gates.1.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0>.

In-Text: (Gates)

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APA Citation:

Gates, H. (6 Aug, 2006). Native Sons of Liberty. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/06/opinion/06gates.1.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

In-Text: (Gates, 2006)

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Read More Comments Off on Revolutionary War/Black History/African-American Patriots

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/the-power-of-non-violence/

Samples:

“From the very beginning there was a philosophy undergirding the Montgomery boycott, the philosophy of nonviolent resistance. There was always the problem of getting this method over because it didn’t make sense to most of the people in the beginning. We had to use our mass meetings to explain nonviolence to a community of people who had never heard of the philosophy and in many instances were not sympathetic with it. We had meetings twice a week on Mondays and on Thursdays, and we had an institute on nonviolence and social change. We had to make it clear that nonviolent resistance is not a method of cowardice. It does resist. It is not a method of stagnant passivity and deadening complacency. The nonviolent resister is just as opposed to the evil that he is standing against as the violent resister but he resists without violence. This method is nonaggressive physically but strongly aggressive spiritually.”

“Another basic thing we had to get over is that nonviolent resistance is also an internal matter. It not only avoids external violence or external physical violence but also internal violence of spirit. And so at the center of our movement stood the philosophy of love. The attitude that the only way to ultimately change humanity and make for the society that we all long for is to keep love at the center of our lives. Now people used to ask me from the beginning what do you mean by love and how is it that you can tell us to love those persons who seek to defeat us and those persons who stand against us; how can you love such persons? And I had to make it clear all along that love in its highest sense is not a sentimental sort of thing, not even an affectionate sort of thing.”

“Modern psychology has a word that is probably used more than any other word. It is the word “maladjusted.” Now we all should seek to live a well—adjusted life in order to avoid neurotic and schizophrenic personalities. But there are some things within our social order to which I am proud to be maladjusted and to which I call upon you to be maladjusted. I never intend to adjust myself to segregation and discrimination. I never intend to adjust myself to mob rule. I never intend to adjust myself to the tragic effects of the methods of physical violence and to tragic militarism. I call upon you to be maladjusted to such things. I call upon you to be as maladjusted to such things. I call upon you to be as maladjusted as Amos who in the midst of the injustices of his day cried out in words that echo across the generation, “Let judgment run down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.” As maladjusted as Abraham Lincoln who had the vision to see that this nation could not exist half slave and half free. As maladjusted as Jefferson, who in the midst of an age amazingly adjusted to slavery could cry out, “All men are created equal and are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights and that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” As maladjusted as Jesus of Nazareth who dreamed a dream of the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. God grant that we will be so maladjusted that we will be able to go out and change our world and our civilization. And then we will be able to move from the bleak and desolate midnight of man’s inhumanity to man to the bright and glittering daybreak of freedom and justice.”

MLA Citation:

“The Power of Non-Violence”. teachingamericanhistory.org. Ashbrook Center at Ashland University, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/the-power-of-non-violence/>.

In-Text: (“The Power of Non-violence”)

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APA Citation:

The Power of Non-violence. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/the-power-of-non-violence/

In-Text: (The Power of Non-violence, n.d.)

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Read More Comments Off on Martin Luther King Primary Source, The Power of Non-violence

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,988163,00.html

Samples:

“It is a testament to the greatness of Martin Luther King Jr. that nearly every major city in the U.S. has a street or school named after him. It is a measure of how sorely his achievements are misunderstood that most of them are located in black neighborhoods.”

“Even after the Supreme Court struck down segregation in 1954, what the world now calls human-rights offenses were both law and custom in much of America. Before King and his movement, a tired and thoroughly respectable Negro seamstress like Rosa Parks could be thrown into jail and fined simply because she refused to give up her seat on an Alabama bus so a white man could sit down. A six-year-old black girl like Ruby Bridges could be hectored and spit on by a white New Orleans mob simply because she wanted to go to the same school as white children. A 14-year-old black boy like Emmett Till could be hunted down and murdered by a Mississippi gang simply because he had supposedly made suggestive remarks to a white woman. Even highly educated blacks were routinely denied the right to vote or serve on juries. They could not eat at lunch counters, register in motels or use whites-only rest rooms; they could not buy or rent a home wherever they chose. In some rural enclaves in the South, they were even compelled to get off the sidewalk and stand in the street if a Caucasian walked by.

“Moreover, King was a man of extraordinary physical courage whose belief in nonviolence never swerved. From the time he assumed leadership of the Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott in 1955 to his murder 13 years later, he faced hundreds of death threats. His home in Montgomery was bombed, with his wife and young children inside. He was hounded by J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI, which bugged his telephone and hotel rooms, circulated salacious gossip about him and even tried to force him into committing suicide after he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. As King told the story, the defining moment of his life came during the early days of the bus boycott. A threatening telephone call at midnight alarmed him: “Nigger, we are tired of you and your mess now. And if you aren’t out of this town in three days, we’re going to blow your brains out and blow up your house.” Shaken, King went to the kitchen to pray. “I could hear an inner voice saying to me, ‘Martin Luther, stand up for righteousness. Stand up for justice. Stand up for truth. And lo I will be with you, even until the end of the world.'””

 

MLA Citation:

White, Jack E. “Martin Luther King”. time.com. Time Inc., 13 April. 1998.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,988163,00.html>.

In-Text: (White)

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APA Citation:

White, J. (13 April, 1998). Martin Luther King. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,988163,00.html

In-Text: (White, 1998)

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Read More Comments Off on Martin Luther King Jr., Life and Work on Civil Rights – Time.com

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/may/04/telephone-calls-recorded-fbi-boston

Samples:

“The real capabilities and behavior of the US surveillance state are almost entirely unknown to the American public because, like most things of significance done by the US government, it operates behind an impenetrable wall of secrecy. But a seemingly spontaneous admission this week by a former FBI counterterrorism agent provides a rather startling acknowledgment of just how vast and invasive these surveillance activities are.”

“Let’s repeat that last part: “no digital communication is secure”, by which he means not that any communication is susceptible to government interception as it happens (although that is true), but far beyond that: all digital communications – meaning telephone calls, emails, online chats and the like – are automatically recorded and stored and accessible to the government after the fact. To describe that is to define what a ubiquitous, limitless Surveillance State is.”

MLA Citation:

Greenwald, Glenn. Guardian.co.uk. Guardian News and Media Limited, 4 May. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/may/04/telephone-calls-recorded-fbi-boston>.

In-Text: (Greenwald)

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APA Citation:

Greenwald, G. (4 May, 2013). Are all telephone calls recorded and accessible to the US government?. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/may/04/telephone-calls-recorded-fbi-boston

In-Text: (Greenwald, 2013)

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Read More Comments Off on US Communication Surveillance/Government

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

Description:

Biography of Martin Luther King Jr. associated with his 1964 Nobel Prize award.

URL:

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-bio.html

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Sample:

“Martin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929-April 4, 1968) was born Michael Luther King, Jr., but later had his name changed to Martin.”

MLA Citation:

“Martin Luther King Jr. – Biography”. Nobelprize.org. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-bio.html>.

 

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Read More Comments Off on Martin Luther King Jr. Nobel Prize/Biography