Credible Sources for U.S. Education

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2017/04/27/peds.2016-2615

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Sample:

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bullying is a significant public health concern, and it has received considerable attention from the media and policymakers over the past decade, which has led some to believe that it is increasing. However, there are limited surveillance data on bullying to inform our understanding of such trends over the course of multiple years. The current study examined the prevalence of bullying and related behaviors between 2005 and 2014 and explored whether any such changes varied across schools or as a function of school-level covariates.”

CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of bullying and related behaviors generally decreased over this 10-year period with the most recent years showing the greatest improvements in school climate and reductions in bullying. Additional research is needed to identify factors that contributed to this declining trend.”

Description:

Results from a 10-year study conducted in Maryland schools shows a decrease in bullying behaviors and increase in school environment for grades 4-12.

Author(s):

  • Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Elise T. Pas, Benjamin Zablotsky, Catherine P. Bradshaw

Title:

  • Ten-Year Trends in Bullying and Related Attitudes Among 4th- to 12th-Graders

Publisher:

  • Pediatrics

Date:

  • May, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2013/#section=country-profiles-unitedstates

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Sample:

“Key Demographic and Economic Indicators Total population (millions) ………………………………………………………………………………. 311.59 Population growth (%) ………………………………………………………………………………………. 0.72 Fertility rate (births per woman)………………………………………………………………………….. 1.99 Overall population sex ratio (male/female) ……………………………………………………………. 0.98 GDP (US$ billions)…………………………………………………………………………………….. 11,744.22 GDP (PPP) per capita (constant 2005, international $)…………………………………………. 42,486 Female adult unemployment rate (% of female labour force)……………………………………….. 9 Male adult unemployment rate (% of male labour force)……………………………………………… 9”

MLA Citation:

Bekhouche, Yasmina, and Laura D’Andrea Tyson, Ricardo Hausmann, Saadia Zahidi. “Global Gender Gap Report 2013.” reports.weforum.org. World Economic Forum, 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2013/#section=country-profiles-unitedstates>.

In-Text: (Berkhouche et al.)

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APA Citation:

Berkhouche, Y., Tyson, L.D., Hausmann, R., Zahidi, S. (2013). World Economic Forum. Retrieved from http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2013/#section=country-profiles-unitedstates

In-Text: (Berkhouche, Tyson, Hausmann, Zahidi, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm

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Sample:

“Only 7% of U.S. parents are worried about cyberbullying, even though 33% of teenagers have been victims of cyberbullying ”

“95% of social media-using teens who have witnessed cruel behavior on social networking sites say they have seen others ignoring the mean behavior; 55% witness this frequently”

MLA Citation:

“Cyberbullying Statistics.” internetsafety101.org. Enough is Enough, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm>.

In-Text: (“Cyberbullying Statistics”)

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APA Citation:

Cyberbullying statistics. (n.d.). Enough is Enough. Retrieved from http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm

In-Text: (Cyberbullying statistics)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf

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Sample:

“This document reports data from the 2011 School Crime Supplement (SCS) of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The Web Tables show the extent to which students with different personal characteristics report bullying and cyberbullying. Estimates include responses by student characteristics: student sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and household income. The U.S. Census Bureau (Census) appended additional data from the 2009–10 Common Core of Data (CCD) and the 2009–10 Private School Universe Survey (PSS) to generate tables showing the extent to which bullying and cyber-bullying are reported by students in schools with different characteristics. School characteristics examined are region; sector (public or private); locale; level; enrollment size; student-to-full-time-equivalent (FTE) teacher ratio; percentage of combined American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/ Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and students of two or more races; and percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-priced lunch.”

MLA Citation:

“Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results From the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey.” nces.ed.gov. U.S. Department of Education, Aug. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf>.

In-Text: (“Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying”)

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APA Citation:

Student reports of bullying and cyber-bullying: Results from the 2011 school crime supplement to the national crime victimization survey. (2013, Aug.). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf

In-Text: (Student reports of bullying and cyber-bullying)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/vio-a0039317.pdf

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Sample:

“Although research is consistent that traditional bullying andharassment is more prevalent, experts note that technology-based bullying and harassment may be more distressing to victims because online harassers have the ability to post pictures or videos, anonymously to widespread audiences; the aggression can reach targets at any time of the day and night, including in their homes; more people may see and join in the harassment; and youth may have difficulty removing negative content or stopping the harassment once it is online (Dempsey et al., 2009; Fredstrom et al., 2011; Kowalski & Limber, 2007; Mishna et al., 2009; Sticca & Perren, 2013). Although these are testable hypotheses, so far they have not been the focus of much empirical study. One comparative study found that after controlling for traditional or school-based victimization, electronic victimization was still predictive of problems with self-esteem, anxiety, and depression (Fredstrom et al., 2011), and others have found some differences in the relationship patterns between perpetration and victimization and psychosocial outcomes, depending on whether the harassment was traditional or used new technology (Kowalski & Limber, 2013; Wang, Nansel, & Iannotti, 2011). There is also evidence that youth who are victims of multiple types of peer harassment, including technology-based harassment, report depression, injury and medical concerns at higher rates than traditional victims (Wang et al., 2010).”

MLA Citation:

Mitchell, Kimberly J., Lisa M. Jones, Heather A. Turner, Anne Shattuck, and Janis Wolak. “The Role of Technology in Peer Harassment: Does It Amplify Harm for Youth?” apa.org. American Psychological Association, 1 Jun. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/vio-a0039317.pdf>.

In-Text: (Mitchell et al.)

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APA Citation:

Mitchell, K. J., Jones, L. M., Turner, H. A., Shattuck, A., & Wolak, J. (2015, June 1). The Role of Technology in Peer Harassment: Does It Amplify Harm for Youth?. Psychology of Violence. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039317

In-Text: (Mitchell, Jones, Turner, Shattuck, & Wolak, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://cyberbullying.org/summary-of-our-cyberbullying-research/ (Copy and paste if link doesn’t work)

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Sample:

“At the Cyberbullying Research Center we have been collecting data from middle and high school students since 2002. We have surveyed more than 15,000 students from middle and high schools from across the United States in eleven unique projects. The following two charts show the percent of respondents who have experienced cyberbullying at some point in their lifetime across our nine most recent studies. Our two earliest studies (from 2004 and 2005) are excluded from this because they were online convenience samples and therefore cannot be easily compared to the other studies. The nine most recent studies have all been random samples of known populations in schools which allows for improved reliability and validity. Please see our Research in Review addendum for more details about each of the samples.”

MLA Citation:

Patchin, Justin W. “Summary of Our Cyberbullying Research (2004-2015).” cyberbullying.org. Cyberbullying Research Center, 1 May 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://cyberbullying.org/summary-of-our-cyberbullying-research/>.

In-Text: (Patchin)

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APA Citation:

Patchin, J. W. (2015, May 1). Summary of Our cyberbullying research (2004-2015). Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved from http://cyberbullying.org/summary-of-our-cyberbullying-research/

In-Text: (Patchin, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_math_2015/#mathematics?grade=4

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Sample:

“In 2015, students had an average score in mathematics of 240 points at grade 4 and 282 points at grade 8 on separate 0-500 point scales. The 2015 average scores were 1 and 2 points lower, respectively, than the average scores in 2013. Scores at both grades were higher than those from the earliest mathematics assessments in 1990 by 27 points at grade 4 and 20 points at grade 8.”

MLA Citation:

“Mathematics & Reading Assessments.” nationsreportcard.gov. National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_math_2015/#mathematics?grade=4>.

In-Text: (“Mathematics & Reading Assessments.”)

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APA Citation:

Mathematics & reading assessments. (2015). National Assessment of Educational Progress. Retrieved from http://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_math_2015/#mathematics?grade=4

In-Text: (Mathematics & reading assessments, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2016/2016100.pdf

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Sample:

“In France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom, the percentage of 3- to 4-year-olds enrolled in preprimary or primary education programs in 2011 was above 90 percent, whereas in the United States, the rate was 64 percent. In the United States, it was not until age 6 that at least 90 percent of the population was enrolled in formal education. G-20 countries with enrollment rates below 20 percent among 3- to 4-year-olds included Indonesia and Turkey. In all G-20 countries except France and Italy, a higher percentage of 3- to 4-year-olds were enrolled in 2011 than in 2001. Among 5- to 14-year-olds, all reporting G-20 countries had universal or near universal (more than 90 percent) school participation in 2011. At ages 15–19, participation rates again varied—from 34 percent in China to 92 percent in Germany, with U.S. participation at 80 percent—which may reflect different policies regarding the age at which compulsory education ends. In the United States and four other countries, compulsory education ends at age 17. In 11 countries, compulsory education ends when students are between ages 11 and 16. In Germany, attendance is required until 18 (the highest of the G-20 countries). There were few changes in enrollment rates between 2001 and 2011 among 5- to 14-year-olds or 15- to 19-year-olds in the G-20 countries (indicators 2 and 3).”

MLA Citation:

Stephens, Maria, Laura Warren, Ariana Harner, and Eugene Owen. “Comparative Indicators of Education in the United States and Other G-20 Countries: 2015.” nces.ed.gov. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Dec. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2016/2016100.pdf>.

In-Text: (Stephens et al. INSERT PAGE NO.)

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APA Citation:

Stephens, M., Warren, L., Harner, A., & Owen, E. (2015, Dec.). Comparative indicators of education in the United States and other G-20 countries: 2015. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2016/2016100.pdf

In-Text: (Stephens, Warrens, Harner & Owen, 2015, p. INSERT PAGE NO.)

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