Credible Sources for Education

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2017/04/27/peds.2016-2615

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Sample:

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bullying is a significant public health concern, and it has received considerable attention from the media and policymakers over the past decade, which has led some to believe that it is increasing. However, there are limited surveillance data on bullying to inform our understanding of such trends over the course of multiple years. The current study examined the prevalence of bullying and related behaviors between 2005 and 2014 and explored whether any such changes varied across schools or as a function of school-level covariates.”

CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of bullying and related behaviors generally decreased over this 10-year period with the most recent years showing the greatest improvements in school climate and reductions in bullying. Additional research is needed to identify factors that contributed to this declining trend.”

Description:

Results from a 10-year study conducted in Maryland schools shows a decrease in bullying behaviors and increase in school environment for grades 4-12.

Author(s):

  • Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Elise T. Pas, Benjamin Zablotsky, Catherine P. Bradshaw

Title:

  • Ten-Year Trends in Bullying and Related Attitudes Among 4th- to 12th-Graders

Publisher:

  • Pediatrics

Date:

  • May, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewinternet.org/2017/02/02/vast-majority-of-americans-say-benefits-of-childhood-vaccines-outweigh-risks/

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Sample:

“Yet, public concerns about childhood vaccines linger in the public discourse, often linked to a now discredited and retracted research study published nearly two decades ago that raised questions about a possible link between the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and autism. Despite assurances of vaccine safety from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics and a host of other scientific bodies that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine does not cause autism, a number of prominent figures have expressed concerns about the safety of childhood vaccines. President Donald Trump raised questions about the safety of childhood vaccines on the campaign trail and during the transition period met with Robert Kennedy Jr. reportedly about the possibility of leading a commission on vaccine safety and scientific integrity. Kennedy edited a book that argues that a preservative used in some vaccines causes neurological disorders, including autism.

A new Pew Research Center survey conducted prior to the election finds the “vaccine hesitant” views expressed by Trump and other public figures to be at odds with most Americans’ views. An overwhelming majority of Americans (82%) support requiring all healthy schoolchildren to be vaccinated for measles, mumps and rubella. Some 73% of Americans see high preventive health benefits from use of the MMR vaccine, and 66% believe there is a low risk of side effects from the vaccine. Overall, 88% believe that the benefits of these inoculations outweigh the risks.”

Description:

Report from Pew Research Center published in 2017 stating most Americans support required vaccination of schoolchildren and believe they are beneficial.

Author(s):

  • Cary Funk, Brian Kennedy, and Meg Hefferon

Title:

  • Vast Majority of Americans Say Benefits of Childhood Vaccines Outweigh Risks

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • February 2, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://psychology.uiowa.edu/sites/psychology.uiowa.edu/files/groups/nikolas/files/Barkley,%202014.pdf

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Sample:

“Symptoms of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) have been recognized for nearly 30 years as comprising a semiindependent set(s) of symptoms from the inattentive (IN) and hyperactive-impulsive (HI) symptoms involved in attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has only been within the past decade that research focusing specifically on SCT symptoms and on samples of SCT cases chosen independently from ADHD samples has increased so as to address the question of whether SCT is a distinct condition from ADHD or other disorders. All but two of these studies have focused on children but the two extant large scale studies on adults have replicated those findings. This Commentary highlights not only those findings concerning SCT that appear to be relatively robust, but also those patterns that appear to be emerging yet in need of further research to corroborate their association with SCT, as well as those barely or unexplored areas that may deserve more research. Evidence to date, including the many findings in this special issue, is nearing a critical mass that likely supports the conclusion that SCT is a distinct disorder of attention from ADHD, yet one that may overlap with it in about half of all cases. SCT has unique symptom dimensions and comorbidities from ADHD, probably distinct though lesser domains of impairment and demographic correlates, and perhaps unique cognitive deficits, causes and life course risks. These latter areas, however, are in need of substantially more research as is SCT in adults and treatments specifically designed for cases of SCT. Meanwhile, the name of the condition is premature, implying a known cognitive deficit that is as yet unknown, and is proving derogatory and offensive to patients, leading this author to recommend a change to Concentration Deficit Disorder.”

Description:

Article discussing Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) and whether it should be diagnosis and treated as separate from ADHD, as well as comparing the two. This article also discusses a change from the name Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) to Cognitive Deficit Disorder (CDD).

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000907/

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Sample:

“The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD.”

Description:

Article examining the history of ADHD, going back as much as 200 years or more to find the first signs of the disorder, up to knowledge we have today. This article looks at many different disorders defined throughout history with very similar criteria and symptoms, going all the way back to 1798.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3441936/

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Sample:

“This article describes a comprehensive meta-analysis that was conducted to estimate the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). A systematic literature review identified 86 studies of children and adolescents (N = 163,688 individuals) and 11 studies of adults (N = 14,112 individuals) that met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, more than half of which were published after the only previous meta-analysis of the prevalence of ADHD was completed. Although prevalence estimates reported by individual studies varied widely, pooled results suggest that the prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD is similar, whether ADHD is defined by parent ratings, teacher ratings, or a best estimate diagnostic procedure in children and adolescents (5.9–7.1 %), or by self-report measures in young adults (5.0 %). Analyses of diagnostic subtypes indicated that the predominantly inattentive type is the most common subtype in the population, but individuals with the combined type are more likely to be referred for clinical services. Additional research is needed to determine the etiology of the higher prevalence of ADHD in males than females and to clarify whether the prevalence of ADHD varies as a function of socioeconomic status or ethnicity. Finally, there were no significant prevalent differences between countries or regions of the world after controlling for differences in the diagnostic algorithms used to define ADHD. These results provide important support for the diagnostic validity of ADHD, and argue against the hypothesis that ADHD is a cultural construct that is restricted to the United States or any other specific culture.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of over 80 studies done on ADHD to determine the rate of prevalence of ADHD in youth and adults, previously estimated at 5.29% worldwide, though that rate varies greatly in a number of studies. A meta-analysis is a study of data from many other studies that have already been completed.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/prevalence.html

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/features/key-findings-adhd72013.html

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Sample:

“Important findings from this study include:

  • More than 1 in 10 (11%) US school-aged children had received an ADHD diagnosis by a health care provider by 2011, as reported by parents.
    • 6.4 million children reported by parents to have ever received a health care provider diagnosis of ADHD , including:
      • 1 in 5 high school boys
      • 1 in 11 high school girls
  • The percentage of US children 4-17 years of age with an ADHD diagnosis by a health care provider, as reported by parents, continues to increase.
    • A history of ADHD diagnosis by a health care provider increased by 42% between 2003 and 2011:
      • 7.8% had ever had a diagnosis in 2003
      • 9.5% had ever had a diagnosis in 2007
      • 11.0% had ever had a diagnosis in 2011
    • Average annual increase was approximately 5% per year”

Description:

Data from the Trends in the Parent-Report of Health Care Provider-Diagnosis and Medication Treatment for ADHD: United States, 2003—2011 report by the CDC. This report shows increases to those diagnosed with ADHD and being treated for it with medication since 2003.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/diagnosis.html

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Sample:

“People with ADHD show a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivityimpulsivity that interferes with functioning or development:

  1. Inattention: Six or more symptoms of inattention for children up to age 16, or five or more for adolescents 17 and older and adults; symptoms of inattention have been present for at least 6 months, and they are inappropriate for developmental level:
    • Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or with other activities.
    • Often has trouble holding attention on tasks or play activities.
    • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
    • Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., loses focus, side-tracked).
    • Often has trouble organizing tasks and activities.
    • Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to do tasks that require mental effort over a long period of time (such as schoolwork or homework).
    • Often loses things necessary for tasks and activities (e.g. school materials, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones).
    • Is often easily distracted
    • Is often forgetful in daily activities.”

Description:

CDC page with the diagnostic criteria for ADHD from DSM-5, including criteria for inattention and hyperactivity, and detailing changes from DSM-IV.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml

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Sample:

“Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.

  • Inattention means a person wanders off task, lacks persistence, has difficulty sustaining focus, and is disorganized; and these problems are not due to defiance or lack of comprehension.
  • Hyperactivity means a person seems to move about constantly, including in situations in which it is not appropriate; or excessively fidgets, taps, or talks. In adults, it may be extreme restlessness or wearing others out with constant activity.
  • Impulsivity means a person makes hasty actions that occur in the moment without first thinking about them and that may have high potential for harm; or a desire for immediate rewards or inability to delay gratification. An impulsive person may be socially intrusive and excessively interrupt others or make important decisions without considering the long-term consequences.”

Description:

National Institute of Mental Health page on ADHD including the ways to identify and treat ADHD and links to more information about the disorder. This is a great resource to start your research with as it not only provides a large detailed summary of many aspects of ADHD but also has many links to other credible sources on the topic.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0128248

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Sample:

Background

Children from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are at greater risk of a range of negative outcomes throughout their life course than their peers; however the specific mechanisms by which socioeconomic status relates to different health outcomes in childhood are as yet unclear.”

Conclusions

Socioeconomic disadvantage, conceptualised as reported difficulty in affording basic necessities (e.g. heating, food) has both direct and indirect impacts on a child’s risk of ADHD. Lower levels of parent involvement mediates this association, as does presence of adversity; with children exposed to adversity and those with less involved parents being at an increased risk of having ADHD. This study highlights the importance of home and environmental factors as small but important contributors toward the aetiology of ADHD.”

Description:

Study measuring the impact of “Socioeconomic disadvantage” on the risk and prevalence of ADHD in children, concluding it can directly impact this risk. Socioeconomic status (SES) can be a determinant of one’s health throughout their life, according to the authors. “Individuals and groups in differing socioeconomic strata are known to have disparate health outcomes, with those in the most disadvantaged groups at highest risk of poor health.”

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/features/adhd-keyfindings-psychiatric-comorbidity-school-children.html

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Sample:

Main Findings

Using data from the Project to Learn about ADHD in Youth (PLAY), the researchers found clear patterns of co-occurring conditions:

  • Children with ADHD were more than twice as likely as children without ADHD to have another mental disorder.
  • More than half of children (60%) with ADHD had another mental disorder (blue vertical bar for children with ADHD in the chart), most often conduct disorder (CD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).
  • One in four children (25%) with ADHD had two or more other mental disorders (red vertical bar for children with ADHD in the chart).”

What This Study Means

  • Most children with ADHD may benefit from treatments beyond those specifically for ADHD.
  • Children with ADHD and another mental disorder could benefit from interventions that prevent dropping out of school and criminal activity.
  • Physicians can use this information to understand the needs of children with ADHD and inform the care plans developed for these children.”

Description:

CDC summary of a study done by the Journal of Attention Disorders on how many children diagnosed with ADHD also have another mental disorder, and the effects on the children of having to deal with multiple disorders. The correlation between the presence of one condition and another in an individual is known as comorbidty.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html

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Sample:

“Economic Cost

  • Using a prevalence rate of 5%, the annual societal ‘‘cost of illness’’ for ADHD is estimated to be between $36 and $52 billion, in 2005 dollars. It is estimated to be between $12,005 and $17,458 annually per individual.
  • There were an estimated 7 million ambulatory care visits for ADHD in 2006.
  • The total excess cost of ADHD in the US in 2000 was $31.6 billion. Of this total, $1.6 billion was for the treatment of patients, $12.1 billion was for all other health care costs of persons with ADHD, $14.2 billion was for all other health care costs of family members with ADHD, and $3.7 billion was for the work loss cost of adults with ADHD and adult family members of persons with ADHD.
  • ADHD creates a significant financial burden regarding the cost of medical care and work loss for patients and family members. The annual average direct cost for each per ADHD patient was $1,574, compared to $541 among matched controls. The annual average payment (direct plus indirect cost) per family member was $2,728 for non-ADHD family members of ADHD patients versus $1,440 for family members of matched controls.
  • Across 10 countries, it was projected that ADHD was associated with 143.8 million lost days of productivity each year. Most of this loss can be attributed to ADHD and not co-occurring conditions.
  • Workers with ADHD were more likely to have at least one sick day in the past month compared to workers without ADHD.”

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm

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Sample:

“Only 7% of U.S. parents are worried about cyberbullying, even though 33% of teenagers have been victims of cyberbullying ”

“95% of social media-using teens who have witnessed cruel behavior on social networking sites say they have seen others ignoring the mean behavior; 55% witness this frequently”

MLA Citation:

“Cyberbullying Statistics.” internetsafety101.org. Enough is Enough, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm>.

In-Text: (“Cyberbullying Statistics”)

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APA Citation:

Cyberbullying statistics. (n.d.). Enough is Enough. Retrieved from http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm

In-Text: (Cyberbullying statistics)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf

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Sample:

“This document reports data from the 2011 School Crime Supplement (SCS) of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The Web Tables show the extent to which students with different personal characteristics report bullying and cyberbullying. Estimates include responses by student characteristics: student sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and household income. The U.S. Census Bureau (Census) appended additional data from the 2009–10 Common Core of Data (CCD) and the 2009–10 Private School Universe Survey (PSS) to generate tables showing the extent to which bullying and cyber-bullying are reported by students in schools with different characteristics. School characteristics examined are region; sector (public or private); locale; level; enrollment size; student-to-full-time-equivalent (FTE) teacher ratio; percentage of combined American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/ Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and students of two or more races; and percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-priced lunch.”

MLA Citation:

“Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results From the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey.” nces.ed.gov. U.S. Department of Education, Aug. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf>.

In-Text: (“Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying”)

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APA Citation:

Student reports of bullying and cyber-bullying: Results from the 2011 school crime supplement to the national crime victimization survey. (2013, Aug.). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf

In-Text: (Student reports of bullying and cyber-bullying)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/vio-a0039317.pdf

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Sample:

“Although research is consistent that traditional bullying andharassment is more prevalent, experts note that technology-based bullying and harassment may be more distressing to victims because online harassers have the ability to post pictures or videos, anonymously to widespread audiences; the aggression can reach targets at any time of the day and night, including in their homes; more people may see and join in the harassment; and youth may have difficulty removing negative content or stopping the harassment once it is online (Dempsey et al., 2009; Fredstrom et al., 2011; Kowalski & Limber, 2007; Mishna et al., 2009; Sticca & Perren, 2013). Although these are testable hypotheses, so far they have not been the focus of much empirical study. One comparative study found that after controlling for traditional or school-based victimization, electronic victimization was still predictive of problems with self-esteem, anxiety, and depression (Fredstrom et al., 2011), and others have found some differences in the relationship patterns between perpetration and victimization and psychosocial outcomes, depending on whether the harassment was traditional or used new technology (Kowalski & Limber, 2013; Wang, Nansel, & Iannotti, 2011). There is also evidence that youth who are victims of multiple types of peer harassment, including technology-based harassment, report depression, injury and medical concerns at higher rates than traditional victims (Wang et al., 2010).”

MLA Citation:

Mitchell, Kimberly J., Lisa M. Jones, Heather A. Turner, Anne Shattuck, and Janis Wolak. “The Role of Technology in Peer Harassment: Does It Amplify Harm for Youth?” apa.org. American Psychological Association, 1 Jun. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/vio-a0039317.pdf>.

In-Text: (Mitchell et al.)

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APA Citation:

Mitchell, K. J., Jones, L. M., Turner, H. A., Shattuck, A., & Wolak, J. (2015, June 1). The Role of Technology in Peer Harassment: Does It Amplify Harm for Youth?. Psychology of Violence. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039317

In-Text: (Mitchell, Jones, Turner, Shattuck, & Wolak, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://cyberbullying.org/summary-of-our-cyberbullying-research/ (Copy and paste if link doesn’t work)

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Sample:

“At the Cyberbullying Research Center we have been collecting data from middle and high school students since 2002. We have surveyed more than 15,000 students from middle and high schools from across the United States in eleven unique projects. The following two charts show the percent of respondents who have experienced cyberbullying at some point in their lifetime across our nine most recent studies. Our two earliest studies (from 2004 and 2005) are excluded from this because they were online convenience samples and therefore cannot be easily compared to the other studies. The nine most recent studies have all been random samples of known populations in schools which allows for improved reliability and validity. Please see our Research in Review addendum for more details about each of the samples.”

MLA Citation:

Patchin, Justin W. “Summary of Our Cyberbullying Research (2004-2015).” cyberbullying.org. Cyberbullying Research Center, 1 May 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://cyberbullying.org/summary-of-our-cyberbullying-research/>.

In-Text: (Patchin)

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APA Citation:

Patchin, J. W. (2015, May 1). Summary of Our cyberbullying research (2004-2015). Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved from http://cyberbullying.org/summary-of-our-cyberbullying-research/

In-Text: (Patchin, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160202110714.htm (Copy and paste if link doesn’t work)

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Sample:

“Many K-12 school efforts to reduce bullying have proven not very effective, leading educators to wonder what bullying prevention approach works best. A new study finds one anti-bullying program works extremely well. The study of more than 7,000 students in 77 elementary schools in Finland found that one program greatly benefited the mental health of sixth graders who were bullied the most, significantly improving their self-esteem and reducing their depression.”

MLA Citation:

“Anti-bullying program focused on bystanders helps the students who need it the most.” sciencedaily.com. Science Daily, 2 Feb. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160202110714.htm>.

In-Text: (“Anti-bullying program focused on bystanders helps the students who need it the most”)

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APA Citation:

Anti-bullying program focused on bystanders helps the students who need it the most. (2016, Feb. 2). Science Daily. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160202110714.htm

In-Text: (Anti-bullying program focused on bystanders helps the students who need it the most)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_math_2015/#mathematics?grade=4

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Sample:

“In 2015, students had an average score in mathematics of 240 points at grade 4 and 282 points at grade 8 on separate 0-500 point scales. The 2015 average scores were 1 and 2 points lower, respectively, than the average scores in 2013. Scores at both grades were higher than those from the earliest mathematics assessments in 1990 by 27 points at grade 4 and 20 points at grade 8.”

MLA Citation:

“Mathematics & Reading Assessments.” nationsreportcard.gov. National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_math_2015/#mathematics?grade=4>.

In-Text: (“Mathematics & Reading Assessments.”)

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APA Citation:

Mathematics & reading assessments. (2015). National Assessment of Educational Progress. Retrieved from http://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_math_2015/#mathematics?grade=4

In-Text: (Mathematics & reading assessments, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2016/2016100.pdf

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“In France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom, the percentage of 3- to 4-year-olds enrolled in preprimary or primary education programs in 2011 was above 90 percent, whereas in the United States, the rate was 64 percent. In the United States, it was not until age 6 that at least 90 percent of the population was enrolled in formal education. G-20 countries with enrollment rates below 20 percent among 3- to 4-year-olds included Indonesia and Turkey. In all G-20 countries except France and Italy, a higher percentage of 3- to 4-year-olds were enrolled in 2011 than in 2001. Among 5- to 14-year-olds, all reporting G-20 countries had universal or near universal (more than 90 percent) school participation in 2011. At ages 15–19, participation rates again varied—from 34 percent in China to 92 percent in Germany, with U.S. participation at 80 percent—which may reflect different policies regarding the age at which compulsory education ends. In the United States and four other countries, compulsory education ends at age 17. In 11 countries, compulsory education ends when students are between ages 11 and 16. In Germany, attendance is required until 18 (the highest of the G-20 countries). There were few changes in enrollment rates between 2001 and 2011 among 5- to 14-year-olds or 15- to 19-year-olds in the G-20 countries (indicators 2 and 3).”

MLA Citation:

Stephens, Maria, Laura Warren, Ariana Harner, and Eugene Owen. “Comparative Indicators of Education in the United States and Other G-20 Countries: 2015.” nces.ed.gov. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Dec. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2016/2016100.pdf>.

In-Text: (Stephens et al. INSERT PAGE NO.)

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APA Citation:

Stephens, M., Warren, L., Harner, A., & Owen, E. (2015, Dec.). Comparative indicators of education in the United States and other G-20 countries: 2015. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2016/2016100.pdf

In-Text: (Stephens, Warrens, Harner & Owen, 2015, p. INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf

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“The Indicators of School Crime and Safety provides the most recent national indicators on school crime and safety. These indicators demonstrate that improvements have occurred in the safety of students: between 1992 and 2002, the violent crime victimization rate at school declined from 48 violent victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 24 such victimizations in 2002. Even so, violence, theft, bullying, drugs, and firearms are still prevalent: students ages 12–18 were victims of about 659,000 violent crimes and 1.1 million crimes of theft at school in 2002.”

MLA Citation:

DeVoe, Jill, Katharin Peter, Phillip Kaufman, Amanda Miller, Margaret Noonan, Thomas Snyder, and Katrina Baum. “Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2004.” nces.ed.gov.  U.S. Departments of Education and Justice. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Nov. 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf>.

In-Text: (DeVoe et al. INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

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APA Citation:

DeVoe, J., Peter, K., Kaufman, P., Miller, A., Noonan, M., Snyder, T., & Katrina Baum. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf

In-Text: (DeVoe et al., 2004, p. INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43254.pdf

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“There are several federal initiatives that are specifically focused on student bullying, including interagency initiatives. In addition, there are a variety of federal initiatives that are not solely or primarily focused on student bullying, but permit some funds to be used for this purpose. Representatives from the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Education, Health and Human Services, the Interior, and Justice, as well as the Federal Trade Commission and the White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, have formed a Federal Partners in Bullying Prevention Steering Committee. The Federal Partners work to coordinate policy, research, and communications on bullying topics. The Federal Partners have created a website, http://www.stopbullying.gov, which provides extensive resources on bullying, including information on how schools can address bullying.”

MLA Citation:

McCallion, Gail and Jody Feder. “Student Bullying: Overview of Research, Federal Initiatives, and Legal Issues.” fas.org. Congressional Research Service, 18 Oct. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43254.pdf>.

In-Text: (McCallion and Feder INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

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APA Citation:

McCallion, G. & J. Feder (2013, Oct. 18). Student bullying: Overview of research, federal initiatives, and legal issues. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43254.pdf

In-Text: (McCallion & Feder, 2013, p. INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/bullying-jaana-juvonen-233108

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“Everyone knows that school bullies torment their peers to compensate for low self-esteem, and that they are scorned as much as they are feared.

But “everyone” got it wrong, according to Jaana Juvonen, a professor of developmental psychology whose decade of groundbreaking research on mean kids and their hapless victims is changing the way parents and schools think about bullying.”

MLA Citation:

Lin, Judy. “Psychologist’s studies make sense of bullying.” newsroom.ucla.edu. UCLA Office of Media Relations, 03 May 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/bullying-jaana-juvonen-233108>.

In-Text: (Lin)

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APA Citation:

Lin, J. (2012, May 03). Psychologist’s studies make sense of bullying. UCLA Office of Media Relations. Retrieved from http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/bullying-jaana-juvonen-233108

In-Text: (Lin, 2012)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://cyberbullying.org/facts/

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

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“There are only three studies that we are aware of that have explored cyberbullying experiences of students across the United States over time. The first analysis have been conducted by our friends at the Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire. Examining the three waves of the Youth Internet Safety Survey (2000, 2005, 2010), they find a slight increase in cyberbullying behaviors over that time period (from 6% to 9% to 11%).”

MLA Citation:

“Cyberbullying Facts.” cyberbullying.org. Cyberbullying Research Center,  n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://cyberbullying.org/facts/>.

In-Text: (“Cyberbullying Facts”)

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APA Citation:

Cyberbullying facts. (n.d.). Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved from http://cyberbullying.org/facts/

In-Text: (Cyberbullying facts)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.apa.org/research/action/bullying.aspx

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Sample:

“Psychological research has debunked several myths associated with bullying, including one that states bullies are usually the most unpopular students in school. A 2000 study by psychologist Philip Rodkin, PhD, and colleagues involving fourth-through-sixth-grade boys found that highly aggressive boys may be among the most popular and socially connected children in elementary classrooms, as viewed by their fellow students and even their teachers. Another myth is that the tough and aggressive bullies are basically anxious and insecure individuals who use bullying as a means of compensating for poor self-esteem. Using a number of different methods including projective tests and stress hormones, Olweus concludes that there is no support for such a view. Most bullies had average or better than average self-esteem.”

MLA Citation:

“School Bullying is Nothing New, But Psychologists Identify New Ways to Prevent It.” apa.org. American Psychological Association, 29 Oct. 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.apa.org/research/action/bullying.aspx>.

In-Text: (“School Bullying is Nothing New, But Psychologists Identify New Ways to Prevent It”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

School bullying is nothing new, but psychologists identify new ways to prevent it. (2004, Oct. 29). American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/research/action/bullying.aspx

In-Text: (School bullying is nothing new, but psychologists identify new ways to prevent it)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2016/01/end-bullying-get-the-cool-kids-to-help.html#

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“For all of the efforts schools put into reducing bullying, there’s actually a dearth of rigorous evidence about what makes for effective anti-bullying intervention. The classic approach — pile kids into an auditorium and lecture them on the dangers of bullying, perhaps including a sad story about its effects along the way — doesn’t appear to really work. Some researchers believe that the reason it doesn’t work is that students, like people in general, don’t really take their cues for how to behave from authority figures — they take them from their peers. If students think their peers enjoy bullying, or at least aren’t opposed to it, they’ll be more likely to not just engage in bullying themselves, but also to fail to intervene when they see other people doing it.”

MLA Citation:

Singal, Jesse. “Want to End Bullying? Get the Popular Students to Help.” nymag.com. New York Media LLC, 6 Jan. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2016/01/end-bullying-get-the-cool-kids-to-help.html#>.

In-Text: (Singal)

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APA Citation:

Singal, J. (2016, Jan. 6). Want to end bullying? Get the popular students to help. New York Media LLC. Retrieved from http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2016/01/end-bullying-get-the-cool-kids-to-help.html#

In-Text: (Singal, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/13/us/13bully.html

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“Adding an extra incendiary element, the school district has suffered eight student suicides in the last two years, leading state officials to declare a “suicide contagion.” Whether antigay bullying contributed to any of these deaths is sharply disputed; some friends and teachers say four of the students were struggling with issues of sexual identity.”

MLA Citation:

Eckholm, Erik. “In Suburb, Battle Goes Public on Bullying of Gay Students.” nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 13 Sept. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/13/us/13bully.html>.

In-Text: (Eckholm)

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APA Citation:

Eckholm, E. (2013, Sept. 13). In suburb, battle goes public on bullying of gay students. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/13/us/13bully.html

In-Text: (Eckholm, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/roles-kids-play/index.html

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Sample:

“The roles kids play in bullying are not limited to those who bully others and those who are bullied. Some researchers talk about the “circle of bullying” to define both those directly involved in bullying and those who actively or passively assist the behavior or defend against it.”

MLA Citation:

“The Roles Kids Play.” stopbullying.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/roles-kids-play/index.html>.

In-Text: (“The Roles Kids Play”)

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APA Citation:

The roles kids play. (n.d.). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/roles-kids-play/index.html

In-Text: (The roles kids play)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jweisz/files/1994c.pdf

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“A meta-analysis of 47 studies was used to shed light on inconsistencies in the concurrent association between parental caregiving and child externalizing behavior. Parent-child associations were strongest when the measure of caregiving relied on observations or interviews, as opposed to questionnaires, and when the measure tapped combinations of parent behaviors (patterns), as opposed to single behaviors. Stronger parent-child associations were also found for older than for younger children, and for mothers than for fathers. Finally, externalizing was more strongly linked to parental caregiving for boys than for girls, especially among preadolescents and their mothers. The metaanalysis helps account for inconsistencies in findings across previous studies and supports theories emphasizing reciprocity of parent and child behavior.”

MLA Citation:

Rothbaum, Fred and John R. Weisz. “Parental Caregiving and Child Externalizing Behavior in Nonclinical Samples: A Meta-Analysis.” American Psychological Association, Psychological Bulletin Vol. 116, No. 1 (1994): 55-74. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jweisz/files/1994c.pdf>.

In-Text: (Rothbaum and Weisz)

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APA Citation:

Rothbaum, F. and Weisz, J. R. (1994). Parental caregiving and child externalizing behavior in nonclinical samples: A meta-analysis. American Psychological Association, Psychological Bulletin Vol. 116, No. 1: 55-74. Retrieved from http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jweisz/files/1994c.pdf

In-Text: (Rothbaum and Weisz, 1994)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1617081/

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Sample:

“A well-known distinction in the field of child psychology and psychiatry is the distinction between “externalizing” and “internalizing” disorders (Achenbach, 1978). The construct of externalizing behavior problems refers to a grouping of behavior problems that are manifested in children’s outward behavior and reflect the child negatively acting on the external environment (Campbell, Shaw, & Gilliom, 2000; Eisenberg et al., 2001). In the research literature, these externalizing disorders consist of disruptive, hyperactive, and aggressive behaviors (Hinshaw, 1987). In the context of this paper, three key behavior problems similarly make up this construct: aggression, delinquency, and hyperactivity. Other terms used to describe externalizing behavior problems include “conduct problems,” “antisocial,” and “undercontrolled” (Hinshaw).”

MLA Citation:

Liu, Jianghong. “Childhood Externalizing Behavior: Theory and Implications.” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 17 (2005): 93–103. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1617081/>.

In-Text: (Liu)

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APA Citation:

Liu, J. (2004). Childhood externalizing behavior: theory and implications. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 17: 93–103. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1617081/

In-Text: (Liu, 2004)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.responsiblehomeschooling.org/policy-issues/abuse-and-neglect/educational-neglect/

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Sample:

“Homeschooled children can succeed academically, but only if given proper academic support from their parents. If homeschooled children are to succeed academically, their parents need to take their commitment seriously and provide individual instruction, seek out resources, and create a rich educational environment for their children. When these things do not happen—when parents are too overwhelmed to put in the effort or when homeschooled children are expected to work or provide instruction for their younger siblings rather than attending to their own studies—homeschooled children suffer educational neglect and may find their future prospects severely curtailed.”

MLA Citation:

“Homeschooling & Educational Neglect.” responsiblehomeschooling.org. Coalition for Responsible Home Education, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.responsiblehomeschooling.org/policy-issues/abuse-and-neglect/educational-neglect/>.

In-Text: (“Homeschooling & Educational Neglect”)

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APA Citation:

Homeschooling & educational neglect. (n.d.). Coalition for Responsible Home Education. Retrieved from http://www.responsiblehomeschooling.org/policy-issues/abuse-and-neglect/educational-neglect/

In-Text: (Homeschooling & educational neglect)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/04/10/racism-in-schools-is-pushing-more-black-families-to-homeschool-their-children/

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Sample:

“Homeschooling, common among white Americans, is showing an increase among African-Americans kids, as well. African Americans now make up about 10 percent of all homeschooled children in this fastest-growing form of education. However, the reasons for black kids to be homeschooled may not be the same as for white kids. My research shows that black parents homeschool their children due to white racism.”

MLA Citation:

Mazama, Amy. “Racism in schools is pushing more black families to homeschool their children.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 4 April. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/04/10/racism-in-schools-is-pushing-more-black-families-to-homeschool-their-children/>.

In-Text: (Mazama)

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APA Citation:

Mazama, A. (2015, April 4). Racism in schools is pushing more black families to homeschool their children. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/04/10/racism-in-schools-is-pushing-more-black-families-to-homeschool-their-children/

In-Text: (Mazama, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://educationnext.org/home-schooling-goes-mainstream/

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Sample:

“Though parents and tutors have been teaching children in the home for centuries, in the late 1960s and 1970s there emerged for the first time in the United States a political movement that adopted this practice as a radical, countercultural critique of the public education system. Conservatives who felt the public schools had sold out to secularism and progressivism joined with progressives who felt the public schools were bastions of conservative conformity to challenge the notion that all children should attend them. By the early 1990s they had won the right to home school in every state. Some home-school advocacy groups have attempted to secure a federal law or Supreme Court ruling that would establish uniform national guidelines grounded in First or Fourteenth Amendment rights, but to date such efforts have failed (to the great relief of home-school advocacy groups that oppose this strategy). Home schooling thus falls under state law, and these laws vary widely. A complex matrix of specific statutory language and judicial interpretations emerged out of the maelstrom of political activism over the issue that started in the late 1970s. In Indiana and Michigan, for example, there are virtually no restrictions on home schoolers and very little accountability to government. Home-schooling parents are not even required to register. In Pennsylvania and New York, state agencies oversee and regulate home schooling in a number of ways, from curricular requirements to parental qualifications to mandatory home visits by certified personnel to obligatory standardized testing.”

MLA Citation:

Gaither, Milton. “Home Schooling Goes Mainstream.” EducationNext. President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2009. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://educationnext.org/home-schooling-goes-mainstream/>.

In-Text: (Gaither)

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APA Citation:

Gaither, M. (2009). Home schooling goes mainstream. President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved from http://educationnext.org/home-schooling-goes-mainstream/

In-Text: (Gaither, 2009)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/conation/maslow.html

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Sample:

“Norwood (1999) proposed that Maslow’s hierarchy can be used to describe the kinds of information individual’s seek at different levels of development. For example, individuals at the lowest level seek coping information in order to meet their basic needs. Information that is not directly connected to helping a person meet his or her needs in a very short time span is simply left unattended. Individuals at the safety level need helping information. They seek to be assisted in seeing how they can be safe and secure. Enlightening information is sought by individuals seeking to meet their belongingness needs. Quite often this can be found in books or other materials on relationship development. Empowering information is sought by people at the esteem level. They are looking for information on how their egos can be developed. Finally, people in the growth levels of cognitive, aesthetic, and self-actualization seek edifying information. While Norwood does not specifically address the level of transcendence, I believe it is safe to say that individuals at this stage would seek information on how to connect to something beyond themselves or to how others could be edified.”

MLA Citation:

Huitt, William. “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.” Education Psychology Interactive. Valdosta State University, 2007.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/conation/maslow.html>.

In-Text: (Huitt)

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APA Citation:

Huitt, W. (2007). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/conation/maslow.html

In-Text: (Huitt, 2007)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://home.ubalt.edu/tmitch/642/Articles%20syllabus/Locke%20et%20al%20New%20dir%20goal%20setting%2006.pdf

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Sample:

“Goal-setting theory is summarized regarding the effectiveness of specific, difficult goals; the relationship of goals to affect; the mediators of goal effects; the relation of goals to self-efficacy; the moderators of goal effects; and the generality of goal effects across people, tasks, countries, time spans, experimental designs, goal sources (i.e., self-set, set jointly with others, or assigned), and dependent variables. Recent studies concerned with goal choice and the factors that influence it, the function of learning goals, the effect of goal framing, goals and affect (well-being), group goal setting, goals and traits, macrolevel goal setting, and conscious versus subconscious goals are described. Suggestions are given for future research.”

MLA Citation:

Locke, Edwin and Gary Latham. “New Directions in Goal-Setting Theory.” Current Directions in Psychological Science (n.d.):  265-268.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://home.ubalt.edu/tmitch/642/Articles%20syllabus/Locke%20et%20al%20New%20dir%20goal%20setting%2006.pdf>.

In-Text: (Locke, Latham)

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APA Citation:

Locke, E, & Latham, G (n.d.). New directions in Goal-Setting Theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, Volume 15-Number 5. Retrieved from http://home.ubalt.edu/tmitch/642/Articles%20syllabus/Locke%20et%20al%20New%20dir%20goal%20setting%2006.pdf

In-Text: (Locke, Latham)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.forbes.com/sites/sebastianbailey/2012/10/02/the-truth-about-goals/

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Sample:

“Scientific research has unearthed the basic principles behind goal-setting. A 2011 meta-analysis (which is a kind of mega-study of lots of smaller research studies) examined the results of 38 studies into the effect of group goals on performance. It revealed three key characteristics of performance-boosting goals…”

MLA Citation:

Bailey, Sebastian. “The Truth About Goals.” forbes.com. Forbes LLC, 10 Oct. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.forbes.com/sites/sebastianbailey/2012/10/02/the-truth-about-goals/>.

In-Text: (Bailey)

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APA Citation:

Bailey, S (2012, Oct 10). The Truth About Goals. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/sebastianbailey/2012/10/02/the-truth-about-goals/

In-Text: (Bailey)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://time.com/growing-up-with-adhd/

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Sample:

“But Saorla’s perpetual motion isn’t what concerns Meenagh the most. Being fidgety and easily distracted are two of the most common and recognized symptoms of ADHD, often leading to poor performance in school, the most recognized fallout of the condition. But the 5% to 11% of American children 4 to 17 years of age who are diagnosed with the disorder—the numbers are up for debate depending on whom you talk to—also face a lifetime of increased risk for accidents, teen pregnancy, drug and alcohol abuse, smoking, and even dying prematurely. Overall, boys (13.2%) are more likely than girls (5.6%) to be given an ADHD diagnosis.”

MLA Citation:

Foley, Denise. “Growing Up with ADHD”. time.com. Time Inc., n.d. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://time.com/growing-up-with-adhd/>.

In-Text: (Foley)

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APA Citation:

Foley, Denise (n.d.). Growing Up with ADHD. Retrieved from http://time.com/growing-up-with-adhd/

In-Text: (Foley)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.boston.com/jobs/news/jobdoc/2014/10/creating_landmark_research-bas.html

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Sample:

“Q: You worked with researchers from Harvard to look at the use of e-readers by students with dyslexia. What did you find out?

A: We wanted to know about whether iPods, Kindles, iPads or other e-readers could help dyslexic students read faster and more accurately. Landmark high school students were tested by a visual learning lab to see if changing fonts, word spacing or letter size could help reduce ‘visual attention deficit,’ which is an inability to concentrate on letters or words. Researchers found that the short lines on an e-reader can reduce this distraction and help readers concentrate. So now we know that these devices aren’t just technological gadgets but an educational resource for those with dyslexia.”

MLA Citation:

Keene, Cindy Atoji. “Creating ‘Landmark’ research-based strategies for dyslexic readers”. www.boston.com. Boston Globe Media Partners, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.boston.com/jobs/news/jobdoc/2014/10/creating_landmark_research-bas.html>.

In-Text: (Keene)

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APA Citation:

Keene, C. (n.d.). Creating ‘Landmark’ research-based strategies for dyslexic readers. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/jobs/news/jobdoc/2014/10/creating_landmark_research-bas.html

In-Text: (Keene)

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Read More Comments Off on Dyslexia and Schools, Interview About New Learning Methods – Boston Globe

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URL:

– http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/dyslexia/what-is-dyslexia

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Sample:

“As with other learning disabilities, dyslexia is a lifelong challenge that people are born with. This language processing disorder can hinder reading, writing, spelling and sometimes even speaking. Dyslexia is not a sign of poor intelligence or laziness. It is also not the result of impaired vision. Children and adults with dyslexia simply have a neurological disorder that causes their brains to process and interpret information differently.”

MLA Citation:

“What is Dyslexia?”. www.ncld.org. National Center for Learning Disabilities, n.d. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/dyslexia/what-is-dyslexia>.

In-Text: (What is Dyslexia?)

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APA Citation:

What is Dyslexia? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/dyslexia/what-is-dyslexia

In-Text: (What is Dyslexia?)

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Credible Source. MLA and APA Cited. ACCEPTABLE FOR SCHOOLWORK AND RESEARCH.

Read More Comments Off on Dyslexia, Information and Effects of the Learning Disorder – ncld.org

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://drb.lifestreamcenter.net/Lessons/RomJul/index.htm

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Sample:

“Drama is a literary composition involving conflict, action crisis and atmosphere designed to be acted by players on a stage before an audience. This definition may be applied to motion picture drama as well as to the traditional stage.

Apply these questions to a recent movie you have seen or a radio or television drama,

Conflict

What did the leading character want? What stood in his way? (People – environment- personality, etc,) What was the high point of tension or the crisis? (This is where the leading character must make a crucial decision that will effect the outcome of the play.)”

MLA Citation:

Burleson, Dr. Carolyn. “Drama”. drb.lifestreamcenter.com. Dr. Carolyn Burleson, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://drb.lifestreamcenter.net/Lessons/RomJul/index.htm>.

In-Text: (Burleson)

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APA Citation:

Burleson, Dr. C. (n.d.). Drama. Retrieved from http://drb.lifestreamcenter.net/Lessons/RomJul/index.htm

In-Text: (Burleson)

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Read More Comments Off on Elements of Drama in Literature – Guide

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URL:

http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2010/apr/22/group-proposes-allowing-cell-phone-use-in-school/

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Sample:

“”The culture is changing and (phones) are becoming a larger part of life, and it’s unreasonable to expect phones to be off all day,” said Drew Stover, a Bearden High senior and member of the Knoxville/Knox County Mayor’s Youth Action Council.”

MLA Citation:

Alapo, Lola. “Group proposes allowing cell phone use in school”. knoxnews.com. Scripps Interactive Newspaper Co., 22 Apr. 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2010/apr/22/group-proposes-allowing-cell-phone-use-in-school/>.

In-Text: (Alapo)

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APA Citation:

Alapo, L. (22 Apr, 2010). Group proposes allowing cell phone use in school. Retrieved from http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2010/apr/22/group-proposes-allowing-cell-phone-use-in-school/

In-Text: (Alapo)

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Read More Comments Off on School Board Considering Allowing Cell Phone Use – News Article

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/on-education/2009/06/23/one-third-of-teens-use-cellphones-to-cheat-in-school

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Sample:

“Forget passing handwritten notes underneath desks or inking your arm with essential math formulas before a killer test. If students today want to cheat, they have a more insidious tool at their disposal: cellphones. More than one third of teens with cellphones admit to having stored information on them to look at during a test or texting friends about answers, a new survey finds.”

MLA Citation:

Miners, Zach. “One Third of Teens Use Cellphones to Cheat in School”. usnews.com. US News and World Report LP, 23 Jun. 2009.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/on-education/2009/06/23/one-third-of-teens-use-cellphones-to-cheat-in-school>.

In-Text: (Miners)

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APA Citation:

Miners, Zach. (23 Jun, 2009). One Third of Teens Use Cellphones to Cheat in School. Retrieved from http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/on-education/2009/06/23/one-third-of-teens-use-cellphones-to-cheat-in-school

In-Text: (Miners, 2009)

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Read More Comments Off on Cell Phone Use in Schools, Students Cheating – US News

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep05/mending.aspx

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Sample:

“Although most people think that good memory means good retrieval, good memory is actually good learning–forming a strong association when acquiring new information, say rehab experts. That’s why they often advise memory-impaired people to systematically take note of things. For example, they can learn to habitually take a mental snapshot when they put down their keys–say, next to the fruit bowl on the kitchen table.”

MLA Citation:

Adelson, Rachel. “Mending Memory”. apa.org. American Psychological Association, Sep. 2005.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep05/mending.aspx>.

In-Text: (Adelson)

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APA Citation:

Adelson, R. (Sep, 2005). Mending Memory. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep05/mending.aspx

In-Text: (Adelson, 2005)

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Read More Comments Off on Memory, Psychology Research

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/index.html

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Sample:

“Quite apart from the benefit and moral value of an altruistic approach to treating colleagues as human beings and respecting human dignity in all its forms, research and observations show that well motivated employees are more productive and creative. The inverse also holds true. The schematic below indicates the potential contribution the practical application of the principles this paper has on reducing work content in the organization.”

MLA Citation:

“Employee Motivation: Theory and Practice”. accel-team.com. Accel-Team, 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/index.html>.

In-Text: (Employee Motivation; Theory and Practice”)

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APA Citation:

Employee Motivation: Theory and Practice. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/index.html

In-Text: (Employee Motivation: Theory and Practice)

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Read More Comments Off on Employee Motivation, Managers

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://personality-project.org/revelle/publications/broadbent/broad.html

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Sample:

“Motivation is the vital link between knowing and doing, between thinking and action, between competence and performance. Theories of motivation explain why rats solve mazes faster when hungry than well fed, why bricklayers lay more bricks when given harder goals than easier ones, why assistant professors write more articles just before tenure review than after, and why people choose to be fighter pilots rather than dentists. How to motivate employees to produce more widgets and how to motivate oneself to do onerous tasks are the subjects of many management and self help courses.”

MLA Citation:

Revelle, William. “Individual Differences in personality and motivation: ‘Non-cognitive’ determinants of cognitive performance”. personality-project.org. Northwestern University, 20 Sep. 1991.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://personality-project.org/revelle/publications/broadbent/broad.html>.

In-Text: (Revelle)

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APA Citation:

Revelle, W. (20 Sep, 1991).Individual Differences in personality and motivation: ‘Non-cognitive’ determinants of cognitive performance. Retrieved from http://personality-project.org/revelle/publications/broadbent/broad.html

In-Text: (Revelle, 1991)

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Read More Comments Off on Personality, Motivation, Cognitive Performance

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Motivation?s=t

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Sample:

“the act or an instance of motivating, or providing with a reason to act in a certain way: I don’t understand what her motivation was for quitting her job. Synonyms: motive, inspiration, inducement, cause, impetus.”

MLA Citation:

“Motivation”. dictionary.reference.com. Dictionary.com LLC, 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Motivation?s=t>.

In-Text: (dictionary.reference.com)

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APA Citation:

Motivation (Definition). (2013). Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Motivation?s=t

In-Text: (dictionary.reference.com, 2013)

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Read More Comments Off on Definition of Motivation

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.joe.org/joe/1998june/rb3.php

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Sample:

“The study examined the ranked importance of motivational factors of employees at The Ohio State University’s Piketon Research and Extension Center and Enterprise Center. The hand-delivered descriptive survey addressed ten motivating factors in the context of employee motivation theory. Findings suggest interesting work and good pay are key to higher employee motivation. Carefully designed reward systems that include job enlargement, job enrichment, promotions, internal and external stipends, monetary, and non-monetary compensation should be considered.”

MLA Citation:

Lindner, James. “Understanding Employee Motivation”. joe.org. Journal of Extension. June 1998.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.joe.org/joe/1998june/rb3.php>.

In-Text: (Lindner)

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APA Citation:

Lindner, J. (June, 1998). Understanding Employee Motivation. Retrieved from http://www.joe.org/joe/1998june/rb3.php

In-Text: (LInder, 1998)

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Read More Comments Off on Motivating Employees, Management

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/motivation/motivate.html

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Sample:

“Most motivation theorists assume that motivation is involved in the performance of all learned responses; that is, a learned behavior will not occur unless it is energized.  The major question among psychologists, in general, is whether motivation is a primary or secondary influence on behavior.  That is, are changes in behavior better explained by principles of environmental/ecological influences, perception, memory, cognitive development, emotion, explanatory style, or personality or are concepts unique to motivation more pertinent.”

MLA Citation:

Huitt, William. “Motivation to Learn: An Overview”. edpsychinteractive.com. Valdosta State University, 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/motivation/motivate.html>.

In-Text: (Huitt)

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APA Citation:

Huitt, W. (2011). Motivation to Learn: An Overview. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/motivation/motivate.html

In-Text: (Huitt, 2011)

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Read More Comments Off on Learning and Motivation Overview, Psychology

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

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Sample:

“The ‘physiological’ needs. — The needs that are usually taken as the starting point for motivation theory are the so-called physiological drives. Two recent lines of research make it necessary to revise our customary notions about these needs, first, the development of the concept of homeostasis, and second, the finding that appetites (preferential choices among foods) are a fairly efficient indication of actual needs or lacks in the body.”

MLA Citation:

Maslow, A.H. (Internet resource created by Christopher D. Green, York University). psychclassics.yorku.ca. York University, Aug. 2000.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm>.

In-Text: (Maslow)

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APA Citation:

Maslow, A. (Aug, 2000). A Theory of Human Motivation. Retrieved from http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm

In-Text: (Maslow, 2000)

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Further Reading

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and a Happiness Study – The Altantic

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Deficiency Needs and Growth Needs – Valdosta State University

Hierarchy of Needs, Effect of Growth Needs When Deficiency Needs are Met – Psychology Today

Read More Comments Off on A Theory of Human Motivation, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Primary Source

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.helpguide.org/mental/learning_disabilities.htm

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Sample:

“Learning disabilities, or learning disorders, are an umbrella term for a wide variety of learning problems. A learning disability is not a problem with intelligence or motivation. Kids with learning disabilities aren’t lazy or dumb. In fact, most are just as smart as everyone else. Their brains are simply wired differently. This difference affects how they receive and process information.”

MLA Citation:

Kemp, Gina; Smith, Melinda and Segal Jeanne. helpguide.org. Helpguide.org, May. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.helpguide.org/mental/learning_disabilities.htm>.

In-Text: (Kemp)

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APA Citation:

Kemp, Gina; Smith, Melinda and Segal Jeanne. (May, 2013). Learning Disabilities and Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/learning_disabilities.htm

In-Text: (Kemp, 2013)

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©Helpguide.org. All rights reserved. Helpguide.org is an ad-free non-profit resource for supporting better mental health and lifestyle choices for adults and children.

Read More Comments Off on Learning Disabilities, Education, Learning, Psychology