Credible Sources for Violence

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.thetrace.org/2015/08/gun-deaths-charleston-chattanooga-lafayette/

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Sample:

“In the 37 days between the shootings in Charleston and Lafayette, at least 1,433 people were killed with a gun in the United States. On July 23, when a man with a checkered history opened fire in a Louisiana movie theater with a legally-purchased handgun, there were a total of 67 shooting incidents. Twenty-eight people died.

In the wake of this year’s most recent mass shootings, the daily tally of gun violence victims continues to rise, particularly in our nation’s urban centers. In Baltimore — which in July suffered the deadliest month in more than four decades, with 45 homicides — 11 people were shot last weekend, three of them fatally. In New York City, where the number of gun injuries and deaths has dropped dramatically since a period of violence spanning the 1970s through the 1990s, as many as 22 people were shot from Friday to Sunday.”

Description:

This article analyzes data showing a high-frequency of gun-related violence and deaths during a short period in 2015 between the high-profile Charleston and Lafayette shootings.

Author(s):

  • Jennifer Mascia and Emily Fuhrman

Title:

  • At Least 1,433 People Were Killed With a Gun in the U.S. Between the Charleston and Lafayette Shootings

Publisher:

  • The Trace

Date:

  • August 4, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/16/executions-state-by-state/

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Sample:

 

StateExecutions in 1991Total
Utah03
Florida227
Nevada05
Indiana02
Texas542
Virginia213
Alabama08
Georgia115
Louisiana120
Mississippi04
North Carolina14
South Carolina14
Missouri16
Oklahoma01
Arkansas02
Illinois01

Description:

Interactive chart showing the number of executions in each state by year, provided by Pew Research Center.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Number of Executions in Each State Since 1977

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • April 16, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/09/29/support-for-death-penalty-lowest-in-more-than-four-decades/

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Sample:

“Only about half of Americans (49%) now favor the death penalty for people convicted of murder, while 42% oppose it. Support has dropped 7 percentage points since March 2015, from 56%. Public support for capital punishment peaked in the mid-1990s, when eight-in-ten Americans (80% in 1994) favored the death penalty and fewer than two-in-ten were opposed (16%). Opposition to the death penalty is now the highest it has been since 1972.

Though support for the death penalty has declined across most groups, a Pew Research Center survey conducted Aug. 23-Sept. 2 among 1,201 adults finds that most Republicans continue to largely favor its use in cases of murder, while most Democrats oppose it. By more than two-to-one, more Republicans (72%) than Democrats (34%) currently favor the death penalty.”

Description:

Survey data showing Americans’ support for the death penalty in 2016 is lower than any other time since 1970, and among lowest in history.

Author(s):

  • Baxter Oliphant

Title:

  • Support for death penalty lowest in more than four decades

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • September 29, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.people-press.org/2013/03/12/why-own-a-gun-protection-is-now-top-reason/#generations

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Sample:

“A national survey finds that nearly half of gun owners (48%) volunteer that the main reason they own a gun is for protection; just 32% say they have a gun primarily for hunting and even fewer cite other reasons, such as target shooting. In 1999, 49% said they owned a gun mostly for hunting, while just 26% cited protection as the biggest factor.

The survey by the Pew Research Center, conducted Feb. 13-18 among 1,504 adults, finds that safety also is a major concern among the majority of Americans who do not have guns. Nearly six-in-ten (58%) of those in households without guns say they would be uncomfortable having a gun in their homes. When asked why they would be uncomfortable, more cite concerns over gun accidents and safety than any other factor.

When it comes to enacting stricter gun control laws, Americans see both pros and cons. Most (58%) worry that new laws would make it more difficult for people to protect their homes and families. Roughly the same number (54%) say stricter laws would reduce the number of deaths caused by mass shootings.”

Description:

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Why Own a Gun? Protection Is Now Top Reason

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • March 12, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/14/upshot/compare-these-gun-death-rates-the-us-is-in-a-different-world.html

Note: The data in this article would make a great opening “hook” for research paper. 

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Sample:

“Around the world, those countries have substantially lower rates of deaths from gun homicide. In Germany, being murdered with a gun is as uncommon as being killed by a falling object in the United States. About two people out of every million are killed in a gun homicide. Gun homicides are just as rare in several other European countries, including the Netherlands and Austria. In the United States, two per million is roughly the death rate for hypothermia or plane crashes.

In Poland and England, only about one out of every million people die in gun homicides each year — about as often as an American dies in an agricultural accident or falling from a ladder. In Japan, where gun homicides are even rarer, the likelihood of dying this way is about the same as an American’s chance of being killed by lightning — roughly one in 10 million.

In the United States, the death rate from gun homicides is about 31 per million people — the equivalent of 27 people shot dead every day of the year. The homicides include losses from mass shootings, like Sunday’s Orlando attack, or the San Bernardino, Calif., shooting last December. And of course, they also include the country’s vastly more common single-victim killings.”

Description:

The New York Times compares the rates of gun-related deaths in other western countries to the U.S., showing a drastically higher rate in the U.S. Someone in Canada is as likely to die from a gun as someone in the U.S. is from alcohol poisoning, and someone in Japan is as likely to die from a gun as someone in the U.S. is from a lightning strike.

Author(s):

  • Kevin Quealy and Margot Sanger-Katz

Title:

  • Compare These Gun Death Rates: The U.S. Is in a Different World

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • June 13, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/10/22/black-lives-matter-should-also-take-on-black-on-black-crime/?utm_term=.761aeb006c44

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Sample:

“Black Lives Matter has done the nation a service by forcing Americans to reckon with a horrifying spate of police killings of unarmed African Americans. Without the movement, the names Eric Garner and Walter Scott wouldn’t resonate. Nor would Sandra Bland, who died in police custody and whose name was invoked during the most recent presidential debate. Despite this, Black Lives Matter has been severely taken to task, if not outright scorned, for its focus on police killings when, as its critics readily note, people in black neighborhoods are often at much more danger of being killed by other black people.

Why, they ask, hasn’t the Black Lives Matter movement been more concerned with — in wording sometimes fraught with condescension — “black-on-black crime?”

It’s a criticism typically associated with the political right, frequently thought (and frankly, frequently meant) to suggest that what black people need is to simply comport themselves differently, rather than endlessly complain about the depredations of (presumably) white police. However, even without such acrid, tribalistic intent, it’s possible to think BLM’s mission is currently incomplete.”

Description:

Article from the Washington Post about the Black Lives Matter movement and whether or not it should address the issue of ‘black-on-black’ violence.

Author(s):

  • John McWhorter

Title:

  • Black Lives Matter should also take on ‘black-on-black crime’

Publisher:

  • The Washington Post

Date:

  • October 22, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2016/06/27/on-views-of-race-and-inequality-blacks-and-whites-are-worlds-apart/

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Sample:

“Almost eight years after Barack Obama’s election as the nation’s first black president –an event that engendered a sense of optimism among many Americans about the future of race relations1 – a series of flashpoints around the U.S. has exposed deep racial divides and reignited a national conversation about race. A new Pew Research Center survey finds profound differences between black and white adults in their views on racial discrimination, barriers to black progress and the prospects for change. Blacks, far more than whites, say black people are treated unfairly across different realms of life, from dealing with the police to applying for a loan or mortgage. And, for many blacks, racial equality remains an elusive goal.

An overwhelming majority of blacks (88%) say the country needs to continue making changes for blacks to have equal rights with whites, but 43% are skeptical that such changes will ever occur. An additional 42% of blacks believe that the country will eventually make the changes needed for blacks to have equal rights with whites, and just 8% say the country has already made the necessary changes.

A much lower share of whites (53%) say the country still has work to do for blacks to achieve equal rights with whites, and only 11% express doubt that these changes will come. Four-in-ten whites believe the country will eventually make the changes needed for blacks to have equal rights, and about the same share (38%) say enough changes have already been made.”

Description:

Data from Pew Research Center showing great disparity between blacks and whites on racial equality and race relations broken down by demographics.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • On Views of Race and Inequality, Blacks and Whites Are Worlds Apart

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • June 27, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/11/a-same-sex-domestic-violence-epidemic-is-silent/281131/

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Sample:

“Data on the rates of same-sex partner abuse have only become available in recent years. Even today, many of the statistics and materials on domestic violence put out by organizations like the Center for Disease Control and the Department of Justice still focus exclusively on heterosexual relationships, and specifically heterosexual women. While the CDC does provide some resources on its website for the LGBT population, the vast majority of the information is targeted at women. Materials provided by the CDC for violence prevention and survivor empowerment prominently feature women in their statistics and photographs.

In 2013, the CDC released the results of a 2010 study on victimization by sexual orientation, and admitted that “little is known about the national prevalence of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual women and men in the United States.” The report found that bisexual women had an overwhelming prevalence of violent partners in their lives: 75 percent had been with a violent partner, as opposed to 46 percent of lesbian women and 43 percent of straight women. For bisexual men, that number was 47 percent. For gay men, it was 40 percent, and 21 percent for straight men.”

MLA Citation:

Shwayder, Maya. “A Same-Sex Domestic Violence Epidemic Is Silent.” The Atlantic Monthly Group, 5 Nov. 2013, http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/11/a-same-sex-domestic-violence-epidemic-is-silent/281131/. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Shwayder)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Shwayder, M. (2013, Nov. 5). A same-sex domestic violence epidemic is silent. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/11/a-same-sex-domestic-violence-epidemic-is-silent/281131/

In-Text: (Shwayder, 2013)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://time.com/3313343/ray-rice-black-women-domestic-violence/

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Sample:

“And for Black women, it’s an even bigger problem: Black women are almost three times as likely to experience death as a result of DV/IPV than White women. And while Black women only make up 8% of the population, 22% of homicides that result from DV/IPV happen to Black Women and 29% of all victimized women, making it one of the leading causes of death for Black women ages 15 to 35. Statistically, we experience sexual assault and DV/IPV at disproportionate rates and have the highest rates of intra-racial violence against us than any other group. We are also less likely to report or seek help when we are victimized.”

MLA Citation:

Jones, Feminista. “Why Black Women Struggle More With Domestic Violence.” Time Inc., 10 Sept. 2014, http://time.com/3313343/ray-rice-black-women-domestic-violence/. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Jones)

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APA Citation:

Jones, F. (2014, Sept. 10). Why Black women struggle more with Domestic Violence. Time Inc. Retrieved from http://time.com/3313343/ray-rice-black-women-domestic-violence/

In-Text: (Jones, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/strict-gun-laws-ended-mass-shootings-australia

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Sample:

“Twenty years ago, Australia passed strict laws to control what types of guns people could own. The country also required people to sell to the government any guns that were made illegal. Since then, Australia has seen zero mass shootings, a new study finds.”

“‘Here’s a society that recognized a public safety threat, found it unacceptable and took measures to address the problem,’ Webster says.”

“The laws banned semiautomatic long guns. These include the guns used by the Port Arthur shooter. The new agreement made buying other guns a lot harder too. People have to show a “genuine need” for a weapon that they want to buy. They must pass a safety test, show good moral character and wait at least 28 days. They also cannot have any restraining orders for violence, among other restrictions, Webster notes.”

MLA Citation:

Rosen, Meghan. “Strict gun laws ended mass shootings in Australia.” sciencenewsforstudents.orgSociety for Science and the Public, 12 July, 2016, https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/strict-gun-laws-ended-mass-shootings-australia. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Rosen)

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APA Citation:

Rosen, M. (2016, July 12). Strict gun laws ended mass shootings in Australia. Society for Science and the Public. Retrieved from https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/strict-gun-laws-ended-mass-shootings-australia

In-Text: (Rosen, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/11/upshot/domestic-violence-in-the-times-from-civil-unrest-to-spouse-abuse.html

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Sample:

“Chronicle, the online tool from The Times Research and Development Lab, shows that “domestic violence” has always appeared in Times articles, but that its use substantially increased only recently, from 188 articles in 1990, when congressional hearings were held on the issue, to more than 1,000 last year. Those articles represent a tiny fraction of all Times articles, but occurrences of the phrase soared in 2011, including in coverage of the murder trial of Barbara Sheehan, a Queens school secretary who shot her husband and was acquitted of murder.”

MLA Citation:

Willis, Derek. “Domestic Violence in The Times: From Civil Unrest to Spouse Abuse.” The New York Times, 10 Sept. 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/11/upshot/domestic-violence-in-the-times-from-civil-unrest-to-spouse-abuse.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Willis)

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APA Citation:

Willis, D. (2014, Sept. 10). Domestic violence in The Times: From civil unrest to spouse abuse. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/11/upshot/domestic-violence-in-the-times-from-civil-unrest-to-spouse-abuse.html

In-Text: (Willis, 2014)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/

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Sample:

“Roughly four-in-ten Americans support the Black Lives Matter movement. All told, 43% support the movement, including 18% who strongly support it. About one-in-five Americans (22%) oppose the movement, and a sizable share (30%) said they have not heard anything about the Black Lives Matter movement or did not offer an opinion.”

MLA Citation:

Horowitz, Juliana Menasce and Gretchen Livingston. “How Americans view the Black Lives Matter movement.” pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center, 8 July 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/>.

In-Text: (Horowitz and Livingston)

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APA Citation:

Horowitz, J.M. & Livingston, G. (2016, July 8). How Americans view the Black Lives Matter movement. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/

In-Text: (Horowitz & Livingston, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pbtss11.pdf

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Sample:

“In 2011, over 62.9 million U.S. residents age 16 or older, or 26% of the population, had one or more contacts with police during the prior 12 months (figure 1). For about half (49%) of persons experiencing contact with police, the most recent contact was involuntary or police-initiated. In 2011, 86% of persons involved in traffic stops during their most recent contact with police and 66% of persons involved in street stops (i.e., stopped in public but not in a moving vehicle) believed that the police both behaved properly and treated them with respect during the contact. A greater percentage of persons involved in street stops (25%) than those pulled over in traffic stops (10%) believed the police had not behaved properly. Regardless of the reason for thestop, less than 5% of persons who believed the police had not behaved properly filed a complaint. “

MLA Citation:

Langton, Lynn and Matthew Durose. “Police Behavior during Traffic and Street Stops, 2011.” bjs.gov. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, Sep. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pbtss11.pdf>.

In-Text: (Langton and Durose)

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APA Citation:

Langton, L. & Durose, M. (2013, Sep.). Police behavior during traffic and street stops, 2011. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pbtss11.pdf

In-Text: (Langton & Durose, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800748/

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Sample:

“This paper provides historical context for considering the connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the US; reviews erosions to the 4th Amendment to the US Constitution (which protects against unreasonable search and seizure) and the Posse Comitatus Act (which prohibits the Armed Forces from performing law enforcement functions) that helped set the groundwork for two vital War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams; and describes how stop and frisk and SWAT teams create conditions conducive to police brutality, particularly brutality that targets Black communities. While many laws and policies have created the foundations for police brutality, I have chosen to focus exclusively on the 4th Amendment and the Posse Comitatus Act in order to delve into detail on both, rather than present brief summaries of several policies. Additionally, the rich literature on the intertwined nature of racism, social control, and decisions about which substances should be classified as “illegal” is beyond the purview of this paper. Readers interested in these topics could review David Musto’s “The American Disease: The Origins of Narcotic Control” and David Courtwright’s “Dark Paradise: The History of Opiate Addiction in America” to learn more about this important topic.”

MLA Citation:

Cooper, Hannah LF. “War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.” Substance Use and Misuse 50.8 (2015): 1188-1194.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800748/>.

In-Text: (Cooper)

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APA Citation:

Cooper, H. L.F. (2015). War on Drugs policing and police brutality. Substance Use and Misuse, 50(8), 1188-1194. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2015.1007669

In-Text: (Cooper, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx

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Sample:

“The deaths of five police officers in Dallas, along with the recent deaths of two black men in Louisiana and Minnesota at the hands of police, highlighted — again — the importance of understanding attitudes of the American public, including blacks and whites, toward the police and criminal justice system.

A review of Gallup data, all collected prior to these most recent incidents, provides a social and cultural context for these issues.”

MLA Citation:

Newport, Frank. “Public Opinion Context: Americans, Race and Police.” gallup.com. Gallup, Inc. 8 Jul. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx>.

In-Text: (Newport)

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APA Citation:

Newport, F. (2016, Jul. 8). Public opinion context: Americans, race and police. Gallup, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx

In-Text: (Newport, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/

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Sample:

“In a year-long study, The Washington Post found that the kind of incidents that have ignited protests in many U.S. communities — most often, white police officers killing unarmed black men — represent less than 4 percent of fatal police shootings. Meanwhile, The Post found that the great majority of people who died at the hands of the police fit at least one of three categories: they were wielding weapons, they were suicidal or mentally troubled, or they ran when officers told them to halt.”

MLA Citation:

Kindy, Kimberly, Marc Fisher, Julie Tate, and Jennifer Jenkins. “A year of reckoning: Police fatally shoot nearly 1,000.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 26 Dec. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/>.

In-Text: (Kindy, FIsher, Tate, and Jenkins)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Kindy, K., Fisher, M., Tate, J., Jenkins, J. (2015, Dec. 26). A year of reckoning: Police fatally shoot nearly 1,000. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/

In-Text: (Kindy, Fisher, Tate, and Jenkins, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.wsj.com/articles/hundreds-of-police-killings-are-uncounted-in-federal-statistics-1417577504

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Sample:

“WASHINGTON—When 24-year-old Albert Jermaine Payton wielded a knife in front of the police in this city’s southeast corner, officers opened fire and killed him.

Yet according to national statistics intended to track police killings, Mr. Payton’s death in August 2012 never happened. It is one of hundreds of homicides by law-enforcement agencies between 2007 and 2012 that aren’t included in records kept by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.”

MLA Citation:

Barry, Rob and Coulter Jones. “Hundreds of Police Killings Are Uncounted in Federal Stats.” wsj.com. Dow Jones & Company Inc., 3 Dec. 2014.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.wsj.com/articles/hundreds-of-police-killings-are-uncounted-in-federal-statistics-1417577504>.

In-Text: (Barry and Jones)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Barry, R. & Jones, C. (2014, Dec. 3). Hundreds of police killings are uncounted in federal stats. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/hundreds-of-police-killings-are-uncounted-in-federal-statistics-1417577504

In-Text: (Barry and Jones, 2014)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCES

1.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

This link leads to an article covering a study that showed implementation of 3 specific laws can drastically reduce gun-related crimes. The study analyzed state crime and gun data from all over the U.S. and found a larger group of laws that have a positive impact on gun-related crimes, but narrows it down to the 3 most effective laws – which, according to the study, can reduce gun-related deaths by 80%. Click here for MLA/APA citations. 

2.

http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext

Referenced here is a scholarly journal article that reveals the U.S. homicide rate is 7 times higher than other high income countries, while the gun-homicide rate is 25 times higher. Also of importance, the gun homicide rate in the U.S. for ages 15 through 24 was 49 times higher than other high-income countries. There is much more data on many different demographics, including that 90% of all women, children under 14, and 82% of total gun-related deaths in high-income countries occurred in the U.S. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

3.

http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/

Above is a link to a frequently updated page with information on gun-lobbying and U.S. politicians. This article provides background on the gun control debate in legislation along with data on amount of funding received by politicians and presidential candidates. The data shows a heavy proportion of these funds go to republican candidates, and that the National Rifle Association is a large proponent of such funding and other forms of support. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

4.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

This is a great article from the Washington Post that provides data on the most popular gun control talking points from this ongoing debate. This article covers the frequency of mass-shootings and other gun violence, as well as support for gun ownership in the U.S. There is some very compelling data in this article, most prominently that “states with stricter gun control laws have fewer deaths from gun-related violence” (emphasis ours, this would be key to a research assignment on this topic) and that “active shooter events have become more common” since 2000. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm

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Sample:

“Only 7% of U.S. parents are worried about cyberbullying, even though 33% of teenagers have been victims of cyberbullying ”

“95% of social media-using teens who have witnessed cruel behavior on social networking sites say they have seen others ignoring the mean behavior; 55% witness this frequently”

MLA Citation:

“Cyberbullying Statistics.” internetsafety101.org. Enough is Enough, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm>.

In-Text: (“Cyberbullying Statistics”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Cyberbullying statistics. (n.d.). Enough is Enough. Retrieved from http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm

In-Text: (Cyberbullying statistics)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf

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Sample:

“This document reports data from the 2011 School Crime Supplement (SCS) of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The Web Tables show the extent to which students with different personal characteristics report bullying and cyberbullying. Estimates include responses by student characteristics: student sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and household income. The U.S. Census Bureau (Census) appended additional data from the 2009–10 Common Core of Data (CCD) and the 2009–10 Private School Universe Survey (PSS) to generate tables showing the extent to which bullying and cyber-bullying are reported by students in schools with different characteristics. School characteristics examined are region; sector (public or private); locale; level; enrollment size; student-to-full-time-equivalent (FTE) teacher ratio; percentage of combined American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/ Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and students of two or more races; and percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-priced lunch.”

MLA Citation:

“Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results From the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey.” nces.ed.gov. U.S. Department of Education, Aug. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf>.

In-Text: (“Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Student reports of bullying and cyber-bullying: Results from the 2011 school crime supplement to the national crime victimization survey. (2013, Aug.). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf

In-Text: (Student reports of bullying and cyber-bullying)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/vio-a0039317.pdf

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Sample:

“Although research is consistent that traditional bullying andharassment is more prevalent, experts note that technology-based bullying and harassment may be more distressing to victims because online harassers have the ability to post pictures or videos, anonymously to widespread audiences; the aggression can reach targets at any time of the day and night, including in their homes; more people may see and join in the harassment; and youth may have difficulty removing negative content or stopping the harassment once it is online (Dempsey et al., 2009; Fredstrom et al., 2011; Kowalski & Limber, 2007; Mishna et al., 2009; Sticca & Perren, 2013). Although these are testable hypotheses, so far they have not been the focus of much empirical study. One comparative study found that after controlling for traditional or school-based victimization, electronic victimization was still predictive of problems with self-esteem, anxiety, and depression (Fredstrom et al., 2011), and others have found some differences in the relationship patterns between perpetration and victimization and psychosocial outcomes, depending on whether the harassment was traditional or used new technology (Kowalski & Limber, 2013; Wang, Nansel, & Iannotti, 2011). There is also evidence that youth who are victims of multiple types of peer harassment, including technology-based harassment, report depression, injury and medical concerns at higher rates than traditional victims (Wang et al., 2010).”

MLA Citation:

Mitchell, Kimberly J., Lisa M. Jones, Heather A. Turner, Anne Shattuck, and Janis Wolak. “The Role of Technology in Peer Harassment: Does It Amplify Harm for Youth?” apa.org. American Psychological Association, 1 Jun. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/vio-a0039317.pdf>.

In-Text: (Mitchell et al.)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Mitchell, K. J., Jones, L. M., Turner, H. A., Shattuck, A., & Wolak, J. (2015, June 1). The Role of Technology in Peer Harassment: Does It Amplify Harm for Youth?. Psychology of Violence. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039317

In-Text: (Mitchell, Jones, Turner, Shattuck, & Wolak, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

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Sample:

“In this post… we explore America’s unique role among advanced countries as a place where support for guns is widespread — and violence involving firearms is equally widespread. There are some perhaps surprising findings — gun ownership in the United States is declining overall, for instance. But despite mass killings — which have occurred with increasing frequency in recent years — support for gun rights is still resolute in America.”

MLA Citation:

Ehrenfreund, Max and Zachary A. Goldfarb. “11 essential facts about guns and mass shootings in the United States.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 18 Jun. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/>.

In-Text: (Ehrenfreund and Goldfarb)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Ehrenfreund, M. & Goldfarb, Z. A. (2015, Jun. 18). 11 essential facts about guns and mass shootings in the United States. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

In-Text: (Ehrenfreund & Goldfarb, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext

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Sample:

“US homicide rates were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher. For 15- to 24-year-olds, the gun homicide rate in the United States was 49.0 times higher. Firearm-related suicide rates were 8.0 times higher in the United States, but the overall suicide rates were average. Unintentional firearm deaths were 6.2 times higher in the United States. The overall firearm death rate in the United States from all causes was 10.0 times higher. Ninety percent of women, 91% of children aged 0 to 14 years, 92% of youth aged 15 to 24 years, and 82% of all people killed by firearms were from the United States.”

MLA Citation:

Grinshteyn, Erin and David Hemenway. “Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010.” The American Journal of Medicine (2015): n.p.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext>.

In-Text: (Grinshteyn and Hemenway)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Grinshteyn, E. & Hemenway, D. (2015, Nov. 6). Violent death rates: The US compared with other high-income OECD countries, 2010. The American Journal of Medicine, n.p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025

In-Text: (Grinshteyn & Hemenway, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf

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Sample:

“The Indicators of School Crime and Safety provides the most recent national indicators on school crime and safety. These indicators demonstrate that improvements have occurred in the safety of students: between 1992 and 2002, the violent crime victimization rate at school declined from 48 violent victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 24 such victimizations in 2002. Even so, violence, theft, bullying, drugs, and firearms are still prevalent: students ages 12–18 were victims of about 659,000 violent crimes and 1.1 million crimes of theft at school in 2002.”

MLA Citation:

DeVoe, Jill, Katharin Peter, Phillip Kaufman, Amanda Miller, Margaret Noonan, Thomas Snyder, and Katrina Baum. “Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2004.” nces.ed.gov.  U.S. Departments of Education and Justice. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Nov. 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf>.

In-Text: (DeVoe et al. INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

DeVoe, J., Peter, K., Kaufman, P., Miller, A., Noonan, M., Snyder, T., & Katrina Baum. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf

In-Text: (DeVoe et al., 2004, p. INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/

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Sample:

“National rates of gun homicide and other violent gun crimes are strikingly lower now than during their peak in the mid-1990s, paralleling a general decline in violent crime, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of government data. Beneath the long-term trend, though, are big differences by decade: Violence plunged through the 1990s, but has declined less dramatically since 2000.”

MLA Citation:

Cohn, D’Vera, Paul Taylor, Mark Hugo Lopez, Catherine A. Gallagher, Kim Parker, and Kevin T. Maas. “Gun Homicide Rate Down 49% Since 1993 Peak; Public Unaware.” pewsocialtrends.org. Pew Research Center, May 7. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/>.

In-Text: (Cohn et al. ) Because there are multiple pages, you should include the page number for this in-text citation

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Cohn, D., Taylor, P., Lopez, M. H., Gallagher, C. A., Parker, K., & Maass, K. T (2013, May 7). Gun homicide rate down 49% since 1993 peak; public unaware. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/

In-Text: (Cohn et al., 2013)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2012/12/14/schoo-shooting-how-do-u-s-gun-homicides-compare-with-the-rest-of-the-world/

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Sample:

“When a person kills another in the United States, though, he or she generally uses a gun: 60 percent of U.S. homicides occur using a firearm, which is the 26th-highest rate in the world. (In other gun-permeated countries, such as Finland (45.3 guns per 100 people), only about 19 percent of homicides involve a firearm.”

MLA Citation:

Khazan, Olga. “Here’s how U.S. gun violence compares with the rest of the world.” The Washington Post. The Washington Post, Dec 14. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2012/12/14/schoo-shooting-how-do-u-s-gun-homicides-compare-with-the-rest-of-the-world/>.

In-Text: (Khazan)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Khazan, O. (2012, Dec 14). Here’s how U.S. gun violence compares with the rest of the world. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2012/12/14/schoo-shooting-how-do-u-s-gun-homicides-compare-with-the-rest-of-the-world/

In-Text: (Khazan, 2012)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/nisvs-fact-sheet-2014.pdf

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Sample:

“Women who experienced rape or stalking by any perpetrator or physical violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime were more likely than women who did not experience these forms of violence to report having asthma, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome.”

MLA Citation:

“National Data on Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Stalking.” cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/nisvs-fact-sheet-2014.pdf>.

In-Text: (“National Data on Intimate Partner Violence”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

National Data on Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Stalking. 2011. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/nisvs-fact-sheet-2014.pdf

In-Text: (National Data on Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Stalking)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***