Credible Sources for Guns in the US

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.thetrace.org/2015/08/gun-deaths-charleston-chattanooga-lafayette/

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Sample:

“In the 37 days between the shootings in Charleston and Lafayette, at least 1,433 people were killed with a gun in the United States. On July 23, when a man with a checkered history opened fire in a Louisiana movie theater with a legally-purchased handgun, there were a total of 67 shooting incidents. Twenty-eight people died.

In the wake of this year’s most recent mass shootings, the daily tally of gun violence victims continues to rise, particularly in our nation’s urban centers. In Baltimore — which in July suffered the deadliest month in more than four decades, with 45 homicides — 11 people were shot last weekend, three of them fatally. In New York City, where the number of gun injuries and deaths has dropped dramatically since a period of violence spanning the 1970s through the 1990s, as many as 22 people were shot from Friday to Sunday.”

Description:

This article analyzes data showing a high-frequency of gun-related violence and deaths during a short period in 2015 between the high-profile Charleston and Lafayette shootings.

Author(s):

  • Jennifer Mascia and Emily Fuhrman

Title:

  • At Least 1,433 People Were Killed With a Gun in the U.S. Between the Charleston and Lafayette Shootings

Publisher:

  • The Trace

Date:

  • August 4, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/summary-president-obama-gun-proposals.aspx

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Sample:

“On Jan. 5, 2016, President Obama unveiled his new strategy to curb gun violence in America. His proposals focus on new background check requirements that will enhance the effectiveness of the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS), and greater education and enforcement efforts of existing laws at the state level. As more information becomes available, this document will be updated. The 2015 plan:

  • Directs the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) to require any business that engages in the sale of guns to obtain a federal license to do so and conduct background checks.  This requirement applies to gun stores, sellers of guns at gun shows, and sellers of guns over the Internet. The licensing requirement applies to all sellers “engaged in the business” of selling guns, regardless of how frequent or how many sales there are. Failure to obtain a license to sell will carry criminal penalties of up to five years in prison and a fine of up to $250,000.  Failure to conduct a required background check will also carry penalties.
  • Requires the ATF Bureau to issue a rule requiring background checks…”

Description:

Summary of the executive orders issued by President Barack Obama in 2015 and 2013 around gun control issues, largely as a result of gun violence incidents.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • President Obama’s 2015 Executive Actions on Gun Control

Publisher:

  • National Conference of State Legislatures

Date:

  • January 5, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.people-press.org/2013/03/12/why-own-a-gun-protection-is-now-top-reason/#generations

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Sample:

“A national survey finds that nearly half of gun owners (48%) volunteer that the main reason they own a gun is for protection; just 32% say they have a gun primarily for hunting and even fewer cite other reasons, such as target shooting. In 1999, 49% said they owned a gun mostly for hunting, while just 26% cited protection as the biggest factor.

The survey by the Pew Research Center, conducted Feb. 13-18 among 1,504 adults, finds that safety also is a major concern among the majority of Americans who do not have guns. Nearly six-in-ten (58%) of those in households without guns say they would be uncomfortable having a gun in their homes. When asked why they would be uncomfortable, more cite concerns over gun accidents and safety than any other factor.

When it comes to enacting stricter gun control laws, Americans see both pros and cons. Most (58%) worry that new laws would make it more difficult for people to protect their homes and families. Roughly the same number (54%) say stricter laws would reduce the number of deaths caused by mass shootings.”

Description:

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Why Own a Gun? Protection Is Now Top Reason

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • March 12, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/14/upshot/compare-these-gun-death-rates-the-us-is-in-a-different-world.html

Note: The data in this article would make a great opening “hook” for research paper. 

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Sample:

“Around the world, those countries have substantially lower rates of deaths from gun homicide. In Germany, being murdered with a gun is as uncommon as being killed by a falling object in the United States. About two people out of every million are killed in a gun homicide. Gun homicides are just as rare in several other European countries, including the Netherlands and Austria. In the United States, two per million is roughly the death rate for hypothermia or plane crashes.

In Poland and England, only about one out of every million people die in gun homicides each year — about as often as an American dies in an agricultural accident or falling from a ladder. In Japan, where gun homicides are even rarer, the likelihood of dying this way is about the same as an American’s chance of being killed by lightning — roughly one in 10 million.

In the United States, the death rate from gun homicides is about 31 per million people — the equivalent of 27 people shot dead every day of the year. The homicides include losses from mass shootings, like Sunday’s Orlando attack, or the San Bernardino, Calif., shooting last December. And of course, they also include the country’s vastly more common single-victim killings.”

Description:

The New York Times compares the rates of gun-related deaths in other western countries to the U.S., showing a drastically higher rate in the U.S. Someone in Canada is as likely to die from a gun as someone in the U.S. is from alcohol poisoning, and someone in Japan is as likely to die from a gun as someone in the U.S. is from a lightning strike.

Author(s):

  • Kevin Quealy and Margot Sanger-Katz

Title:

  • Compare These Gun Death Rates: The U.S. Is in a Different World

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • June 13, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/01/23/police-public-differ-on-key-issues-but-align-on-others/

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Sample:

“Other differences were not quite so large. About two-thirds of all Americans (64%) favor a ban on assault-style weapons and roughly the same share of police (67%) oppose such a restriction. More broadly, the surveys found that a larger share of police than the public believe it is more important to protect the rights of Americans to own guns than to control gun ownership (74% of police vs. 53% of the public).”

Description:

Data from Pew Research Center showing law enforcement and the public share similar opinions about gun control, despite differing views on other topics.

Author(s):

  • Rich Morin

Title:

  • Police, public differ on key issues but align on others

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • January 23, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/01/10/upshot/100000004491000.mobile.html?_r=1

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Sample:

“The two policies ranked most effective were those requiring all sellers to run background checks on anyone who buys a gun, and barring gun sales to people convicted of violent misdemeanors, including domestic assaults. The experts were more skeptical of other much-debated proposals, including a national gun registry and an assault weapons ban. The idea of requiring states to honor out-of-state concealed weapon permits was ranked low.

The academics in our panel — many of the country’s best empirical researchers on gun policy — were far more likely than the general public to support gun control. But nearly all of the policies that experts think could work have widespread support from the general public.

While Americans remain sharply divided in their overall view of the tension between gun control and gun rights, individual proposals are widely favored. The most popular measures in our survey — policies like universal background checks and keeping guns from convicted stalkers — were supported by more than 85 percent of registered voters. Even the least popular idea, a law that would limit gun sales to people who had to demonstrate a “genuine need” for the weapon, was favored by nearly 50 percent.”

MLA Citation:

Bui, Quoctraung and Margot Sanger-Katz. “How to Prevent Gun Deaths? Where Experts and the Public Agree.” The New York Times, 10 Jan. 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/01/10/upshot/100000004491000.mobile.html?_r=1. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Bui and Sanger-Katz)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Bui, Q. & Sanger-Katz, M. (2017, Jan. 10). How to Prevent Gun Deaths? Where Experts and the Public Agree. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/01/10/upshot/100000004491000.mobile.html?_r=1

In-Text: (Bui & Sanger-Katz, 2017)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/strict-gun-laws-ended-mass-shootings-australia

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Sample:

“Twenty years ago, Australia passed strict laws to control what types of guns people could own. The country also required people to sell to the government any guns that were made illegal. Since then, Australia has seen zero mass shootings, a new study finds.”

“‘Here’s a society that recognized a public safety threat, found it unacceptable and took measures to address the problem,’ Webster says.”

“The laws banned semiautomatic long guns. These include the guns used by the Port Arthur shooter. The new agreement made buying other guns a lot harder too. People have to show a “genuine need” for a weapon that they want to buy. They must pass a safety test, show good moral character and wait at least 28 days. They also cannot have any restraining orders for violence, among other restrictions, Webster notes.”

MLA Citation:

Rosen, Meghan. “Strict gun laws ended mass shootings in Australia.” sciencenewsforstudents.orgSociety for Science and the Public, 12 July, 2016, https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/strict-gun-laws-ended-mass-shootings-australia. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Rosen)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Rosen, M. (2016, July 12). Strict gun laws ended mass shootings in Australia. Society for Science and the Public. Retrieved from https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/strict-gun-laws-ended-mass-shootings-australia

In-Text: (Rosen, 2016)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/

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Sample:

“In a year-long study, The Washington Post found that the kind of incidents that have ignited protests in many U.S. communities — most often, white police officers killing unarmed black men — represent less than 4 percent of fatal police shootings. Meanwhile, The Post found that the great majority of people who died at the hands of the police fit at least one of three categories: they were wielding weapons, they were suicidal or mentally troubled, or they ran when officers told them to halt.”

MLA Citation:

Kindy, Kimberly, Marc Fisher, Julie Tate, and Jennifer Jenkins. “A year of reckoning: Police fatally shoot nearly 1,000.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 26 Dec. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/>.

In-Text: (Kindy, FIsher, Tate, and Jenkins)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Kindy, K., Fisher, M., Tate, J., Jenkins, J. (2015, Dec. 26). A year of reckoning: Police fatally shoot nearly 1,000. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/

In-Text: (Kindy, Fisher, Tate, and Jenkins, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.people-press.org/2015/08/13/continued-bipartisan-support-for-expanded-background-checks-on-gun-sales/

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Sample:

“Two years after the failure of Senate legislation to expand background checks on gun purchases, the public continues to overwhelmingly support making private gun sales and sales at gun shows subject to background checks. Currently, 85% of Americans – including large majorities of Democrats (88%) and Republicans (79%) – favor expanded background checks, little changed from May 2013 (81%).”

MLA Citation:

“Continued Bipartisan Support for Expanded Background Checks on Gun Sales.” people-press.org. Pew Research Center, 13 Aug. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.people-press.org/2015/08/13/continued-bipartisan-support-for-expanded-background-checks-on-gun-sales/>.

In-Text: (“Continued Bipartisan Support for Expanded Background Checks on Gun Sales”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Continued bipartisan support for expanded background checks on gun sales. (2015, Aug. 13). Pew Research Center.  Retrieved from http://www.people-press.org/2015/08/13/continued-bipartisan-support-for-expanded-background-checks-on-gun-sales/

In-Text: (“Continued bipartisan support for expanded background checks on gun sales,” 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCES

1.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

This link leads to an article covering a study that showed implementation of 3 specific laws can drastically reduce gun-related crimes. The study analyzed state crime and gun data from all over the U.S. and found a larger group of laws that have a positive impact on gun-related crimes, but narrows it down to the 3 most effective laws – which, according to the study, can reduce gun-related deaths by 80%. Click here for MLA/APA citations. 

2.

http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext

Referenced here is a scholarly journal article that reveals the U.S. homicide rate is 7 times higher than other high income countries, while the gun-homicide rate is 25 times higher. Also of importance, the gun homicide rate in the U.S. for ages 15 through 24 was 49 times higher than other high-income countries. There is much more data on many different demographics, including that 90% of all women, children under 14, and 82% of total gun-related deaths in high-income countries occurred in the U.S. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

3.

http://www.opensecrets.org/news/issues/guns/

Above is a link to a frequently updated page with information on gun-lobbying and U.S. politicians. This article provides background on the gun control debate in legislation along with data on amount of funding received by politicians and presidential candidates. The data shows a heavy proportion of these funds go to republican candidates, and that the National Rifle Association is a large proponent of such funding and other forms of support. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

4.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

This is a great article from the Washington Post that provides data on the most popular gun control talking points from this ongoing debate. This article covers the frequency of mass-shootings and other gun violence, as well as support for gun ownership in the U.S. There is some very compelling data in this article, most prominently that “states with stricter gun control laws have fewer deaths from gun-related violence” (emphasis ours, this would be key to a research assignment on this topic) and that “active shooter events have become more common” since 2000. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

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CREDIBLE SOURCES

1.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

This is a Washington Post article which actually provides insight into both sides of the gun control argument – both for and against – around 5 commonly discussed aspects of this increasingly relevant debate. This article provides an argument for either side supported with data and research. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

2.

http://www.constitution.org/2ll/2ndschol/57mich.pdf

The above link leads to a PDF of an article titled “Handgun Prohibition and The Original Meaning of the Second Amendment” published in Michigan Law Review by Don B. Kates, Jr., who is a prominent legal scholar. It was published in 1983 but is still useful as Kates uses extensive research and references to discuss how the second amendment is being interpreted by those involved in the debate (yes, this debate was happening over 30 years ago). Click here for MLA/APA citations.

3.

http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/gun-debate-culture-debate

This links to an article on the Cato Institute’s website by one of their constitutional researchers. The Cato Institute is a “Think Tank” which does research around government, public policy, and law, among many other things (you will likely find more articles on this topic there). The purpose of this article is to change the perspective of how one views the gun control debate – not gun control itself, but the debate surrounding it. The author argues that the debate is not around whether or not banning guns is constitutional, or whether increased gun control will reduce the amount of gun-related violence in the U.S., but that this debate is actually between two different view points on the role of government. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

4.

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-22288564

According to this article, the country of Iceland “ranks 15th in the world in terms of legal per capita gun ownership.” Yet, the purpose of this article is to examine Iceland’s astonishingly low crime rate – and more specifically the low rate of gun violence. A large portion of their population owns guns, yet they experience a fraction of gun-related crimes we do here in the U.S. There are major differences between Iceland and the U.S., but this article will be useful to any argument against gun control. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

5.

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/

Much of what you need to know for this one is in the title, “Gun Homicide Rate Down 49% Since 1993 Peak; Public Unaware.” This is a link to a Pew Research Center study done comparing the public’s thoughts on gun homicide rates and the actual data available. As explained in the title, the public perception of this hot-button issue is inaccurate, and there are many ways that could have an impact on the gun control debate. Click here for MLA/APA citations.

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

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Sample:

“Gun-related deaths in the U.S. could be reduced by more than 80 percent if three laws implemented in some states were extended nationally, an analysis led by Boston University researchers shows. In a study published in The Lancet, a research team analyzing state-level data from 2010 on gun-related deaths and 25 state-specific gun laws identified three laws that were most strongly associated with reductions in overall gun-related mortality. Laws requiring firearm identification through ballistic imprinting or microstamping were found to reduce the projected mortality risk by 84 percent; ammunition background checks, by 82 percent; and universal background checks for all gun purchases, by 61 percent.”

MLA Citation:

“Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 March 2016. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm>.

In-Text: (“Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths. (2016, Mar. 10). ScienceDaily. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160310214136.htm

In-Text: (“Three state laws that ‘substantially reduce’ gun deaths”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://armsandthelaw.com/archives/GunLawsSudden%20DeathBJC.pdf

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Sample:

“Worldwide, the development of legislation aimed at reducing levels of firearm-related death has become a significant issue within the spheres of public health, public safety and criminal justice. However, relatively little research to date has addressed the impacts of significant epochs of regulatory reform upon firearm-related deaths in countries like Australia, where strict firearms regulations were introduced in 1996. After the 1996 mass killing of 35 people at the Port Arthur historical site, Australia enacted gun controls that are considered among the most stringent in the developed world. Briefly, the National Firearms Agreement (NFA), which was ratified by Federal Parliament in 1996 and implemented across all States and Territories by the end of 1997, prohibited certain types of firearms, in particular semi-automatic rifles and semiautomatic and pump action shotguns. To facilitate the removal of these firearms, a government-funded ‘buy-back’ scheme was designed, whereby owners were compensated for handing in their firearms. Over 600,000 firearms were subsequently destroyed by police.”

MLA Citation:

Baker, Jeanine and Samara McPhedran. “Gun Laws and Sudden Death.” British Journal of Criminolgy (18 Oct. 2006): 1-15.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://armsandthelaw.com/archives/GunLawsSudden%20DeathBJC.pdf>.

In-Text: (Baker and McPhedran)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Baker, J. & McPhedran, S. (2006, Oct. 18). Gun laws and sudden death. British Journal of Criminology. doi:10.1093/bjc/azl084

In-Text: (Baker & McPhedran, 2006)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

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Sample:

“In this post… we explore America’s unique role among advanced countries as a place where support for guns is widespread — and violence involving firearms is equally widespread. There are some perhaps surprising findings — gun ownership in the United States is declining overall, for instance. But despite mass killings — which have occurred with increasing frequency in recent years — support for gun rights is still resolute in America.”

MLA Citation:

Ehrenfreund, Max and Zachary A. Goldfarb. “11 essential facts about guns and mass shootings in the United States.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 18 Jun. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/>.

In-Text: (Ehrenfreund and Goldfarb)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Ehrenfreund, M. & Goldfarb, Z. A. (2015, Jun. 18). 11 essential facts about guns and mass shootings in the United States. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/11-essential-facts-about-guns-and-mass-shootings-in-the-united-states/

In-Text: (Ehrenfreund & Goldfarb, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext

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Sample:

“US homicide rates were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher. For 15- to 24-year-olds, the gun homicide rate in the United States was 49.0 times higher. Firearm-related suicide rates were 8.0 times higher in the United States, but the overall suicide rates were average. Unintentional firearm deaths were 6.2 times higher in the United States. The overall firearm death rate in the United States from all causes was 10.0 times higher. Ninety percent of women, 91% of children aged 0 to 14 years, 92% of youth aged 15 to 24 years, and 82% of all people killed by firearms were from the United States.”

MLA Citation:

Grinshteyn, Erin and David Hemenway. “Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010.” The American Journal of Medicine (2015): n.p.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(15)01030-X/fulltext>.

In-Text: (Grinshteyn and Hemenway)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Grinshteyn, E. & Hemenway, D. (2015, Nov. 6). Violent death rates: The US compared with other high-income OECD countries, 2010. The American Journal of Medicine, n.p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025

In-Text: (Grinshteyn & Hemenway, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://educationnext.org/home-schooling-goes-mainstream/

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Sample:

“Though parents and tutors have been teaching children in the home for centuries, in the late 1960s and 1970s there emerged for the first time in the United States a political movement that adopted this practice as a radical, countercultural critique of the public education system. Conservatives who felt the public schools had sold out to secularism and progressivism joined with progressives who felt the public schools were bastions of conservative conformity to challenge the notion that all children should attend them. By the early 1990s they had won the right to home school in every state. Some home-school advocacy groups have attempted to secure a federal law or Supreme Court ruling that would establish uniform national guidelines grounded in First or Fourteenth Amendment rights, but to date such efforts have failed (to the great relief of home-school advocacy groups that oppose this strategy). Home schooling thus falls under state law, and these laws vary widely. A complex matrix of specific statutory language and judicial interpretations emerged out of the maelstrom of political activism over the issue that started in the late 1970s. In Indiana and Michigan, for example, there are virtually no restrictions on home schoolers and very little accountability to government. Home-schooling parents are not even required to register. In Pennsylvania and New York, state agencies oversee and regulate home schooling in a number of ways, from curricular requirements to parental qualifications to mandatory home visits by certified personnel to obligatory standardized testing.”

MLA Citation:

Gaither, Milton. “Home Schooling Goes Mainstream.” EducationNext. President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2009. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://educationnext.org/home-schooling-goes-mainstream/>.

In-Text: (Gaither)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Gaither, M. (2009). Home schooling goes mainstream. President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved from http://educationnext.org/home-schooling-goes-mainstream/

In-Text: (Gaither, 2009)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/

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Sample:

“National rates of gun homicide and other violent gun crimes are strikingly lower now than during their peak in the mid-1990s, paralleling a general decline in violent crime, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of government data. Beneath the long-term trend, though, are big differences by decade: Violence plunged through the 1990s, but has declined less dramatically since 2000.”

MLA Citation:

Cohn, D’Vera, Paul Taylor, Mark Hugo Lopez, Catherine A. Gallagher, Kim Parker, and Kevin T. Maas. “Gun Homicide Rate Down 49% Since 1993 Peak; Public Unaware.” pewsocialtrends.org. Pew Research Center, May 7. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/>.

In-Text: (Cohn et al. ) Because there are multiple pages, you should include the page number for this in-text citation

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APA Citation:

Cohn, D., Taylor, P., Lopez, M. H., Gallagher, C. A., Parker, K., & Maass, K. T (2013, May 7). Gun homicide rate down 49% since 1993 peak; public unaware. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/07/gun-homicide-rate-down-49-since-1993-peak-public-unaware/

In-Text: (Cohn et al., 2013)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2012/12/14/schoo-shooting-how-do-u-s-gun-homicides-compare-with-the-rest-of-the-world/

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Sample:

“When a person kills another in the United States, though, he or she generally uses a gun: 60 percent of U.S. homicides occur using a firearm, which is the 26th-highest rate in the world. (In other gun-permeated countries, such as Finland (45.3 guns per 100 people), only about 19 percent of homicides involve a firearm.”

MLA Citation:

Khazan, Olga. “Here’s how U.S. gun violence compares with the rest of the world.” The Washington Post. The Washington Post, Dec 14. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2012/12/14/schoo-shooting-how-do-u-s-gun-homicides-compare-with-the-rest-of-the-world/>.

In-Text: (Khazan)

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APA Citation:

Khazan, O. (2012, Dec 14). Here’s how U.S. gun violence compares with the rest of the world. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2012/12/14/schoo-shooting-how-do-u-s-gun-homicides-compare-with-the-rest-of-the-world/

In-Text: (Khazan, 2012)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/

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Sample:

“According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 467,321 persons were victims of a crime committed with a firearm in 2011.[1] In the same year, data collected by the FBI show that firearms were used in 68 percent of murders, 41 percent of robbery offenses and 21 percent of aggravated assaults nationwide.[2]”

MLA Citation:

“Gun Violence”. nij.gov. National Institute of Justice, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/>.

In-Text: (“Gun Violence”)

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APA Citation:

Gun Violence. (n.d.).  Retrieved from http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/

In-Text: (Gun Violence)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

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Sample:

“We don’t have the highest crime rate among developed nations, according to that 2012 U.N. survey, but we do have the highest firearm-homicide rate, according to a Council on Foreign Relations analysis of that study and the Small Arms Survey.”

MLA Citation:

Phillips, Amber. “The gun control debate, explained in 5 questions.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 3 Dec. 2015. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). < https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/>.

In-Text: (Phillips)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Phillips, A. (3 Dec, 2015). The gun control debate, explained in 5 questions. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE) from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/10/08/how-to-argue-about-gun-control/

In-Text: (Phillips, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/

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Sample:

47% Percentage of Americans who say they have a gun in their home or elsewhere on their property, according to Gallup, the highest reported number in two decades

$6 billion Estimated revenue generated by the gun and ammunition industry in the U.S., according to an analysis by business research firm Hoovers

310 million Estimated number of firearms in the U.S., according to the federal government, which includes 114 million handguns, 110 million rifles, and 86 million shotguns”

MLA Citation:

Sanburn, Josh. “America’s Gun Economy, By the Numbers”. Time Inc., 18 Dec. 2012. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/>.

In-Text: (Sanburn)

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APA Citation:

Sanburn, J. (18 Dec, 2012). America’s Gun Economy, By the Numbers. Retrieved from http://business.time.com/2012/12/18/americas-gun-economy-by-the-numbers/

In-Text: (Sanburn)

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Read More Comments Off on Gun Ownership, Spending, and Lobbying Statistics in the US