Credible Sources for US History

Primary Sources

Below is a list of great websites for finding historical primary sources, ranging from the Constitution to the Civil War and even WWII.  You will be able to find transcripts, text documents, photos, and other important pieces of history to use in your research papers and assignments. Don’t forget to bookmark this page for easy access!

 

Archives.gov

This resource allows you to browse all primary sources available from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, with topics including America’s founding documents, science and technology, and military records. This is one of the most comprehensive places to find primary sources on for America’s history on the web. Here are some examples of what you will find there:

 

The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History

This resource provides an enormous collection of American historical documents ranging from letters, diaries, maps, newspapers, and photos.  The sources found here range from the very beginning of American history, the landing of columbus, to Barack Obama’s first inaugural address. Some examples of what you’ll find include:

 

OurDocuments.gov

This resource provides a long list of primary sources that chronicles American history from 1776 to 1965. The documents listed here include:

 

CivilWar.org

This website is dedicated to information about the American Civil War and provides a thorough list of any primary sources available from that period, including speeches, military correspondence, and photos. Here is some of what you’ll find:

 

Famous-Trials.com

Famous-trials.com is a website operated by professor Douglas O. Linder from the UMKC School of Law. The site provides primary documents and information on many very well-known trials throughout history, going all the way back to the Trial of Socrates, and also most recently covering the George Zimmerman case involving Trayvon Martin. Here are some examples of what you can find here:

 

TeachingAmericanHistory.org

Despite the name of the website, this resource is not just for teachers as it does provide access to many primary sources from American history. The page linked to here lists 50 “core documents that tell America’s story” and include the Declaration of Independence and 1944 State of the Union address. Here is some of what you’ll find:

 

Library of Congress

The Library of Congress is a major record-keeping entity of the U.S. government and contains many documents of all kinds that are important to American history and culture. The link listed above takes you to a page where you can search, or select from the links on the right side of the page to browse be era. Here are those links, for your convenience:

 

Further Resources

The combination of resources above should do well in meeting any students needs for primary sources on topics relating to American history, but there are still many other resources available to access these kinds of documents. Here is a gigantic list of other websites that can provide a wide variety of primary sources:

 

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://millercenter.org/president/adams/life-before-the-presidency

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Adams launched his legal career in Boston in 1758. He faced several years of struggle in establishing his practice. He had only one client his first year and did not win his initial case before a jury until almost three years after opening his office. Thereafter, his practice grew. Once his practice started to flourish, he began to court Abigail Smith, the daughter of a Congregational minister in nearby Weymouth. They were married in 1764. Five children followed in the next eight years, although one, Susanna, died in infancy. By 1770, Adams was a highly successful lawyer with perhaps the largest caseload of any attorney in Boston, and he was chosen to defend the British soldiers who were charged in the Boston Massacre in March 1770. Through his able defense, none of the accused soldiers were sent to jail. During these years, he lived alternately in Boston and Quincy, an outgrowth of Braintree, where he had been reared. As success came, Adams wrote extensively, publishing numerous essays in Boston newspapers on social, legal, and political issues.

When the colonial protest against parliamentary policies erupted against the Stamp Act in 1765, Adams was initially reluctant to play a prominent role in the popular movement. With a young and growing family, he feared for his legal practice. In addition, he distrusted many of the radical leaders, including his cousin Samuel Adams. He not only believed the imperial leaders in London had simply blundered but also suspected that the colonial radicals had a hidden agenda, including American independence. Nevertheless, under pressure to act, he did assist the popular movement, writing anonymous newspaper essays and helping to churn out propaganda pieces. In time, as Britain continued its attempts to tax the colonies and to strip them of their autonomy, Adams gradually grew convinced that the radicals had been correct, and he became an open foe of ministerial policy.

In 1774, Adams went to Philadelphia as one of the four delegates from Massachusetts to the First Continental Congress. He was reelected to the Second Continental Congress, which convened in May 1775, just a few days after war with the mother country had erupted at Lexington and Concord. When Congress created the Continental army in June 1775, Adams nominated George Washington of Virginia to be its commander. Adams soon emerged as the leader of the faction in Congress that pushed to declare independence. In June 1776, Congress appointed Adams, together with Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin, among others, to prepare the Declaration of Independence. Adams served on more committees than any other congressman—ninety in all, of which he chaired twenty. He was the head of the Board of War and Ordinance, the congressional committee that oversaw the operations of the Continental army. He was also an important member of the committee that prepared the Model Treaty, which guided the envoys that Congress sent to France to secure foreign trade and military assistance.”

Description:

Biography of John Adams life before his presidency from the University of Virginia’s Miller Center, with detailed info about his education and career.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • John Adams: Life Before the Presidency

Publisher:

  • Miller Center, University of Virginia

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/johnadams

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“When Adams became President, the war between the French and British was causing great difficulties for the United States on the high seas and intense partisanship among contending factions within the Nation.

His administration focused on France, where the Directory, the ruling group, had refused to receive the American envoy and had suspended commercial relations.

Adams sent three commissioners to France, but in the spring of 1798 word arrived that the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand and the Directory had refused to negotiate with them unless they would first pay a substantial bribe. Adams reported the insult to Congress, and the Senate printed the correspondence, in which the Frenchmen were referred to only as “X, Y, and Z.”

The Nation broke out into what Jefferson called “the X. Y. Z. fever,” increased in intensity by Adams’s exhortations. The populace cheered itself hoarse wherever the President appeared. Never had the Federalists been so popular.”

Description:

Biography of John Adams as Vice President and President in his dealings with the French and political opposition, as well as early life and retirement.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • John Adams

Publisher:

  • whitehouse.gov

Date:

  • None.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/VP_John_Adams.htm

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“On April 21, 1789, John Adams, the first vice president of the United States, began his duties as president of the Senate. Adams’ role in the administration of George Washington was sharply constrained by the constitutional limits on the vice-presidency and his own reluctance to encroach upon executive prerogative. He enjoyed a cordial but distant relationship with President Washington, who sought his advice on occasion but relied primarily on the cabinet. Adams played a more active role in the Senate, however, particularly during his first term.

As president of the Senate, Adams cast twenty-nine tie-breaking votes—a record that no successor has ever threatened. His votes protected the president’s sole authority over the removal of appointees, influenced the location of the national capital, and prevented war with Great Britain. On at least one occasion he persuaded senators to vote against legislation that he opposed, and he frequently lectured the Senate on procedural and policy matters. Adams’ political views and his active role in the Senate made him a natural target for critics of the Washington administration. Toward the end of his first term, he began to exercise more restraint in the hope of realizing the goal shared by many of his successors: election in his own right as president of the United States.”

Description:

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • John Adams, 1st Vice President (1789-1797)

Publisher:

  • United State Senate, Senate Historical Office

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/summary-president-obama-gun-proposals.aspx

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“On Jan. 5, 2016, President Obama unveiled his new strategy to curb gun violence in America. His proposals focus on new background check requirements that will enhance the effectiveness of the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS), and greater education and enforcement efforts of existing laws at the state level. As more information becomes available, this document will be updated. The 2015 plan:

  • Directs the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) to require any business that engages in the sale of guns to obtain a federal license to do so and conduct background checks.  This requirement applies to gun stores, sellers of guns at gun shows, and sellers of guns over the Internet. The licensing requirement applies to all sellers “engaged in the business” of selling guns, regardless of how frequent or how many sales there are. Failure to obtain a license to sell will carry criminal penalties of up to five years in prison and a fine of up to $250,000.  Failure to conduct a required background check will also carry penalties.
  • Requires the ATF Bureau to issue a rule requiring background checks…”

Description:

Summary of the executive orders issued by President Barack Obama in 2015 and 2013 around gun control issues, largely as a result of gun violence incidents.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • President Obama’s 2015 Executive Actions on Gun Control

Publisher:

  • National Conference of State Legislatures

Date:

  • January 5, 2016

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://history.house.gov/Institution/Electoral-College/Electoral-College/

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Established in Article II, Section 1 of the U.S. Constitution, the Electoral College is the formal body which elects the President and Vice President of the United States. Each state has as many “electors” in the Electoral College as it has Representatives and Senators in the United States Congress, and the District of Columbia has three electors. When voters go to the polls in a Presidential election, they actually are voting for the slate of electors vowing to cast their ballots for that ticket in the Electoral College.

Electors

Most states require that all electoral votes go to the candidate who receives the plurality in that state. After state election officials certify the popular vote of each state, the winning slate of electors meet in the state capital and cast two ballots—one for Vice President and one for President. Electors cannot vote for a Presidential and Vice Presidential candidate who both hail from an elector’s home state.”

Description:

Informative page from the U.S. House of Representatives Office of the Historian about the U.S. Electoral College with info its background and history.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Electoral College Fast Facts

Publisher:

  • Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/timelines/zgy334j

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Ignoring Russian warnings, Austria-Hungary issued the Serbian government with its ultimatum.

It blamed Serbian officials for Franz Ferdinand’s assassination and made a series of demands. Among them: Serbia must stop all anti-Austro-Hungarian propaganda and remove anyone deemed guilty of it from office; it must accept Austria-Hungary’s collaboration in suppressing subversive movements within Serbia, and it must allow Austria to direct judicial proceedings against accessories in the assassination plot. In short, Serbia was being asked to hand over sovereignty.”

MLA Citation:

Macmillan, Margaret. “37 days: Countdown to World War One.” BBC, n.d., http://www.bbc.co.uk/timelines/zgy334j. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Macmillan)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Macmillan, M. (n.d.). 37 days: Countdown to World War One. BBC. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/timelines/zgy334j

In-Text: (Macmillan)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/united-states-machine-gun-ban/

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Consider the situation: Gun crimes are on the rise, and the guns that criminals use are military-style weapons, capable of firing rounds with unprecedented speed and ferocity. Cities—where more people live than ever before—are becoming unsafe. The United States leads other industrialized countries in gun-related deaths. And scores of citizens, including the liberal president, are calling for action.

But this isn’t 2016. It’s 1934—a year in which the United States faced unprecedented challenges from a new kind of gun and a new kind of criminal, and the country responded with new laws.”

MLA Citation:

Bullard, Gabe. “Gun Control in America.” news.nationalgeographic.com. National Geographic, 14 Jun. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/united-states-machine-gun-ban/>.

In-Text: (Bullard)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Bullard, G. Gun control in America. National Geographic. Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/united-states-machine-gun-ban/

In-Text: (Bullard, 2016)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2032304_2032746_2032955,00.html

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“But that is only half the story. As the mighty were falling, the lowly were able to rise, in the most immense devolution of power from institutions to individuals in all of human history. We’re swapping careers as old industries die, retraining, networking, self-branding, writing apps. The constant hustle is less secure but more exhilarating: you want to be a crime fighter, a software engineer, a video star, a music sensation, a day trader, an entrepreneur, a journalist — the gatekeepers have had to hand over the keys.”

MLA Citation:

Gibbs, Nancy. “Looking Back to the Future.” time.com. Time Inc., 24 Nov. 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2032304_2032746_2032955,00.html>.

In-Text: (Gibbs)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Gibbs, N. (2011, Nov. 24). Looking back to the future. Time Inc. Retrieved from http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2032304_2032746_2032955,00.html

In-Text: (Gibbs, 2011)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005143

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“To concentrate and monitor the Jewish population as well as to facilitate later deportation of the Jews, the Germans and their collaborators created ghettos, transit camps, and forced-labor camps for Jews during the war years. The German authorities also established numerous forced-labor camps, both in the so-called Greater German Reich and in German-occupied territory, for non-Jews whose labor the Germans sought to exploit.

Following the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units) and, later, militarized battalions of Order Police officials, moved behind German lines to carry out mass-murder operations against Jews, Roma, and Soviet state and Communist Party officials. German SS and police units, supported by units of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen SS, murdered more than a million Jewish men, women, and children, and hundreds of thousands of others.”

MLA Citation:

“Introduction to the Holocaust.” ushmm.org. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 29 Jan. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005143>.

In-Text: (“Introduction to the Holocaust”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Introduction to the Holocaust. (2016, Jan. 29). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved from http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005143

In-Text: (“Introduction to the Holocaust”, 2016)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://armsandthelaw.com/archives/GunLawsSudden%20DeathBJC.pdf

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Worldwide, the development of legislation aimed at reducing levels of firearm-related death has become a significant issue within the spheres of public health, public safety and criminal justice. However, relatively little research to date has addressed the impacts of significant epochs of regulatory reform upon firearm-related deaths in countries like Australia, where strict firearms regulations were introduced in 1996. After the 1996 mass killing of 35 people at the Port Arthur historical site, Australia enacted gun controls that are considered among the most stringent in the developed world. Briefly, the National Firearms Agreement (NFA), which was ratified by Federal Parliament in 1996 and implemented across all States and Territories by the end of 1997, prohibited certain types of firearms, in particular semi-automatic rifles and semiautomatic and pump action shotguns. To facilitate the removal of these firearms, a government-funded ‘buy-back’ scheme was designed, whereby owners were compensated for handing in their firearms. Over 600,000 firearms were subsequently destroyed by police.”

MLA Citation:

Baker, Jeanine and Samara McPhedran. “Gun Laws and Sudden Death.” British Journal of Criminolgy (18 Oct. 2006): 1-15.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://armsandthelaw.com/archives/GunLawsSudden%20DeathBJC.pdf>.

In-Text: (Baker and McPhedran)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Baker, J. & McPhedran, S. (2006, Oct. 18). Gun laws and sudden death. British Journal of Criminology. doi:10.1093/bjc/azl084

In-Text: (Baker & McPhedran, 2006)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/jlpp/Vol30_No2_KatesMauseronline.pdf

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“International evidence and comparisons have long been offered as proof of the mantra that more guns mean more deaths and that fewer guns, therefore, mean fewer deaths. Unfortunately, such discussions are all too often been afflicted by misconceptions and factual error and focus on comparisons that are unrepresentative. It may be useful to begin with a few examples. There is a compound assertion that (a) guns are uniquely available in the United States compared with other modern developed nations, which is why (b) the United States has by far the highest murder rate. Though these assertions have been endlessly repeated, statement (b) is, in fact, false and statement (a) is substantially so. “

MLA Citation:

Kates, Don B. and Gary Mauser. “Would Banning Firearms Reduce Murder and Suicide.” Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, Vol. 30 (2007): 650-694.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/jlpp/Vol30_No2_KatesMauseronline.pdf>.

In-Text: (Kates and Mauser)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Kates, D.B. & Mauser, G. (2007). Would banning firearms reduce murder and suicide? Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 30 (2): 649–694. Retrieved from http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/jlpp/Vol30_No2_KatesMauseronline.pdf

In-Text: (Kates & Mauser, 2007)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.constitution.org/2ll/2ndschol/57mich.pdf

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“I. THE ORIGINAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE SECOND AMENDMENT

The two opposing camps naturally rely on different interpretations of the origins of the second amendment. Proponents of the exclusively state’s right view31 see the amendment as responding to (pg.212) article I, section 8, clauses 15 and 16, of the original Constitution. Those clauses give Congress the power to call out the militia and “to provide for organizing, arming and disciplining” it. According to the state’s right interpretation, the amendment was motivated by fear that Congress might order the states’ organized militias disarmed, thereby leaving the states powerless against federal tyranny. Thus, this view sees the amendment as a response to concerns that time and the course of American history have rendered anachronistic. During the Revolution, and the subsequent period of the Articles of Confederation, the states loomed larger than the federal government and jealously guarded their prerogatives against it. While the Constitution itself heralded a decisive (though limited) repudiation of those attitudes, they remained strong enough to assure two precatory admonitions a place in the Bill of Rights. These became the second and tenth amendments. The purpose of the second amendment was simply to place the states’ organized military forces beyond the federal government’s power to disarm, guaranteeing that the states would always have sufficient force at their command to nullify federal impositions on their rights and to resist by arms if necessary. State’s right proponents also link the amendment to the traditional Whig fear of standing armies. Though the federal government could not be denied authority to maintain a small army, the basic military defense of the country would rest in the states’ reserved power to maintain their own organized military forces. These could be joined together to resist foreign invasion in time of need. Thus, the philosophy underlying the second amendment not only guaranteed the states’ right to keep armed forces, but obviated any need for a massive federal military which might defeat them if they found it necessary to revolt.”

MLA Citation:

Kates, Don B. “Handgun Prohibition and the Original Meaning of the Second Amendment.” constitution.org. Michigan Law Review, 1983.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.constitution.org/2ll/2ndschol/57mich.pdf>.

In-Text: (Kates)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Kates, D.B. (1983). Handgun Prohibition and the Original Meaning of the Second Amendment. Michigan Law Review. Retrieved from http://www.constitution.org/2ll/2ndschol/57mich.pdf

In-Text: (Kates, 1983)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/02/george-washington-man-of-mystery/462810/?utm_source=SFTwitter

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“But one man both literally and figuratively stands above the fray in each of these productions: George Washington. No one seems to have the ability or desire to crack the code on the tall Virginian. Whatever the scenario, the other men squabble and fight, but Washington stands to the side: quiet, dignified, a bit aloof, and probably dressed in his military uniform. In Hamilton, Miranda acknowledges this lack of color when he has General Washington break the fourth wall to beg the audience’s pardon so that he can “let down my guard and tell the people how I feel a second.” He briefly shares his concern that the soldiers he commands want to “put him on a pedestal,” and then he quickly returns to that very stand for nearly the balance of the show. For the most part, however, Washington stands much like a statue as the other Founders swirl about him in a frenzy of activity.”

MLA Citation:

Adelman, Joseph M. “George Washington, Man of Mystery.” theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 15 Feb. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/02/george-washington-man-of-mystery/462810/?utm_source=SFTwitter>.

In-Text: (Adelman)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Adelman, J.M. (2016, Feb. 15). The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/02/george-washington-man-of-mystery/462810/?utm_source=SFTwitter

In-Text: (Adelman, 2016)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/cold-war/strategy/strategy-mutual-assured-destruction.htm

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“This fact was officially accepted in a military doctrine known as Mutual Assured Destruction, a.k.a. MAD. Mutual Assured Destruction began to emerge at the end of the Kennedy administration. MAD reflects the idea that one’s population could best be protected by leaving it vulnerable so long as the other side faced comparable vulnerabilities. In short: Whoever shoots first, dies second.”

MLA Citation:

“Mutually Assured Destruction.” nuclearfiles.org. Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/cold-war/strategy/strategy-mutual-assured-destruction.htm>.

In-Text: (“Mutually Assured Destruction”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Mutually Assured Destruction. (n.d.). Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/cold-war/strategy/strategy-mutual-assured-destruction.htm

In-Text: (Mutually Assured Destruction)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-17026538

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“In essence it meant stockpiling a huge nuclear arsenal. In the event of a Soviet attack the US would have enough nuclear firepower to survive a first wave of nuclear strikes and strike back. The response would be so massive that the enemy would suffer “assured destruction”.”

MLA Citation:

De Castella, Tom. “How did we forget about mutually assured destruction?” bbc.com. BBC, 15 Feb. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-17026538>.

In-Text: (De Castella)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

De Castella, T. (2012, Feb. 15). How did we forget about mutually assured destruction? BBC. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-17026538

In-Text: (De Castella, 2012)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“What exactly constitutes “cruel and unusual” punishment? The U.S. Supreme Court has struggled to establish a conclusive answer to this question. A few Supreme Court justices subscribe to the idea that what was considered “cruel and unusual” at the time of our nation’s founding more than 200 years ago should still shape our idea of what is considered “cruel and unusual” today. A majority of the Court, however, has determined that what constitutes “cruel and unusual” should be dependent on the “evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.”

Given such a benchmark as “evolving standards of decency,” one might think that Americans are safe from being subjected to punishment that the average person would consider cruel and unusual. Yet that is not so. It should be noted that while the Supreme Court has determined that executing mentally retarded people is “cruel and unusual,” it has left it up to the states to determine whether a particular inmate qualifies as “mentally retarded.” Consequently, mentally retarded inmates are still being executed for lack of uniform guidelines and standards.”

MLA Citation:

“Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment.” The Rutherford Institute. The Rutherford Institute, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment>.

In-Text: (“Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment. (n.d.). The Rutherford Institute. Retrieved from https://www.rutherford.org/constitutional_corner/amendment_viii_cruel_and_unusual_punishment

In-Text: (Amendment VIII: Cruel and Unusual Punishment)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Next let’s turn to Justice Breyer, who argues that it is “highly likely” that the death penalty as a whole violates the Eighth Amendment, because it is unreliable, arbitrary, slow and rare. This argument went well beyond the specific challenge to the use of the midazolam that was the focus of the case. Rather, Justice Breyer explained that he would stop trying “to patch up the death penalty’s legal wounds one at a time” and likely bury the whole thing. Justice Breyer (whose opinion was joined here by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg) is the first member of the current court to call for such a radical step.”

MLA Citation:

Baude, William. “Is the Death Penalty Unconstitutional?” The New York Times. The New York Times Compnay, July 7. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (Baude)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Baude, W. (2015, July 7). Is the death penalty unconstitutional? The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/07/opinion/is-the-death-penalty-unconstitutional.html?_r=0

In-Text: (Baude, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://time.com/2994922/california-death-penalty-unconstitutional/

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Uncertainties and delays over executions violate the Eighth Amendment’s ban on cruel and unusual punishment, says federal judge”

“‘The dysfunctional administration of California’s death penalty system has resulted, and will continue to result, in an inordinate and unpredictable period of delay preceding their actual execution,” Judge Carney wrote. “Indeed, for most, systemic delay has made their execution so unlikely that the death sentence carefully and deliberately imposed by the jury has been quietly transformed into one no rational jury or legislature could ever impose: life in prison, with the remote possibility of death.'”

MLA Citation:

Sanburn, Josh. “California Judge Rules Death Penalty Unconstitutional.” Time. Time Inc., July 7. 2014.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://time.com/2994922/california-death-penalty-unconstitutional>.

In-Text: (Sanburn)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Sanburn, J. (2014, July 7). California judge rules death penalty unconstitutional. Time Inc. Retrieved from http://time.com/2994922/california-death-penalty-unconstitutional/

In-Text: (Sanburn, 2014)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education/for-students/research-starters/d-day.html

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“The Allied invasion of Western Europe was code named Operation Overlord. It required two years of planning, training, and supplying by the United States and Great Britain, and was one of the most heavily guarded secrets of the war. On the morning of June 5, 1944, U.S. General Dwight Eisenhower announced “O.K. We’ll go.” Within hours an armada of 3,000 landing craft, 2,500 ships, and 500 naval vessels departed English ports to cross the narrow strip of sea to German-controlled Normandy, France.”

MLA Citation:

“Research Starters: D-Day.” nationalww2museum.org. The National WWII Museum, n.d. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education/for-students/research-starters/d-day.html>.

In-Text: (“Research Starters: D-Day”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Research Starters: D-Day. (n.d.).  National WWII Museum.  Retrieved from http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education/for-students/research-starters/d-day.html

In-Text: (Research Starters: D-Day)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/richardnixon

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Born in California in 1913, Nixon had a brilliant record at Whittier College and Duke University Law School before beginning the practice of law. In 1940, he married Patricia Ryan; they had two daughters, Patricia (Tricia) and Julie. During World War II, Nixon served as a Navy lieutenant commander in the Pacific.”

MLA Citation:

Freidel, Frank & Hugh Sidey. “Richard M. Nixon”. whitehouse.gov. n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/richardnixon>.

In-Text: (Freidel, Sidey)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Freidel, F & H. Sidey. n.d. Richard M. Nixon. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/richardnixon

In-Text: (Freidel, Sidey)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Richard Nixon Presidential Biography – whitehouse.gov

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/jefferson/jefffed.html

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Jefferson played a major role in the planning, design, and construction of a national capitol and the federal district. In the various public offices he held, Jefferson sought to establish a federal government of limited powers. In the 1800 presidential election, Jefferson and Aaron Burr deadlocked, creating a constitutional crisis. However, once Jefferson received sufficient votes in the electoral college, he and the defeated incumbent, John Adams, established the principle that power would be passed peacefully from losers to victors in presidential elections. Jefferson called his election triumph “the second American Revolution.””

MLA Citation:

“Thomas Jefferson – Establishing a Federal Republic”. loc.gov. n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/jefferson/jefffed.html>.

In-Text: (“Thomas Jefferson – Establishing a Federal Government”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Thomas Jefferson – Establishing a Federal Government. n.d. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/jefferson/jefffed.html

In-Text: (Thomas Jefferson – Establishing a Federal Government)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Thomas Jefferson, His Role in Establishing Government

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/thomasjefferson

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“This powerful advocate of liberty was born in 1743 in Albemarle County, Virginia, inheriting from his father, a planter and surveyor, some 5,000 acres of land, and from his mother, a Randolph, high social standing. He studied at the College of William and Mary, then read law. In 1772 he married Martha Wayles Skelton, a widow, and took her to live in his partly constructed mountaintop home, Monticello.”

MLA Citation:

Freidel, Frank and Hugh Sidey. “Thomas Jefferson”. whitehouse.gov. n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/thomasjefferson>.

In-Text: (Freidel)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Freidel, F and H. Sidey. n.d. Thomas Jefferson. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/thomasjefferson

In-Text: (Freidel & Sidey)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Thomas Jefferson Presidential Biography – whitehouse.gov

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 467,321 persons were victims of a crime committed with a firearm in 2011.[1] In the same year, data collected by the FBI show that firearms were used in 68 percent of murders, 41 percent of robbery offenses and 21 percent of aggravated assaults nationwide.[2]”

MLA Citation:

“Gun Violence”. nij.gov. National Institute of Justice, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/>.

In-Text: (“Gun Violence”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Gun Violence. (n.d.).  Retrieved from http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/

In-Text: (Gun Violence)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Gun Violence Statistics – nij.gov

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“We don’t have the highest crime rate among developed nations, according to that 2012 U.N. survey, but we do have the highest firearm-homicide rate, according to a Council on Foreign Relations analysis of that study and the Small Arms Survey.”

MLA Citation:

Phillips, Amber. “The gun control debate, explained in 5 questions.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 3 Dec. 2015. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). < https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/>.

In-Text: (Phillips)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Phillips, A. (3 Dec, 2015). The gun control debate, explained in 5 questions. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE) from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

In-Text: (Phillips, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Arguments For and Against Gun Control

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

47% Percentage of Americans who say they have a gun in their home or elsewhere on their property, according to Gallup, the highest reported number in two decades

$6 billion Estimated revenue generated by the gun and ammunition industry in the U.S., according to an analysis by business research firm Hoovers

310 million Estimated number of firearms in the U.S., according to the federal government, which includes 114 million handguns, 110 million rifles, and 86 million shotguns”

MLA Citation:

Sanburn, Josh. “America’s Gun Economy, By the Numbers”. Time Inc., 18 Dec. 2012. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/>.

In-Text: (Sanburn)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Sanburn, J. (18 Dec, 2012). America’s Gun Economy, By the Numbers. Retrieved from http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/

In-Text: (Sanburn)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Gun Ownership, Spending, and Lobbying Statistics in the US

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/09/the-secret-history-of-guns/308608/

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“The Ku Klux Klan, Ronald Reagan, and, for most of its history, the NRA all worked to control guns. The Founding Fathers? They required gun ownership—and regulated it. And no group has more fiercely advocated the right to bear loaded weapons in public than the Black Panthers—the true pioneers of the modern pro-gun movement. In the battle over gun rights in America, both sides have distorted history and the law, and there’s no resolution in sight.”

MLA Citation:

Winkler, Adam. theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 24 Jul. 2011. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). < http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/09/the-secret-history-of-guns/308608/ >.

In-Text: (Winkler)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Winkler, A.  (24 Jul, 2011). The Secret History of Guns. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/09/the-secret-history-of-guns/308608/

In-Text: (Winkler, 2011)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on History of the Gun Rights Movement, Reagan, NRA, Black Panthers – Article

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“The Bill of Rights: A Transcription

The Preamble to The Bill of Rights

Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.

THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.”

MLA Citation:

“Bill of Rights”. Archives.gov. National Archives and Records Administration, 2013. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). < http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html>.

In-Text: (“Bill of Rights”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Bill of Rights. (2013).Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html

In-Text: (Bill of Rights)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Second Amendment, Bill of Rights – Archives.gov

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/EU/EU03-01.html

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“During the 1970s anti-American sentiment in Western Europe formed around two issues: U.S. involvement in Vietnam and the stationing of intermediate range nuclear missiles in Europe. The missles were controversial because, in the event of war, Western Europe would be destroyed, but not the United States or the Soviet Union. The European Community expanded to include the United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark. In 1970, under pressure from their European allies, the United States and the Soviet Union concluded their first agreement to limit nuclear arms.”

MLA Citation:

“The Cold War in Europe, 1945-1990”. mappinghistory.uoregon.edu. University of Oregon, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/EU/EU03-01.html>.

In-Text: (“The Cold War in Europe, 1945-1990”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

The Cold War in Europe, 1945-1990. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/EU/EU03-01.html

In-Text: (The Cold War In Europe, 1945-1990)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on The Cold War, 1945-1990, Detailed Map

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/EU/EU03-00.html

Note: Explore this source for useful maps!

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Between 1945 and 1970, confrontations in Europe between the Superpowers, as the United States and Soviet Union came to be known, arose on two principal issues: how to define the role of Germany and how to respond to the demands of allies (on both sides) for greater independence. After 1970, the notion of MAD (“mutual assured destruction”) took on new meaning as both sides deployed “intermediate range missiles” with nuclear warheads. Even more significant, and ultimately decisive in determining the end of the Cold War, was the increasingly obvious economic disparity between the two blocks.”

MLA Citation:

“The Cold War: Introduction”. mappinghistory.uoregon.edu. University of Oregon, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/EU/EU03-00.html>.

In-Text: (“The Cold War: Introduction”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

The  Cold War: Introduction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/EU/EU03-00.html

In-Text: (The Cold War: Introduction)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on The Cold War, United States and Soviet Union, Intro – UOregon.edu

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/Life-of-John-F-Kennedy.aspx

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, who was a very disciplined and organized woman, made the following entry on a notecard, when her second child was born:

John Fitzgerald Kennedy Born Brookline, Mass. (83 Beals Street) May 29, 1917 

MLA Citation:

“Life of John F. Kennedy”. jfklibrary.org. John F Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/Life-of-John-F-Kennedy.aspx>.

In-Text: (“Life of John F. Kennedy”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation: 

Life of John F. Kennedy. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/Life-of-John-F-Kennedy.aspx

In-Text: (jfklibrary.org)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on John F. Kennedy, Life and Career

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.theodoreroosevelt.org/site/pp.aspx?c=elKSIdOWIiJ8H&b=8344377

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Though he remains the youngest person ever to hold America’s highest office, Roosevelt was one of the best prepared to be president, entering the White House with a broad understanding of governmental and legislative processes and with executive leadership experience. He led the U.S. onto the world stage by becoming actively involved in foreign affairs. On the home front, Roosevelt believed the federal government had a role, even an obligation, to ensure a level of equality in Americans’ daily lives and used government regulations and policies to bring about social and economic justice. “

MLA Citation:

“The President”. theodoreroosevelt.org. Theodore Roosevelt Association, 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.theodoreroosevelt.org/site/pp.aspx?c=elKSIdOWIiJ8H&b=8344377>.

In-Text: (“The President”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

The President. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.theodoreroosevelt.org/site/pp.aspx?c=elKSIdOWIiJ8H&b=8344377

In-Text: (Theodore Roosevelt Association, 2013)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Theodore Roosevelt, Biography as President

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/story-surrounding-jefferson-and-declaration

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“The first formal proposal for independence was not made in the Continental Congress until June 7, 1776.  It came from the Virginian Richard Henry Lee, who suggested that “all political connection is, and ought to be, dissolved.”[2]    But this was not a unanimous sentiment.  Many delegates wanted to defer independence or avoid it outright.  Still, Congress did nominate a drafting committee—the Committee of Five—to compose a declaration of independence.  Thomas Jefferson, known for his eloquent writing style and reserved manner, became the principal author.”

MLA Citation:

“The Story Surrounding Jefferson and the Declaration”. monticello.org. Monitcello and the University of Virginia, 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/story-surrounding-jefferson-and-declaration>.

In-Text: (“The Story Surrounding Jefferson and the Declaration”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

The Story Surrounding Jefferson and the Declaration. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/story-surrounding-jefferson-and-declaration

In-Text: (The Story Surrounding Jefferson and the Declaration)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on The Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson – Summary

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/brief-biography-thomas-jefferson

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Thomas Jefferson — author of the Declaration of Independence and the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, third president of the United States, and founder of the University of Virginia — voiced the aspirations of a new America as no other individual of his era. As public official, historian, philosopher, and plantation owner, he served his country for over five decades.”

MLA Citation:

“Thomas Jefferson, A Brief Biography”. monticello.org. Monticello and the University of Virginia, 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/brief-biography-thomas-jefferson>.

In-Text: (“Thomas Jefferson, A Brief Biography”

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Thomas Jefferson, A Brief Biography. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/brief-biography-thomas-jefferson

In-Text: (Thomas Jefferson, A Brief Biography)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Thomas Jefferson General Biography

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/am_rev_timeline.htm

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

June 17, 1775 – The first major fight between British and American troops occurs at Boston in the Battle of Bunker Hill. American troops are dug in along the high ground of Breed’s Hill (the actual location) and are attacked by a frontal assault of over 2000 British soldiers who storm up the hill. The Americans are ordered not to fire until they can see “the whites of their eyes.” As the British get within 15 paces, the Americans let loose a deadly volley of rifle fire and halt the British advance. The British then regroup and attack 30 minutes later with the same result. A third attack, however, succeeds as the Americans run out of ammunition and are left only with bayonets and stones to defend themselves. The British succeed in taking the hill, but at a loss of half their force, over a thousand casualties, with the Americans losing about 400, including important colonial leader, General Joseph Warren.

MLA Citation:

Taylor, Quintard. “United States History: Timeline: War of Independence”. faculty.washington.edu. University of Washington, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/am_rev_timeline.htm>.

In-Text: (Taylor)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Taylor, Quintard. (n.d.). United States History: Timeline: War of Independence. Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/am_rev_timeline.htm

In-Text: (Taylor)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Revolutionary War Timeline, US History

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/1900_2000_timeline.htm

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“1940 – (May) Germany invades Holland, Belgium and France – Churchill becomes P.M.

– (May 30) British evacuate Continent at Dunkirk

– (June) France Surrenders

1941 – (June) Germany invades Russia

– (DECEMBER) JAPANESE ATTACK PEARL HARBOR – U.S. DECLARES WAR ON JAPAN

– HITLER DECLARES WAR ON U.S.”

MLA Citation:

Taylor, Quintard. “United States History: Timeline: 1900 – 2000”. faculty.washington.edu. University of Washington, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/1900_2000_timeline.htm>.

In-Text: (Taylor)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Taylor, Q. (n.d.). United States History: Timeline: 1900 – 2000. Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/1900_2000_timeline.htm

In-Text: (Taylor)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on US History, 20th Century Timeline, WWI, WWII

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/1800_1900_timeline.htm

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

1796 – December 7. John Adams is elected second president of the U.S. Jefferson is elected vice president, having received the second largest number of electoral votes.  

1797 – March 4. Adams inaugurated as President – Jefferson is inaugurated as vice president of the United States and begins gathering information on rules of parliamentary practice. As vice president, Jefferson presides over the Senate. 

1798 – June-July. Congress passes what are collectively known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. These acts, the Naturalization Act, the Alien Act, the Sedition Act, and the Alien Enemies Act, are passed in the midst of a quasi-war with France and heightened public criticism of foreign policy. 

1799 – Jefferson leaves Philadelphia for Monticello, arriving there on the 8th. Throughout the coming year he devotes himself to Monticello’s development. On his way to Philadelphia in November, he visits the new federal city, Washington, D.C., which he plays a key role in designing.

MLA Citation:

Taylor, Quintard. “United States History: Timeline: 1800 – 1900”. faculty.washington.edu. University of Washington, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/1800_1900_timeline.htm>.

In-Text: (Taylor)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Taylor, Q. (n.d.). United States History: Timeline: 1800 – 1900. Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/1800_1900_timeline.htm

In-Text: (Taylor)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on US History, 19th Century Timeline

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/1700_1800_timeline.htm

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“July 8, 1783 – The Supreme Court of Massachusetts abolishes slavery in that state.

September 3, 1783 – The Treaty of Paris is signed by the United States and Great Britain. Congress will ratify the treaty on January 14, 1784.

October 7, 1783 – In Virginia, the House of Burgesses grants freedom to slaves who served in the Continental Army.

November 2, 1783 – George Washington delivers his farewell address to his army. The next day, remaining troops are discharged.

December 23, 1783 – Following a triumphant journey from New York to Annapolis, George Washington, victorious commander in chief of the American Revolutionary Army, appears before Congress and voluntarily resigns his commission, an event unprecedented in history.

January 14, 1784 – The Treaty of Paris is ratified by Congress. The Revolutionary War officially ends.”

MLA Citation:

Taylor, Quintard. “United States History: Timeline: 1700 – 1800”. faculty.washington.edu. University of Washington, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/1700_1800_timeline.htm>.

In-Text: (Taylor, Quintard)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Taylor, Q. (n.d.). United States History: Timeline: 1700 – 1800. Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/1700_1800_timeline.htm

In-Text: (Taylor)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on US History, 18th Century

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/1600_1799_timeline.htm

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“1584 – Raleigh’s Roanoke Island VIRGINIA. Colony

1588 – In Europe, the defeat of the Spanish Armada by the English results in Great Britain replacing Spain as the dominant world power and leads to a gradual decline of Spanish influence in the New World and the widening of English imperial interests

1590 – Roanoke found abandoned

1598 – deOnate leads Spanish into New Mexico

1607 – English found Jamestown, Virginia

1608 – French found Quebec – http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1608champlain.html

1609 – Spanish found Santa Fe

1613 – A Dutch trading post is set up on lower Manhattan Island.

1619 – DUTCH DELIVER FIRST SLAVES TO VIRGINIA”

MLA Citation:

Taylor, Quintard. “United States History: Timline: 1600 – 1700”. faculty.washington.com. University of Washington, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/1600_1799_timeline.htm>.

In-Text: (Taylor)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Taylor, Q. (n.d.). United States History: Timeline: 1600 – 1700. Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/1600_1799_timeline.htm

In-Text: (Taylor)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on US History, 17th Century Timeline

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/0000_1600_timeline.htm

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“1507 – The name “America” is first used in a geography book referring to the New World with Amerigo Vespucci getting credit for the discovery of the continent.

1508 – Spanish Invade Puerto Rico

1513 – Ponce de Leon lands in Florida

1516 – Smallpox introduced in New World

1517 – Martin Luther launches the Protestant Reformation in Europe, bringing an end to the sole authority of the Catholic Church, resulting in the growth of numerous Protestant religious sects.

1519 – Cortes lands in Mexico

1519-1522 – Ferdinand Magellan is the first person to sail around the world.

1524 – Giovanni da Verrazano, sponsored by France, lands in the area around the Carolinas, then sails north and discovers the Hudson River, and continues northward into Narragansett Bay and Nova Scotia.”

MLA Citation:

Taylor, Quintard. “United States History: Timeline: Before 1600”. Faculty.washington.edu. University of Washington, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/0000_1600_timeline.htm>.

In-Text: (Taylor)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Quinatrd, T. (n.d.). United States History: Timeline: Before 1600. Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/a_us_history/0000_1600_timeline.htm

In-Text: (Quintard)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on US History, Pre-1600’s Timeline

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“The Board of Education’s defense was that, because segregation in Topeka and elsewhere pervaded many other aspects of life, segregated schools simply prepared black children for the segregation they would face during adulthood. The board also argued that segregated schools were not necessarily harmful to black children; great African Americans such as Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and George Washington Carver had overcome more than just segregated schools to achieve what they achieved. [7]”

MLA Citation:

Cozzens, Lisa. watson.org. Lisa Cozzens, 1998 (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html>.

In-Text: (Cozzens)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Cozzens, L. (1998). Brown v. Board of Education. Retrieved from http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html

In-Text: (Cozzens, 1998)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Brown vs Board of Education, Segregation, Civil Rights Movement

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/history_of_jazz.htm

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Born in the South, the blues is an African American-derived music form that recognized the pain of lost love and injustice and gave expression to the victory of outlasting a broken heart and facing down adversity. The blues evolved from hymns, work songs, and field hollers — music used to accompany spiritual, work and social functions. Blues is the foundation of jazz as well as the prime source of rhythm and blues, rock ‘n’ roll, and country music. The blues is still evolving and is still widely played today.”

MLA Citation:

“History of Jazz”. teacher.scholastic.com. Scholastic Inc., 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/history_of_jazz.htm>.

In-Text: (“History of Jazz”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

History of Jazz. (2013). Retrieved from http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/history_of_jazz.htm

In-Text: (History of Jazz)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on History of Jazz, Black History, Timeline

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/biography/biography

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“He won early fame as a war correspondent, covering the Cuban revolt against Spain (1895), and British campaigns in the Northwest Frontier of India (1897), the Sudan (1898) and South Africa during the Boer War (1899).”

MLA Citation:

Hayward, Steven. “Chart of Achievements.” winstonchurchill.org. The Churchill Centre and Museum at the Churchill War Rooms, 12 May. 2011, http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/biography/biography. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Hayward)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Hayward, S. (12 May, 2011). Chart of achievements. The Churchill Centre and Museum at the Churchill War Rooms. Retrieved from http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/biography/biography

In-Text: (Hayward, 2011)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Winston Churchill, Chart of Achievements, Life and Career – WinstonChurchill.org

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.ushistory.org/Valleyforge/washington/george2.html

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“Through his 15 years in the House of Burgesses his opinions were solidifying into fixed standards and settled convictions that were to hold him fast and keep him true to the defense of the principles of representative government for the Colonies. He had felt the spell of Patrick Henry’s ringing challenges to the spirit of free-born Englishmen: “If this be treason make the most of it — Give me liberty or give me death.””

MLA Citation:

“George Washington: The Commander in Chief”. ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, 1966.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ushistory.org/Valleyforge/washington/george2.html>.

In-Text: (George Washington: The Commander in Chief)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org/Valleyforge/washington/george2.html

In-Text:

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on George Washington, History, Life and Career

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewashington

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“He pursued two intertwined interests: military arts and western expansion. At 16 he helped survey Shenandoah lands for Thomas, Lord Fairfax. Commissioned a lieutenant colonel in 1754, he fought the first skirmishes of what grew into the French and Indian War. The next year, as an aide to Gen. Edward Braddock, he escaped injury although four bullets ripped his coat and two horses were shot from under him.”

MLA Citation:

“George Washington”. whitehouse.gov. whitehouse.gov, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewashington>.

In-Text: (“George Washington”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

George Washington. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewashington

In-Text: (George Washington)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on George Washington, Biography

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/obama-orders-closure-of-gitmo/story-e6frg6n6-1111118649888

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“To resolve the issues, Mr Obama has commissioned a taskforce to report on where the Guantanamo detainees should be sent, how they should be prosecuted and whether they should have the same legal rights as US citizens.”

MLA Citation:

Nason, David. theaustralian.com.au. The Australian, 24 Jan. 2009.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/obama-orders-closure-of-gitmo/story-e6frg6n6-1111118649888>.

In-Text: (Nason)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Nason, David. (24 Jan, 2009). Barack Obama orders closure of Guantanamo Bay prison. Retrieved from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/obama-orders-closure-of-gitmo/story-e6frg6n6-1111118649888

In-Text: (Nason, 2009)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Guantanamo Bay, Closing, Barack Obama, 2009

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/abrahamlincoln

Can’t Find What You’re Looking For?

Tell us what you’re looking for in the Study Hall and get responses from us, and you’re fellow students. Get help with exactly what you need so you can get this assignment out of the way and move on to better things (or the next assignment).

Learn More

Sample:

“As President, he built the Republican Party into a strong national organization. Further, he rallied most of the northern Democrats to the Union cause. On January 1, 1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy.”

MLA Citation:

Fidel, Frank. whitehouse.gov. White House Historical Association, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/abrahamlincoln>.

In-Text: (Fidel)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Fidel, F. (n.d.) Abraham Lincoln. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/abrahamlincoln

In-Text: (Fidel, n.d.)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Abraham Lincoln, Biography, Presidency

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/0315.html

Samples:

Rumors soon circulated of the clandestine deals, but no action was taken until the fall of 1872 when a disgruntled Credit Mobilier stockholder allowed theNew York Sun to print a series of incriminating letters from Ames. They appeared too late to have any impact on the presidential or congressional elections, but when Congress reconvened, an official House investigation was headed by Congressman Luke Poland of Vermont. An expulsion resolution against Ames failed, but he was formally censured for his part in the scandal. Several other elected officials were implicated, but not punished. Most argued that they had merely accepted a gift, not a bribe.

&

Rumors soon circulated of the clandestine deals, but no action was taken until the fall of 1872 when a disgruntled Credit Mobilier stockholder allowed theNew York Sun to print a series of incriminating letters from Ames. They appeared too late to have any impact on the presidential or congressional elections, but when Congress reconvened, an official House investigation was headed by Congressman Luke Poland of Vermont. An expulsion resolution against Ames failed, but he was formally censured for his part in the scandal. Several other elected officials were implicated, but not punished. Most argued that they had merely accepted a gift, not a bribe.

MLA Citation:

Kennedy, Robert C. nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 2001.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/0315.html>.

In-Text: (Kennedy)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Kennedy, R. (2001). On March 15, 1873, Harper’s Weekly featured a cartoon about a federal government scandal. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/0315.html

In-Text: (Kennedy, 2001)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Credit Mobilier Scandal

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/VP_Schuyler_Colfax.htm

Samples:

As amiable a man who ever served in Congress, good-natured, kindly, cordial, and always diplomatic, Indiana’s Schuyler Colfax won the nickname “Smiler” Colfax. Through two of the most tumultuous decades in American public life, Colfax glided smoothly from the Whig to Know-Nothing to Republican parties, mingling easily with both conservatives and radicals. He rose to become Speaker of the House and vice president and seemed poised to achieve his goal of the presidency. Along the way, there were those who doubted the sincerity behind the smile and suspected that for all his political dexterity, Colfax stood for nothing save his own advancement. Those close to President Abraham Lincoln later revealed that he considered Speaker Colfax an untrustworthy intriguer, and President Ulysses S. Grant seemed relieved when the Republican convention dumped Vice President Colfax from the ticket in 1872. Even the press, which counted the Indiana editor as a colleague and pumped him up to national prominence, eventually turned on Colfax and shredded his once admirable reputation until he disappeared into the forgotten recesses of American history.

&

As a man still in his forties, Colfax might well have continued his political career after the vice-presidency, except for his connection to the worst scandal in nineteenth-century U.S. political history. In September 1872, as the presidential campaign was getting underway, the New York Sun broke the four-year-old story about the Crédit Mobilier, a finance company created to underwrite construction of the transcontinental Union Pacific Railroad. Since the railroad depended on federal subsidies, the company had recruited Massachusetts Representative Oakes Ames to distribute stock among the key members of Congress who could help them the most. Some members had paid for the stock at a low value, others had put no money down at all but simply let the generous dividends pay for the stock. On Oakes Ames’ list were the names of both Schuyler Colfax and Henry Wilson, along with such other Washington luminaries as Representatives James Garfield and James G. Blaine. In South Bend, Indiana, Vice President Colfax made a public statement that completely dissociated himself from Crédit Mobilier, assuring his listeners that he never owned a dollar of stock that he had not paid for.

MLA Citation:

“Schuyler Colfax, 17th Vice President (1869-1873)”. senate.gov. United States Senate, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/VP_Schuyler_Colfax.htm>.

In-Text: (“Schuyler Colfax”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Schuyler Colfax, 17th Vice President (1869-1873). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/VP_Schuyler_Colfax.htm

In-Text:(Schuyler Colfax, n.d.)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Schuyler Colfax Biography, Career, Crédit Mobilier

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.osha.gov/oas/trianglefactoryfire-account.html

Samples:

“The building had only one fire escape, which collapsed during the rescue effort. Long tables and bulky machines trapped many of the victims. Panicked workers were crushed as they struggled with doors that were locked by managers to prevent theft, or doors that opened the wrong way. Only a few buckets of water were on hand to douse the flames. Outside, firefighters’ ladders were too short to reach the top floors and ineffective safety nets ripped like paper.”

“Frances Perkins, who became the Secretary of Labor under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, witnessed the horror from Washington Park, recalling later that what she saw convinced her that “…something must be done. We’ve got to turn this into some kind of victory, some kind of constructive action.” Perkins and other leaders with direct experience of the Triangle fire, like New York Governor Al Smith, soon helped marshal new workplace safety standards into law in the State of New York, setting an example for the rest of the country.”

MLA Citation:

“‘The Worst Day I Ever Saw’.” osha.gov. Occupational Safety & Health Administration, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.osha.gov/oas/trianglefactoryfire-account.html>.

In-Text: (“‘The Worst Day I Ever Saw'”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

“The Worst Day I Ever Saw”. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/oas/trianglefactoryfire-account.html

In-Text: (“The Worst Day I Ever Saw”, n.d.)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

Read More Comments Off on Triangle Shirtwaist Fire/OSHA.gov