Credible Sources for Data

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2709326/

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Sample:

“Every year, worldwide, about 42 million women with unintended pregnancies choose abortion, and nearly half of these procedures, 20 million, are unsafe. Some 68,000 women die of unsafe abortion annually, making it one of the leading causes of maternal mortality (13%). Of the women who survive unsafe abortion, 5 million will suffer long-term health complications. Unsafe abortion is thus a pressing issue. Both of the primary methods for preventing unsafe abortion—less restrictive abortion laws and greater contraceptive use—face social, religious, and political obstacles, particularly in developing nations, where most unsafe abortions (97%) occur. Even where these obstacles are overcome, women and health care providers need to be educated about contraception and the availability of legal and safe abortion, and women need better access to safe abortion and postabortion services. Otherwise, desperate women, facing the financial burdens and social stigma of unintended pregnancy and believing they have no other option, will continue to risk their lives by undergoing unsafe abortions.”

Description:

Study reviewing data of unsafe abortions by region, as well as the effect of things like abortion laws, access to contraception, and the health consequences.

Author(s):

  • Lisa B Haddad and Nawal M Nour

Title:

  • Unsafe Abortion: Unnecessary Maternal Mortality

Publisher:

  • Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Date:

  • 2009

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3395931/

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Sample:

Objective

Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study.

Method

278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study.

Results

The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively.

Conclusion

Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women’s health impact on family and population health.”

Description:

Study on the psychological consequences of having an abortion and analysis of the data.

Author(s):

  • Abolghasem Pourreza and Aziz Batebi

Title:

  • Psychological Consequences of Abortion among the Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

Publisher:

  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 6, No. 1

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.guttmacher.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/journals/3711005.pdf

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Sample:

“CONTEXT:Understanding women’s reasons for having abortions can inform public debate and policy regarding abortion and unwanted pregnancy. Demographic changes over the last two decades highlight the need for a reassessment of why women decide to have abortions. METHODS: In 2004, a structured survey was completed by 1,209 abortion patients at 11 large providers, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 38 women at four sites. Bivariate analyses examined differences in the reasons for abortion across subgroups, and multivariate logistic regression models assessed associations between respondent characteristics and reported reasons. RESULTS: The reasons most frequently cited were that having a child would interfere with a woman’s education, work or ability to care for dependents (74%); that she could not afford a baby now (73%); and that she did not want to be a single mother or was having relationship problems (48%). Nearly four in 10 women said they had completed their childbearing, and almost one-third were not ready to have a child. Fewer than 1% said their parents’ or partners’ desire for them to have an abortion was the most important reason. Younger women often reported that they were unprepared for the transition to motherhood, while older women regularly cited their responsibility to dependents. CONCLUSIONS: The decision to have an abortion is typically motivated by multiple, diverse and interrelated reasons. The themes of responsibility to others and resource limitations, such as financial constraints and lack of partner support, recurred throughout the study.”

Description:

Article on studies conducted on why women in the U.S. have abortions in 1987 and 2004, using quantitative and qualitative analysis.

Author(s):

  •  Lawrence B. Finer, Lori F. Frohwirth, Lindsay A. Dauphinee, Susheela Singh and Ann M. Moore

Title:

  • Reasons U.S. Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives

Publisher:

  • Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Volume 37, Number 3

Date:

  • September 2005

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5402385/

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Sample:

“Induced abortion accounts for 1 in 8 of approximately 600000 maternal deaths that occur annually worldwide (1, 2).

According to the WHO estimation, each year about 44 million induced abortions occur globally. About fifty percent of these abortions are unsafe, contributing substantially to maternal morbidity and approximately leading to 13 % of maternal mortality (3, 4).

The induced abortion rate varies considerably. It was approximated 12 per 1000 women aged 15-44 years old in Western Europe, comparing to 43 in Eastern Europe (5). The induced abortion rate is even higher in countries like Uganda, where there were 54 induced abortions per 1000 women in 2003 (6). Evidence shows the induced abortions are more likely in countries in which abortion is illegal or restricted compared to those liberated (5). The majority (98 %) of unsafe abortions occur in developing countries with low level socio-economic state (1, 4, 7). Induced abortion rate can be considered as one of the indicators for assessing availability of the appropriate reproductive health plans for women (5) and to identify needs for appropriate related health policies and programs (1). Aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on induced abortion rate worldwide.”

Description:

Detailed meta-analysis of induced abortion rates recorded in 38 studies at local, national, and continental levels. Study provides information on induced abortion rates by country and demographic.

Author(s):

  • Saeed Dastgiri, Maryam Yoosefian, Mehraveh Garjani, and Leila R Kalankesh

Title:

  • Induced Abortion: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Publisher:

  • Materia Socio-Medica

Date:

  • March 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.thetrace.org/2015/08/gun-deaths-charleston-chattanooga-lafayette/

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Sample:

“In the 37 days between the shootings in Charleston and Lafayette, at least 1,433 people were killed with a gun in the United States. On July 23, when a man with a checkered history opened fire in a Louisiana movie theater with a legally-purchased handgun, there were a total of 67 shooting incidents. Twenty-eight people died.

In the wake of this year’s most recent mass shootings, the daily tally of gun violence victims continues to rise, particularly in our nation’s urban centers. In Baltimore — which in July suffered the deadliest month in more than four decades, with 45 homicides — 11 people were shot last weekend, three of them fatally. In New York City, where the number of gun injuries and deaths has dropped dramatically since a period of violence spanning the 1970s through the 1990s, as many as 22 people were shot from Friday to Sunday.”

Description:

This article analyzes data showing a high-frequency of gun-related violence and deaths during a short period in 2015 between the high-profile Charleston and Lafayette shootings.

Author(s):

  • Jennifer Mascia and Emily Fuhrman

Title:

  • At Least 1,433 People Were Killed With a Gun in the U.S. Between the Charleston and Lafayette Shootings

Publisher:

  • The Trace

Date:

  • August 4, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2017/04/27/peds.2016-2615

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Sample:

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bullying is a significant public health concern, and it has received considerable attention from the media and policymakers over the past decade, which has led some to believe that it is increasing. However, there are limited surveillance data on bullying to inform our understanding of such trends over the course of multiple years. The current study examined the prevalence of bullying and related behaviors between 2005 and 2014 and explored whether any such changes varied across schools or as a function of school-level covariates.”

CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of bullying and related behaviors generally decreased over this 10-year period with the most recent years showing the greatest improvements in school climate and reductions in bullying. Additional research is needed to identify factors that contributed to this declining trend.”

Description:

Results from a 10-year study conducted in Maryland schools shows a decrease in bullying behaviors and increase in school environment for grades 4-12.

Author(s):

  • Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Elise T. Pas, Benjamin Zablotsky, Catherine P. Bradshaw

Title:

  • Ten-Year Trends in Bullying and Related Attitudes Among 4th- to 12th-Graders

Publisher:

  • Pediatrics

Date:

  • May, 2017

Citations:

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Credible Sources

There is no shortage of research and scientific data on the web showing the effect of human activity on the Earth’s climate, but with so much information available, and from so many different sources, it can be hard for a student to sort through everything to find the sources needed for your research assignments. CRS has compiled a large collection of credible sources around this topic, and in this post we have placed them all in one spot and organized them by the information you can find in each. If you need more research on this topic or another, use the Study Hall to get help from us and other students. (Note: some of the sources below will appear under more than one category, keep that in mind.)

 

The Basics

The following sources cover all the basics of climate change, including the causes and indicators, as well as a great Q&A format post covering the effects of global warming, the Paris Agreement, and whether or not it’s too late save our planet. There are much more in depth sources in this guide, but all of these are great starting points for research. Furthermore, the websites linked to (NASA, National Climatic Data Center) have much more information about global warming, greenhouse gasses, and the science of climate change.

 

Human Activity and Greenhouse Gases

One of the main points of the climate change debate is not whether or not it is really happening (which is now very well-documented), but whether or not it is caused by human activity or simply a naturally occurring process. There is an abundance of evidence below to show how human activity is impacting the Earth’s climate, complete with scientific data, physical evidence in our air and oceans, and how our industries are contributing to the problem (and have been for a long time).

 

Renewable Resources

Renewable energy is one of the most important parts of combating climate change and preventing further damage to the Earth. The sources below provide information on the various types of renewable energy, how they help fight against climate change, and common misunderstandings about renewable energies.

 

Extreme Weather

It would be pretty hard for anyone living in the U.S. to ignore the odd and sometimes extreme weather that has occurred in recent years. With the scientific community frequently stating that global warming and climate change will have negative impacts on our planet, it is quite natural to wonder if we are already seeing these negative impacts in the form of extreme weather events, mild winters, and early springs. Here is all the research you need to determine that for yourself.

 

Benefits of Preventing Climate Change

There is at least one obvious benefit to preventing climate change: saving our planet. There are more, however, which are just as important and beneficial to society. Embracing renewable energy will not only protect our atmosphere but also create an enormous economic sector and an abundance of jobs, while the efficiency of renewable energies will also serve to bring down costs, like those of production and transportation, over time.

 

On Climate Change Denial…

Unfortunately, there are some who disagree with the entire scientific community on the topic of climate change. Whatever the reasons for this, it is a very dangerous misconception and should be addressed. With all of this research, it seems difficult to deny the impact of human activity on our climate and the impact of global warming on our planet, but here are some more sources to specifically address the denial.

Climate Change and the Integrity of ScienceThe above link leads to an article published in the scholarly journal Science published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which argues the questioning of climate change research is equal to doubting the entire scientific community. It is signed by dozens of scientists and researchers, and it may in fact be the most concisely written argument against climate change denial that exists today.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/16/executions-state-by-state/

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Sample:

 

StateExecutions in 1991Total
Utah03
Florida227
Nevada05
Indiana02
Texas542
Virginia213
Alabama08
Georgia115
Louisiana120
Mississippi04
North Carolina14
South Carolina14
Missouri16
Oklahoma01
Arkansas02
Illinois01

Description:

Interactive chart showing the number of executions in each state by year, provided by Pew Research Center.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Number of Executions in Each State Since 1977

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • April 16, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/09/29/support-for-death-penalty-lowest-in-more-than-four-decades/

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Sample:

“Only about half of Americans (49%) now favor the death penalty for people convicted of murder, while 42% oppose it. Support has dropped 7 percentage points since March 2015, from 56%. Public support for capital punishment peaked in the mid-1990s, when eight-in-ten Americans (80% in 1994) favored the death penalty and fewer than two-in-ten were opposed (16%). Opposition to the death penalty is now the highest it has been since 1972.

Though support for the death penalty has declined across most groups, a Pew Research Center survey conducted Aug. 23-Sept. 2 among 1,201 adults finds that most Republicans continue to largely favor its use in cases of murder, while most Democrats oppose it. By more than two-to-one, more Republicans (72%) than Democrats (34%) currently favor the death penalty.”

Description:

Survey data showing Americans’ support for the death penalty in 2016 is lower than any other time since 1970, and among lowest in history.

Author(s):

  • Baxter Oliphant

Title:

  • Support for death penalty lowest in more than four decades

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • September 29, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cnn.com/2015/08/25/health/us-canada-obesity-rates/

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Sample:

“Rates of obesity among children and teenagers in the U.S. have increased substantially more than in Canada since the late 1970s, according to a new report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Although the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. is well known, this report shines a light on how we compare to our neighbors to the north, said Cynthia L. Ogden, an epidemiologist at the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics and lead author of the new study.

The report found that, whereas the obesity rate among children between 3 and 19 was about 5% in both the U.S. and Canada in the late 1970s, it rose to 17.5% in the U.S. by 2012 and only 13% in Canada by 2013. However in both countries, the rates have leveled off in the last 10 years.”

Description:

CNN report of a study done on obesity rates in children in the U.S. and Canada, showing rates climbed faster in the U.S. since 1980.

Author(s):

  • Carina Storrs

Title:

  • U.S. kids outweigh Canadian kids, says study

Publisher:

  • CNN

Date:

  • August 25, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-trends/global-obesity-trends-in-children/

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Sample:

“Obesity rates are higher in adults than in children. But in relative terms, the U.S., Brazil, China, and other countries have seen the problem escalate more rapidly in children than in adults. (5)

Of course, some regions still struggle mightily with child hunger, such as Southeastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. (6) But globalization has made the world wealthier, and wealth and weight are linked.

As poor countries move up the income scale and switch from traditional diets to Western food ways, obesity rates rise. (7) One result of this so-called “nutrition transition” is that low- and middle-income countries often face a dual burden: the infectious diseases that accompany malnutrition, especially in childhood, and, increasingly, the debilitating chronic diseases linked to obesity and Western lifestyles.”

Description:

Report from Harvard with Childhood Obesity data from various countries in every continent and discussing the different effects obesity has in each region.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Child Obesity

Publisher:

  • Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/childhood-obesity/symptoms-causes/dxc-20268891

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Sample:

  • Family factors. If your child comes from a family of overweight people, he or she may be more likely to put on weight. This is especially true in an environment where high-calorie foods are always available and physical activity isn’t encouraged.
  • Psychological factors. Personal, parental and family stress can increase a child’s risk of obesity. Some children overeat to cope with problems or to deal with emotions, such as stress, or to fight boredom. Their parents may have similar tendencies.
  • Socioeconomic factors. People in some communities have limited resources and limited access to supermarkets. As a result, they may opt for convenience foods that don’t spoil quickly, such as frozen meals, crackers and cookies. In addition, people who live in lower income neighborhoods might not have access to a safe place to exercise.

Description:

Informational page on Childhood Obesity from the Mayo Clinic with details about causes and symptoms, and links to info on diagnosis and treatment.

Author(s):

  • Mayo Clinic Staff

Title:

  • Childhood obesity

Publisher:

  • Mayo Clinic

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/15/magazine/the-dream-and-the-myth-of-the-womens-vote.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“When Victoria Woodhull ran for president of the United States, she couldn’t even vote for herself. “If the women can be allowed to vote,” The New York Herald claimed when Woodhull announced her bid in 1870, “Mrs. Woodhull may rely on rolling up the heaviest majority ever polled in this or any other nation.” After all, the paper said, “women always take the part of each other.” The Herald called for passage of a women’s suffrage amendment, and then “victory for Victoria in 1872.”

That was before the sex scandal hit. Woodhull was a divorced woman, and sexual history was already a point of controversy. But soon the papers dredged up a truly salacious item: She once shared her home with both her first and second husbands. Woodhull defended herself in the press. She explained that her family had taken in her alcoholic, disabled ex-husband as an act of charity, not bigamy. But the headlines branded her “disgraced” and called her career “BUSTED.” Woodhull was evicted from her home and forced to withdraw her 11-year-old daughter from school. The cartoonist Thomas Nast literally drew her as the Devil.”

Description:

Article discussing the discrepancy between the idea of the ‘Women’s Vote’ – that will women will vote together – and the reality in the 2016 election.

Author(s):

  • Amanda Hess

Title:

  • The Dream — and the Myth — of the ‘Women’s Vote’

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • November 15, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3830171/

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Sample:

“Individuals who perceive their bodies negatively with regard to culturally valued features may have low self-esteem, low satisfaction in life and feeling of inferiority and pose themselves at higher risk for depression, anxiety or eating disorders. At the highest level of dissatisfaction, this may result in significant impairment of social, educational and/or occupational functioning. Currently, beautiful is considered good and thinness is synonymous with beauty, which makes it valued by society while its opposite, obesity, is strongly rejected. Although the ideals of female beauty vary as a function of esthetical standards adopted at each time, studies show that women have tried to change their bodies to follow these standards.[5]

Obesity has been identified as one of the rising epidemic across globe with consequential rise of non-communicable diseases including disproportionate health care cost on individuals, family and society. According to latest WHO estimates, 14.4% (male) and 15% (female) adult aged 15 years and above are obese in the world.[6] More than half a billion adults (205 million men and 297 million women over the age of 20 years) world-wide were obese in 2008. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was highest in WHO regions of America and lowest in South-East Asia.[7]

Overweight children, adolescents, and adults generally have lower body esteem than do their normal-weight peers and this is especially true for females.[8] It is generally believed that body image distortion and related consequences is a western societal phenomenon however, it has made its presence felt into diverse culture including developing countries also. With the change in epidemiological shift, India is witnessing simultaneous manifestation of double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease with a challenging and daunting task for stakeholders to identify issues, resolve conflict, mobilize resources and overcome situation with innovative solution and strategies. Considering this background, a cross-sectional descriptive study sought to determine body image satisfaction, a hitherto underexplored arena in our setting. Using body satisfaction described in words, this study also investigated relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables.”

Description:

Study published in the Industrial Psychiatry Journal aiming to measure the body-image satisfaction among female students entering college.

Author(s):

  • Shweta Goswami, Sandeep Sachdeva, and Ruchi Sachdeva

Title:

  • Body image satisfaction among female college students

Publisher:

  • Industrial Psychiatry Journal

Date:

  • 2012

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139177

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Sample:

“Body image is the subjective “picture” that people have of their own body, regardless of how their body actually looks. Body image is a multifaceted construct, consisting of cognitive and affective components (i.e., how people think and feel about their body), perceptual components (i.e., how people perceive the size and shape of their body and body parts), and behavioural components (i.e., the actions that people perform for the purpose of checking on, tending to, altering, or concealing their body). Negative body image is expressed in one or more of the components of body image and is often characterised by a dissatisfaction with appearance and engaging in behaviours such as frequent self-weighing or mirror checking, or avoidance of public situations.

Studies have shown that negative body image can emerge in childhood. Approximately 50% of preadolescent girls and 30% of preadolescent boys dislike their body. In adults, approximately 60% of women and 40% of men have a negative body image, and these rates remain stable across the lifespan. Negative body image contributes to the development and maintenance of body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, and is associated with low self-esteem, depression, social anxiety, and impaired sexual functioning. In addition, negative body image has serious consequences for health behaviours. For instance, negative body image predicts physical inactivity, unhealthy eating, and weight gain, and is associated with unsafe sex, smoking, and skin cancer risk behaviours.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of various interventions meant to improve body image, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, fitness training, media literacy, and others.

Author(s):

  • Jessica M. Alleva, Paschal Sheeran, Thomas L. Webb, Carolien Martijn, Eleanor Miles

Title:

  • A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image

Publisher:

  • PLoS ONE

Date:

  • September 29, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4489037/

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Sample:

“Recent research suggests that social networking sites (SNSs: Facebook and Instagram) are increasingly used by college-aged females as the preferred social resource over conventional media forms, for example magazines and television [19]. Moreover, a growing literature suggests that SNSs have addictive properties [20]. Social comparison theory postulates that individuals are more likely to engage in comparisons with similar (peer groups) rather than dissimilar (others) personal attributes [21]. Accordingly, the relationship between AC and BID should be enhanced in SNSs where portrayed females are perceived as real, age- and status-related, and thus more personally identified with in contrast to professional models in conventional media [22].

Studies of self-presentation within SNSs have consistently found that users strategically manipulate their profiles in accordance with societal ideals of attractiveness [23–25]. Women viewing images of professional models represented in conventional forms of media remain aware that these have been digitally enhanced [26] thereby reducing the likelihood of self- comparison and propensity for BID [27]. In contrast, SNS images of ‘real’ women are assumed to be digitally unaltered and, hence accepted as more accurate and personally relevant [28].

Facebook is a popular SNS [29], with more than a billion active users [30]. Fifty eight percent of users are women [31] with users spending around an average of 16 h accessing Facebook per month [30]. In Australia there are currently 11,489,580 Facebook users, with the largest age group being 25–34 year-olds, followed by 18–24 year-olds [31].

Social media, unlike conventional media, also provides a virtual forum for fat talk, conversational threads about one’s own and other’s eating and exercise habits, weight concerns and ideal body shapes [32], thus serving to intensify the influence of AC on BID [33]. Typical Facebook profiles contain strategically selected thin photos of peers coupled with complimentary comments on appearance; for example “you look so skinny and beautiful” [24]. One study [34] found that 70.2 % of profiles of American undergraduate students referenced exercise and 12.3 %, eating habits with comments like “just did my morning work-out, feeling great!”. Of 600 Facebook users aged 16 to 40, 50 % reported that Facebook content made them more body-conscious; 31 % feeling “sad” as a result of comparing photos of themselves to those of Facebook friends, and 44 % reported desiring the same body or weight as Facebook friends [35].”

Description:

Article in the Journal of Eating Disorders analyzing the effect of social media, like Facebook and Instagram, have on body image satisfaction.

Author(s):

  • Rachel Cohen and Alex Blaszczynski

Title:

  • Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction

Publisher:

  • Journal of Eating Disorders

Date:

  • July 2, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/prevalence/eating-disorders-among-children.shtml

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Sample:

“The following chart shows eating disorder information from the National Comorbidity Survey – Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) , and defines an eating disorder broadly as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and/or binge eating disorder. It shows key information about eating disorders among 13 to 17 year olds, including an estimate of 2.7 percent for those suffering from an eating disorder and that girls are more than two and a half times as likely as boys to have an eating disorder.”

Description:

Infographics with data from the National Institutes of Mental Health on the prevalence of various eating disorders in children in various age ranges.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Eating Disorders Among Children

Publisher:

  • National Institutes of Health

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/eating-disorders/index.shtml?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss

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Sample:

“Anorexia nervosa

People with anorexia nervosa may see themselves as overweight, even when they are dangerously underweight. People with anorexia nervosa typically weigh themselves repeatedly, severely restrict the amount of food they eat, and eat very small quantities of only certain foods. Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any mental disorder. While many young women and men with this disorder die from complications associated with starvation, others die of suicide. In women, suicide is much more common in those with anorexia than with most other mental disorders.

Symptoms include:

  • Extremely restricted eating
  • Extreme thinness (emaciation)
  • A relentless pursuit of thinness and unwillingness to maintain a normal or healthy weight
  • Intense fear of gaining weight
  • Distorted body image, a self-esteem that is heavily influenced by perceptions of body weight and shape, or a denial of the seriousness of low body weight

Other symptoms may develop over time, including:

  • Thinning of the bones (osteopenia or osteoporosis)
  • Mild anemia and muscle wasting and weakness
  • Brittle hair and nails
  • Dry and yellowish skin
  • Growth of fine hair all over the body (lanugo)
  • Severe constipation
  • Low blood pressure, slowed breathing and pulse
  • Damage to the structure and function of the heart
  • Brain damage
  • Multiorgan failure
  • Drop in internal body temperature, causing a person to feel cold all the time
  • Lethargy, sluggishness, or feeling tired all the time
  • Infertility”

Description:

Mental health webpage from the National Institutes of Health on eating disorders including information on the symptoms and causes, as well as treatment.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Eating Disorders

Publisher:

  • National Institutes of Mental Health

Date:

  • February 2016 (check source for changes to date due to updates)

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.anad.org/get-information/about-eating-disorders/eating-disorders-statistics/

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Sample:

General statistics:

  • At least 30 million people of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder in the U.S. 1, 2
  • Every 62 minutes at least one person dies as a direct result from an eating disorder.3
  • Eating disorders have the highest mortality rate of any mental illness.4
  • 13% of women over 50 engage in eating disorder behaviors.5
  • In a large national study of college students, 3.5% sexual minority women and 2.1% of sexual minority men reported having an eating disorder.6
  • 16% of transgender college students reported having an eating disorder.6
  • In a study following active duty military personnel over time, 5.5% of women and 4% of men had an eating disorder at the beginning of the study, and within just a few years of continued service, 3.3% more women and 2.6% more men developed an eating disorder.7
  • Eating disorders affect all races and ethnic groups.8
  • Genetics, environmental factors, and personality traits all combine to create risk for an eating disorder.”

Description:

General statistics and data on various types of eating disorders including rates of occurrence among males and females, as well as other demographics.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Eating Disorder Statistics

Publisher:

  • National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/summary-president-obama-gun-proposals.aspx

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Sample:

“On Jan. 5, 2016, President Obama unveiled his new strategy to curb gun violence in America. His proposals focus on new background check requirements that will enhance the effectiveness of the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS), and greater education and enforcement efforts of existing laws at the state level. As more information becomes available, this document will be updated. The 2015 plan:

  • Directs the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) to require any business that engages in the sale of guns to obtain a federal license to do so and conduct background checks.  This requirement applies to gun stores, sellers of guns at gun shows, and sellers of guns over the Internet. The licensing requirement applies to all sellers “engaged in the business” of selling guns, regardless of how frequent or how many sales there are. Failure to obtain a license to sell will carry criminal penalties of up to five years in prison and a fine of up to $250,000.  Failure to conduct a required background check will also carry penalties.
  • Requires the ATF Bureau to issue a rule requiring background checks…”

Description:

Summary of the executive orders issued by President Barack Obama in 2015 and 2013 around gun control issues, largely as a result of gun violence incidents.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • President Obama’s 2015 Executive Actions on Gun Control

Publisher:

  • National Conference of State Legislatures

Date:

  • January 5, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.people-press.org/2013/03/12/why-own-a-gun-protection-is-now-top-reason/#generations

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“A national survey finds that nearly half of gun owners (48%) volunteer that the main reason they own a gun is for protection; just 32% say they have a gun primarily for hunting and even fewer cite other reasons, such as target shooting. In 1999, 49% said they owned a gun mostly for hunting, while just 26% cited protection as the biggest factor.

The survey by the Pew Research Center, conducted Feb. 13-18 among 1,504 adults, finds that safety also is a major concern among the majority of Americans who do not have guns. Nearly six-in-ten (58%) of those in households without guns say they would be uncomfortable having a gun in their homes. When asked why they would be uncomfortable, more cite concerns over gun accidents and safety than any other factor.

When it comes to enacting stricter gun control laws, Americans see both pros and cons. Most (58%) worry that new laws would make it more difficult for people to protect their homes and families. Roughly the same number (54%) say stricter laws would reduce the number of deaths caused by mass shootings.”

Description:

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Why Own a Gun? Protection Is Now Top Reason

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • March 12, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/14/upshot/compare-these-gun-death-rates-the-us-is-in-a-different-world.html

Note: The data in this article would make a great opening “hook” for research paper. 

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Sample:

“Around the world, those countries have substantially lower rates of deaths from gun homicide. In Germany, being murdered with a gun is as uncommon as being killed by a falling object in the United States. About two people out of every million are killed in a gun homicide. Gun homicides are just as rare in several other European countries, including the Netherlands and Austria. In the United States, two per million is roughly the death rate for hypothermia or plane crashes.

In Poland and England, only about one out of every million people die in gun homicides each year — about as often as an American dies in an agricultural accident or falling from a ladder. In Japan, where gun homicides are even rarer, the likelihood of dying this way is about the same as an American’s chance of being killed by lightning — roughly one in 10 million.

In the United States, the death rate from gun homicides is about 31 per million people — the equivalent of 27 people shot dead every day of the year. The homicides include losses from mass shootings, like Sunday’s Orlando attack, or the San Bernardino, Calif., shooting last December. And of course, they also include the country’s vastly more common single-victim killings.”

Description:

The New York Times compares the rates of gun-related deaths in other western countries to the U.S., showing a drastically higher rate in the U.S. Someone in Canada is as likely to die from a gun as someone in the U.S. is from alcohol poisoning, and someone in Japan is as likely to die from a gun as someone in the U.S. is from a lightning strike.

Author(s):

  • Kevin Quealy and Margot Sanger-Katz

Title:

  • Compare These Gun Death Rates: The U.S. Is in a Different World

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • June 13, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/03/08/climate/early-spring.html?_r=1

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Sample:

“By the 2017 calendar, the first day of spring is March 20. But spring leaves arrived in mid-January in some parts of the South, and spread northward like a wave. The map above plots the date of “first leaf,” a temperature-based calculation of when vegetation that has been dormant starts to show signs of life. This year, with the exception of a few small areas, the wave has arrived much earlier than the 30-year average.

An early spring means more than just earlier blooms of fruit trees and decorative shrubs like azaleas. It can wreak havoc on schedules that farmers follow for planting and that tourism officials follow for events that are tied to a natural activity like trees blooming. Some plant species that bud early may be susceptible to a snap frost later, and early growth of grasses and other vegetation can disrupt some animals’ usual cycles of spring feeding and growth.”

Description:

Article covering a report from scientists at World Weather Attribution that states the one likely cause for a warm Feb. in 2017 is climate change.

Author(s):

  • Jeremy White and Henry Fountain

Title:

  • Spring Came Early. Scientists Say Climate Change Is a Culprit.

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • March 8, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/10/22/black-lives-matter-should-also-take-on-black-on-black-crime/?utm_term=.761aeb006c44

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Sample:

“Black Lives Matter has done the nation a service by forcing Americans to reckon with a horrifying spate of police killings of unarmed African Americans. Without the movement, the names Eric Garner and Walter Scott wouldn’t resonate. Nor would Sandra Bland, who died in police custody and whose name was invoked during the most recent presidential debate. Despite this, Black Lives Matter has been severely taken to task, if not outright scorned, for its focus on police killings when, as its critics readily note, people in black neighborhoods are often at much more danger of being killed by other black people.

Why, they ask, hasn’t the Black Lives Matter movement been more concerned with — in wording sometimes fraught with condescension — “black-on-black crime?”

It’s a criticism typically associated with the political right, frequently thought (and frankly, frequently meant) to suggest that what black people need is to simply comport themselves differently, rather than endlessly complain about the depredations of (presumably) white police. However, even without such acrid, tribalistic intent, it’s possible to think BLM’s mission is currently incomplete.”

Description:

Article from the Washington Post about the Black Lives Matter movement and whether or not it should address the issue of ‘black-on-black’ violence.

Author(s):

  • John McWhorter

Title:

  • Black Lives Matter should also take on ‘black-on-black crime’

Publisher:

  • The Washington Post

Date:

  • October 22, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2016/06/27/on-views-of-race-and-inequality-blacks-and-whites-are-worlds-apart/

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Sample:

“Almost eight years after Barack Obama’s election as the nation’s first black president –an event that engendered a sense of optimism among many Americans about the future of race relations1 – a series of flashpoints around the U.S. has exposed deep racial divides and reignited a national conversation about race. A new Pew Research Center survey finds profound differences between black and white adults in their views on racial discrimination, barriers to black progress and the prospects for change. Blacks, far more than whites, say black people are treated unfairly across different realms of life, from dealing with the police to applying for a loan or mortgage. And, for many blacks, racial equality remains an elusive goal.

An overwhelming majority of blacks (88%) say the country needs to continue making changes for blacks to have equal rights with whites, but 43% are skeptical that such changes will ever occur. An additional 42% of blacks believe that the country will eventually make the changes needed for blacks to have equal rights with whites, and just 8% say the country has already made the necessary changes.

A much lower share of whites (53%) say the country still has work to do for blacks to achieve equal rights with whites, and only 11% express doubt that these changes will come. Four-in-ten whites believe the country will eventually make the changes needed for blacks to have equal rights, and about the same share (38%) say enough changes have already been made.”

Description:

Data from Pew Research Center showing great disparity between blacks and whites on racial equality and race relations broken down by demographics.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • On Views of Race and Inequality, Blacks and Whites Are Worlds Apart

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • June 27, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://phys.org/news/2017-02-scientists-categorize-earth-toxic-planet.html

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Sample:

“Humans emit more than 250 billion tonnes of chemical substances a year, in a toxic avalanche that is harming people and life everywhere on the planet.

“Earth, and all life on it, are being saturated with man-made chemicals in an event unlike anything in the planet’s entire history,” says Julian Cribb, author of ‘Surviving the 21st Century’ (Springer International 2017).

“Every moment of our lives we are exposed to thousands of these substances. They enter our bodies with each breath, meal or drink we take, the clothes and cosmetics we wear, the things we encounter every day in our homes, workplaces and travel.

Mr Cribb says that the poisoning of the planet through man-made chemical emissions is probably the largest human impact – and the one that is least understood or regulated. It is one of ten major existential risks now confronting humanity, he describes in Surviving the 21st Century.”

Description:

Article covering scientists comments about pollution and climate damage due to human activity like plastic pollution and manufactured chemicals.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Scientists categorize Earth as a ‘toxic planet’

Publisher:

  • Phys.org

Date:

  • February 7, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GlobalWarming/page4.php

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Sample:

“In Earth’s history before the Industrial Revolution, Earth’s climate changed due to natural causes not related to human activity. Most often, global climate has changed because of variations in sunlight. Tiny wobbles in Earth’s orbit altered when and where sunlight falls on Earth’s surface. Variations in the Sun itself have alternately increased and decreased the amount of solar energy reaching Earth. Volcanic eruptions have generated particles that reflect sunlight, brightening the planet and cooling the climate. Volcanic activity has also, in the deep past, increased greenhouse gases over millions of years, contributing to episodes of global warming.

These natural causes are still in play today, but their influence is too small or they occur too slowly to explain the rapid warming seen in recent decades. We know this because scientists closely monitor the natural and human activities that influence climate with a fleet of satellites and surface instruments.”

Description:

Article from NASA discussing the science behind the idea that climate change is strongly influenced by human activity even though it is partly natural.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Is Current Warming Natural?

Publisher:

  • NASA

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.fastcoexist.com/3068125/solar-now-provides-twice-as-many-jobs-as-the-coal-industry

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“As solar power keeps getting cheaper—and more and more of it is built as a result—the industry is also an increasingly important source of new jobs, adding workers at a rate nearly 17 times faster than the overall economy. Twice as many people now work in solar than in the coal industry, according to a new survey from the nonprofit Solar Foundation.

While 40 coal plants were retired in the U.S. in 2016, and no new coal plants were built, the solar industry broke records for new installations, with 14,000 megawatts of new installed power. Many of the jobs came from constructing massive solar plants like the Springbok Solar Farm, which is being built on a site that sprawls over 12 miles in the Mojave Desert.

“It’s very labor-intensive,” Andrea Luecke, president and executive director of the Solar Foundation, tells Co.Exist. “It takes hundreds of people to work on some of these large-scale systems, and it takes about 18 months for the systems to go from start to finish.” In some cases, a traveling crew moves from site to site. Other companies focus on hiring local workers, and while large solar farms may be located only in the sunniest places, rooftop solar is creating more construction jobs everywhere.”

Description:

Data shows that solar employs twice as many people as the coal industry does as of 2016, with coal shutting down 40 plants and not adding any in 2016.

Author(s):

  • Adele Peters

Title:

  • Solar Now Provides Twice As Many Jobs As The Coal Industry

Publisher:

  • Fast Company

Date:

  • February 14, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/02/23/support-for-2010-health-care-law-reaches-new-high/

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Sample:

“With congressional Republicans discussing proposals to replace the Affordable Care Act, public support for the 2010 health care law has reached its highest level on record.

Currently, 54% approve of the health care law passed seven years ago by Barack Obama and Congress, while 43% disapprove, according to a national Pew Research Center survey conducted Feb. 7-12 among 1,503 adults.

Throughout the law’s history, opinions about the Affordable Care Act have tended to be more negative than positive — or, less frequently, divided. As recently as December, about as many approved (48%) as disapproved (47%) of the law.

The new survey finds that when those who disapprove of the law are asked about what should happen to it now, more want GOP congressional leaders to focus their efforts on modifying the law than on getting rid of it. One-in-four adults want Republican leaders to modify the law, while 17% want them to get rid of it entirely.”

Description:

According to Pew Research Center, Obamacare reaches highest levels of support amidst political discussions of it being replaced.

Author(s):

  • Hannah Fingerhut

Title:

  • Support for 2010 health care law reaches new high

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • February 23, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/02/24/most-americans-continue-to-oppose-u-s-border-wall-doubt-mexico-would-pay-for-it/

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Sample:

“As was the case throughout the presidential campaign, more Americans continue to oppose (62%) than favor (35%) building a wall along the entire U.S. border with Mexico. And while President Donald Trump has said the U.S. would make Mexico pay for the wall, the public is broadly skeptical: 70% think the U.S. would ultimately pay for the wall, compared with just 16% who think Mexico would pay for it.

The proposal to build the wall was one of several contentious issues that loomed over a meeting between Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and Mexican officials this week to discuss immigration and border issues.

The latest national survey by Pew Research Center, conducted Feb. 7-12, 2017 among 1,503 adults, finds the public holds mixed views on a border wall’s potential impact on illegal immigration. About three-in-ten (29%) think a wall along the entire border with Mexico would lead to a “major reduction” in illegal immigration into the U.S.; another 25% think it would result in a “minor reduction.” A 43% plurality thinks a border wall would not have much impact on illegal immigration into the U.S.”

Description:

February 2017 survey conducted by Pew Research Center showing over 60% of Americans do not support the border wall or think Mexico will pay for it.

Author(s):

  • Rob Suls

Title:

  • Most Americans continue to oppose U.S. border wall, doubt Mexico would pay for it

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • February 24, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/12/14/most-americans-favor-stricter-environmental-laws-and-regulations/

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Sample:

“More Americans say environmental regulations are “worth the cost” than say such regulations come at too steep a price, according to a new Pew Research Center survey. These views come amid speculation about what President-elect Donald Trump’s Cabinet nominees may mean for future regulatory policy.

A majority of U.S. adults (59%) say stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost, compared with roughly a third (34%) who say such regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy, according to the survey, conducted Nov. 30 to Dec. 5.

Education level and age are both associated with perceptions of environmental regulations. Younger adults and those with more education are more likely than older adults and those with less education to say stricter environmental laws are worth the cost.

Opinion also differs across party lines. Nearly eight-in-ten Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents (78%) see stricter environmental laws as worth the cost, while a majority of Republicans and Republican leaners (58%) say stricter environmental regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy.”

Description:

Poll from Pew Research Center showing most Americans favor stricter environmental regulations, broken down by demographics and political affiliations.

Author(s):

  • Kristen Bialik

Title:

  • Most Americans favor stricter environmental laws and regulations

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • December 14, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.migrationpolicy.org/data/unauthorized-immigrant-population/state/US

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Sample:

DemographicsEstimate% of Total
Unauthorized Population11,009,000100%
Top Countries of Birth
Mexico6,177,00056%
Guatemala723,0007%
El Salvador465,0004%
Honduras337,0003%
China268,0002%

Description:

Data compiled from U.S. Census Bureau and Population Research Institute surveys broken down into various demographics including race, gender, age, and length of time in U.S.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Profile of the Unauthorized Population: United States

Publisher:

  • Migration Policy Institute

Date:

  • No date. (Data is from 2008 and 2010-2014.)

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/science/scientific-consensus-on.html#.WK3WIjsrJAg

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Sample:

National Science Academies

  • U.S. National Academy of Sciences: Understanding and Responding to Climate Change

    “The scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify taking steps to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.” (2005)

  • International academies: Joint science academies’ statement: Global response to climate change

    “Climate change is real. There will always be uncertainty in understanding a system as complex as the world’s climate. However there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring.” (2005, 11 national academies of science)

  • International academies The Science of Climate Change

    “Despite increasing consensus on the science underpinning predictions of global climate change, doubts have been expressed recently about the need to mitigate the risks posed by global climate change. We do not consider such doubts justified.” (2001, 16 national academies of science)”

Description:

List of quotes and sources from scientific publications and organizations showing a consensus that climate change is caused by humans.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Scientific Consensus on Global Warming

Publisher:

  • Union of Concerned Scientists

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/01/23/police-public-differ-on-key-issues-but-align-on-others/

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Sample:

“Other differences were not quite so large. About two-thirds of all Americans (64%) favor a ban on assault-style weapons and roughly the same share of police (67%) oppose such a restriction. More broadly, the surveys found that a larger share of police than the public believe it is more important to protect the rights of Americans to own guns than to control gun ownership (74% of police vs. 53% of the public).”

Description:

Data from Pew Research Center showing law enforcement and the public share similar opinions about gun control, despite differing views on other topics.

Author(s):

  • Rich Morin

Title:

  • Police, public differ on key issues but align on others

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • January 23, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/10/05/americans-strongly-favor-expanding-solar-power-to-help-address-costs-and-environmental-concerns/

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Sample:

“As the solar energy industry gears up to add more electricity-generating capacity than any other source this year, a new Pew Research Center survey finds that almost nine-in-ten U.S. adults (89%) favor expanding use of solar power, while only 9% oppose it. That sentiment bridges the partisan divide, with large majorities from across the political spectrum favoring more use of this alternative source.

Planned large-scale solar farms are expected to add 9.5 gigawatts of electricity-generating capacity, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), a government agency that collects and analyzes information about the energy industry. Natural gas is expected to add 8 gigawatts and wind 6.8 gigawatts. And that figure for solar doesn’t count electricity-generating capacity from distributed solar, such as rooftop panels. (In 2015, distributed solar added nearly 2 gigawatts of capacity.)”

Description:

Data from Pew Research Center showing a majority of Americans favor solar energy as a method of saving money as well as to help the environment.

Author(s):

  • Brian Kennedy

Title:

  • Americans strongly favor expanding solar power to help address costs and environmental concerns

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • October 5, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewhispanic.org/2015/11/19/more-mexicans-leaving-than-coming-to-the-u-s/

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Sample:

“More Mexican immigrants have returned to Mexico from the U.S. than have migrated here since the end of the Great Recession, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of newly available government data from both countries. The same data sources also show the overall flow of Mexican immigrants between the two countries is at its smallest since the 1990s, mostly due to a drop in the number of Mexican immigrants coming to the U.S.

From 2009 to 2014, 1 million Mexicans and their families (including U.S.-born children) left the U.S. for Mexico, according to data from the 2014 Mexican National Survey of Demographic Dynamics (ENADID). U.S. census data for the same period show an estimated 870,000 Mexican nationals left Mexico to come to the U.S., a smaller number than the flow of families from the U.S. to Mexico.”

Description:

Data provided by Pew Research Center shows more Mexicans left the U.S. than entered from 2009-2014 and the reasons behind this trend and others.

Author(s):

  • Ana Gonzalez-Barrera

Title:

  • More Mexicans Leaving Than Coming to the U.S.

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • November 19, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.gallup.com/vault/192704/gallup-vault-rejecting-electoral-college.aspx

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Sample:

“Eliminating the Electoral College picked up steam in the 1960s when Democratic Sen. Birch Bayh of Indiana joined the cause, holding congressional hearings on the issue in 1966. In 1967, the American Bar Association came out for repeal, and Bayh sponsored his first resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish the existing system and replace it with a direct popular vote. Between 1967 and 1968, Gallup found an increase in the percentage of all Americans in favor of repeal, from 58% to 80%. Over the next decade, Bayh mounted several more attempts at getting a constitutional amendment to pass in Congress, culminating in a failed last hurrah in 1977. That year, Gallup found 75% of Americans supporting the proposal vs. 14% opposed.”

Description:

Data from Gallup polls over the past seven decades shows American have long favored getting rid of the electoral college voting system in the U.S.

Author(s):

  • Lydia Saad

Title:

  • Gallup Vault: Rejecting the Electoral College

Publisher:

  • Gallup

Date:

  • June 14, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/11/09/behind-trumps-victory-divisions-by-race-gender-education/

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Sample:

“Donald Trump scored an impressive Electoral College victory Nov. 8 after a campaign that revealed deep divisions – by race, gender and education – that were as wide and in some cases wider than in previous elections, according to an analysis of national exit poll data.

Trump won white voters by a margin almost identical to that of Mitt Romney, who lost the popular vote to Barack Obama in 2012. (Trump appears likely to lose the popular vote, which would make him only the fifth elected president to do so and still win office.) White non-Hispanic voters preferred Trump over Clinton by 21 percentage points (58% to 37%), according to the exit poll conducted by Edison Research for the National Election Pool. Romney won whites by 20 percentage points in 2012 (59% to 39%).

However, although Trump fared little better among blacks and Hispanics than Romney did four years ago, Hillary Clinton did not run as strongly among these core Democratic groups as Obama did in 2012. Clinton held an 80-point advantage among blacks (88% to 8%) compared with Obama’s 87-point edge four years ago (93% to 6%). In 2008, Obama had a 91-point advantage among blacks.”

Description:

Voting data from the 2016 election broken down by demographics, examining the differences between those who voted for Hillary Clinton or Donald Trump.

Author(s):

  • Alec Tyson and Shiva Maniam

Title:

  • Behind Trump’s victory: Divisions by race, gender, education

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • November 9, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/01/30/key-facts-about-refugees-to-the-u-s/

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Sample:

“An executive order signed Jan. 27 by President Donald Trump suspends refugee admissions for 120 days while security procedures are reviewed, though the resettlement of persecuted religious minorities may continue during this time on a case-by-case basis. Under the plan, the maximum number of refugees allowed into the U.S. in fiscal 2017 will likely decline from 110,000 to 50,000. Separately, admission of Syrian refugees will be suspended pending a revision of security screening measures.

About 3 million refugees have been resettled in the U.S. since Congress passed the Refugee Act of 1980, which created the Federal Refugee Resettlement Program and the current national standard for the screening and admission of refugees into the country. This is not the first time U.S. refugee admissions have been stopped. After the 2001 terrorist attacks, the U.S. largely suspended refugee resettlement for three months while security measures were examined. Today, the refugee admissions process can take up to 18 to 24 months, and includes a review of applications by the State Department and other federal agencies, in-person interviews, health screenings and, for many, cultural orientations.”

Description:

Data and statistics on public opinion on admitting refugees to the U.S., as well as how many are entering and what countries they are arriving from.

Author(s):

  • Jens Manuel Krogstad and Jynnah Radford

Title:

  • Key facts about refugees to the U.S.

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • January 30, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/10/04/public-views-on-climate-change-and-climate-scientists/

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Sample:

“Roughly four-in-ten Americans expect harmful effects from climate change on wildlife, shorelines and weather patterns. At the same time, many are optimistic that both policy and individual efforts to address climate change can have an impact. A narrow majority of Americans anticipate new technological solutions to problems connected with climate change, and some 61% believe people will make major changes to their way of life within the next half century.

On all of these matters there are wide differences along political lines with conservative Republicans much less inclined to anticipate negative effects from climate change or to judge proposed solutions as making much difference in mitigating any effects. Half or more liberal Democrats, by contrast, see negative effects from climate change as very likely and believe an array of policy solutions can make a big difference.

Americans who are more deeply concerned about climate issues, regardless of their partisan orientation, are particularly likely to see negative effects ahead from climate change, and strong majorities among this group think policy solutions can be effective at addressing climate change.”

Description:

Report on data collected by Pew Research Center on the American public’s views on climate change and the science supporting it, issued in 2016.

Author(s):

  • Cary Funk and Brian Kennedy

Title:

  • The Politics of Climate

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • October 4, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/earth/climate-change-acceptance/

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Sample:

“In the 1990s, Michael Ranney started informally asking people what they perceived to be the world’s biggest problem. He hadn’t set out to tackle environmental issues—he was first trained in applied physics and materials science before turning to cognitive psychology. But time and again, he heard “climate change” as an answer.

Ranney had also noticed that while the scientific community had converged on a consensus, the general public had not, at least not in the U.S. The Climategate controversy in late 2009 over leaked e-mails between climate scientists and Oklahoma Senator James Inhofe’s insistence that anthropogenic global warming is a hoax are just two examples of the widespread conflict among the American public over what is causing the planet to warm.

Ranney and his team say that a “wisdom deficit” is driving the wedge. Specifically, it’s a lack of understanding of the mechanism of global warming that’s been retarding progress on the issue. “For many Americans, they’re caught between a radio talk show host—of the sort that Rush Limbaugh is—and maybe a professor who just gave them a lecture on global warming. And if you don’t understand the mechanism, then you just have competing authorities, kind of like the Pope and Galileo,” he says. “Mechanism turns out to be a tie-breaker when there’s a contentious issue.””

Description:

PBS article investigating why many Americans do not believe global warming is caused by humans – despite data showing Americans trust scientists.

Author(s):

  • Brad Balukjian

Title:

  • Why Doesn’t Everyone Believe Humans Are Causing Climate Change?

Publisher:

  • PBS

Date:

  • November 19, 2014

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-atmospheric-concentrations-greenhouse-gases

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Sample:

  • “Global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and certain manufactured greenhouse gases have all risen significantly over the last few hundred years (see Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4).
  • Historical measurements show that the current global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are unprecedented compared with the past 800,000 years (see Figures 1, 2, and 3).
  • Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased substantially since the beginning of the industrial era, rising from an annual average of 280 ppm in the late 1700s to 401 ppm as measured at Mauna Loa in 2015—a 43 percent increase (see Figure 1). Almost all of this increase is due to human activities.1
  • The concentration of methane in the atmosphere has more than doubled since preindustrial times, reaching approximately 1,800 ppb in recent years (see the range of measurements for 2014 and 2015 in Figure 2). This increase is predominantly due to agriculture and fossil fuel use.2

Description:

Charts and data from the EPA on the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the increases since the early 20th century and prior.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Climate Change Indicators: Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • Environmental Protection Agency

Date:

  • April 2016 (Check source for updates to date)

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2141868/

doi:  10.1073/pnas.0702737104

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Sample:

“The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the largest human contributor to human-induced climate change, is increasing rapidly. Three processes contribute to this rapid increase. Two of these processes concern emissions. Recent growth of the world economy combined with an increase in its carbon intensity have led to rapid growth in fossil fuel CO2 emissions since 2000: comparing the 1990s with 2000–2006, the emissions growth rate increased from 1.3% to 3.3% y−1. The third process is indicated by increasing evidence (P = 0.89) for a long-term (50-year) increase in the airborne fraction (AF) of CO2 emissions, implying a decline in the efficiency of CO2 sinks on land and oceans in absorbing anthropogenic emissions. Since 2000, the contributions of these three factors to the increase in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate have been ≈65 ± 16% from increasing global economic activity, 17 ± 6% from the increasing carbon intensity of the global economy, and 18 ± 15% from the increase in AF. An increasing AF is consistent with results of climate–carbon cycle models, but the magnitude of the observed signal appears larger than that estimated by models. All of these changes characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected and sooner-than-expected climate forcing.”

Description:

Journal article investigating how economic activity is increasing carbon dioxide emissions and the rapid increases in the amount of these emissions.

Author(s):

  • Josep G. Canadell, Corinne Le Quéré, Michael R. Raupach, Christopher B. Field, Erik T. Buitenhuis, Philippe Ciais, Thomas J. Conway, Nathan P. Gillett, R. A. Houghton, and Gregg Marlandi

Title:

  • Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks

Publisher:

  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Date:

  • October 25, 2007

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/earth-will-cross-the-climate-danger-threshold-by-2036/

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Sample:

““Temperatures have been flat for 15 years—nobody can properly explain it,” the Wall Street Journal says. “Global warming ‘pause’ may last for 20 more years, and Arctic sea ice has already started to recover,” the Daily Mail says. Such reassuring claims about climate abound in the popular media, but they are misleading at best. Global warming continues unabated, and it remains an urgent problem.

The misunderstanding stems from data showing that during the past decade there was a slowing in the rate at which the earth’s average surface temperature had been increasing. The event is commonly referred to as “the pause,” but that is a misnomer: temperatures still rose, just not as fast as during the prior decade. The important question is, What does the short-term slowdown portend for how the world may warm in the future?

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is charged with answering such questions. In response to the data, the IPCC in its September 2013 report lowered one aspect of its prediction for future warming. Its forecasts, released every five to seven years, drive climate policy worldwide, so even the small change raised debate over how fast the planet is warming and how much time we have to stop it. The IPCC has not yet weighed in on the impacts of the warming or how to mitigate it, which it will do in reports that were due this March and April. Yet I have done some calculations that I think can answer those questions now: If the world keeps burning fossil fuels at the current rate, it will cross a threshold into environmental ruin by 2036. The “faux pause” could buy the planet a few extra years beyond that date to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the crossover—but only a few.”

Description:

Article exploring how the current rate of rise in global temperature will become dangerous for the planet around year 2036 if not slowed before then.

Author(s):

  • Michael E Mann

Title:

  • Earth Will Cross the Climate Danger Threshold by 2036

Publisher:

  • Scientific American

Date:

  • April 1, 2014

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nature.com/news/one-third-of-our-greenhouse-gas-emissions-come-from-agriculture-1.11708

doi: 10.1038/nature.2012.11708

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Sample:

“The global food system, from fertilizer manufacture to food storage and packaging, is responsible for up to one-third of all human-caused greenhouse-gas emissions, according to the latest figures from the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), a partnership of 15 research centres around the world.

In two reports published today1, 2, the CGIAR says that reducing agriculture’s carbon footprint is central to limiting climate change. And to help to ensure food security, farmers across the globe will probably have to switch to cultivating more climate-hardy crops and farming practices.

“The food-related emissions and the impacts of climate change on agriculture and the food system will profoundly alter the way we grow and produce food,” says Sonja Vermeulen, a plant scientist at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and a co-author of one of the studies, which estimates the emissions footprint of food.”

Description:

Report from scholarly journal Nature stating agriculture is responsible for roughly one-third of “all human-caused greenhouse-gas emissions.”

Author(s):

  • Natasha Gilbert

Title:

  • One-third of our greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture

Publisher:

  • Nature

Date:

  • October 31 2012

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring-references/faq/greenhouse-gases.php

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Sample:

“Many chemical compounds present in Earth’s atmosphere behave as ‘greenhouse gases’. These are gases which allow direct sunlight (relative shortwave energy) to reach the Earth’s surface unimpeded. As the shortwave energy (that in the visible and ultraviolet portion of the spectra) heats the surface, longer-wave (infrared) energy (heat) is reradiated to the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases absorb this energy, thereby allowing less heat to escape back to space, and ‘trapping’ it in the lower atmosphere. Many greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide, while others are synthetic. Those that are man-made include the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), as well as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Atmospheric concentrations of both the natural and man-made gases have been rising over the last few centuries due to the industrial revolution. As the global population has increased and our reliance on fossil fuels (such as coal, oil and natural gas) has been firmly solidified, so emissions of these gases have risen. While gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere, through our interference with the carbon cycle (through burning forest lands, or mining and burning coal), we artificially move carbon from solid storage to its gaseous state, thereby increasing atmospheric concentrations.”

Description:

Detailed information on greenhouse gases with a list of specific chemical compounds and how they affect Earth’s atmosphere to create a warmer climate. Click through the different compounds at the top of the page to browse the content.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • National Centers for Environmental Information, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/01/150122-food-waste-climate-change-hunger/

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Sample:

“More than a third of all of the food that’s produced on our planet never reaches a table. It’s either spoiled in transit or thrown out by consumers in wealthier countries, who typically buy too much and toss the excess. This works out to roughly 1.3 billion tons of food, worth nearly $1 trillion at retail prices.

Aside from the social, economic, and moral implications of that waste—in a world where an estimated 805 million people go to bed hungry each night—the environmental cost of producing all that food, for nothing, is staggering.

The water wastage alone would be the equivalent of the entire annual flow of the Volga—Europe’s largest river—according to a UN report. The energy that goes into the production, harvesting, transporting, and packaging of that wasted food, meanwhile, generates more than 3.3 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide. If food waste were a country, it would be the world’s third largest emitter of greenhouse gases, behind the U.S. and China.”

Description:

National Geographic article about how food production generates more greenhouse gases than many countries and how limiting food waste can help.

Author(s):

  • Roff Smith

Title:

  • How Reducing Food Waste Could Ease Climate Change

Publisher:

  • National Geographic

Date:

  • Jan. 22, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/348/6234/571.full

DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa4984

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Sample:

“Current predictions of extinction risks from climate change vary widely depending on the specific assumptions and geographic and taxonomic focus of each study. I synthesized published studies in order to estimate a global mean extinction rate and determine which factors contribute the greatest uncertainty to climate change–induced extinction risks. Results suggest that extinction risks will accelerate with future global temperatures, threatening up to one in six species under current policies. Extinction risks were highest in South America, Australia, and New Zealand, and risks did not vary by taxonomic group. Realistic assumptions about extinction debt and dispersal capacity substantially increased extinction risks. We urgently need to adopt strategies that limit further climate change if we are to avoid an acceleration of global extinctions.”

Description:

Article exploring how climate change and global warming may be increasing the chances of extinction, and accelerating the process for many species.

Author(s):

  • Mark C. Urban

Title:

  • Accelerating extinction risk from climate change

Publisher:

  • Journal: Science, Vol. 348, Issue 6234, pages 571-573

Date:

  • May 1, 2015

Citations:

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https://www.nap.edu/read/21852/chapter/2#7

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Confidence in attribution findings of anthropogenic influence is greatest for those extreme events that are related to an aspect of temperature, such as the observed long-term warming of the regional or global climate, where there is little doubt that human activities have caused an observed change. For extreme heat and cold events in particular, changes in long-term mean conditions provide a basis for expecting that there also should be related changes in extreme conditions. Heavy rainfall is influenced by a moister atmosphere, which is a relatively direct consequence of human-induced warming, though not as direct as the increase in temperature itself. The frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones and severe convective storms are related to large-scale climate parameters whose relationships to climate are understood to varying degrees but, in general, are more complex and less direct than are changes in either temperature or water vapor alone. Nevertheless, atmospheric circulation and dynamics play some role in the development of an extreme event, which is different for different event types. Changes in atmospheric circulation and dynamics are generally less directly controlled by temperature, less robustly simulated by climate models, and less well understood.”

Description:

This book is available online for free from the National Academies Press and examines the link between various kinds of extreme weather and climate change. This is a link to the beginning of the book, but the entire publication can be browsed online from that page.

Author(s):

  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Title:

  • Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change

Publisher:

  • The National Academies Press

Date:

  • 2016

Citations:

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URL:

https://www.nap.edu/read/12782/chapter/2#3

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Conclusion 1: Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for—and in many cases is already affecting—a broad range of human and natural systems.

This conclusion is based on a substantial array of scientific evidence, including recent work, and is consistent with the conclusions of recent assessments by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (e.g., USGCRP, 2009a), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007a-d), and other assessments of the state of scientific knowledge on climate change. Both our assessment—the details of which can be found in Chapter 2 and Part II (Chapters 6-17) of this report—and these previous assessments place high or very high confidence1 in the following findings:

  • Earth is warming. Detailed observations of surface temperature assembled and analyzed by several different research groups show that the planet’s average surface temperature was 1.4°F (0.8°C) warmer during the first decade of the 21st century than during the first decade of the 20th century, with the most pronounced warming over the past three decades. These data are corroborated by a variety of independent observations that indicate warming in other parts of the Earth system, including the cryosphere (snow- and ice-covered regions), the lower atmosphere, and the oceans.

  • Most of the warming over the last several decades can be attributed to human activities that release carbon dioxide (CO2) and other heat-trapping greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas—for energy is the single largest human driver of climate change, but agriculture, forest clearing, and certain industrial activities also make significant contributions.

  • Natural climate variability leads to year-to-year and decade-to-decade fluctuations in temperature and other climate variables, as well as substantial regional differences, but cannot explain or offset the long-term warming trend.

  • Global warming is closely associated with a broad spectrum of other changes, such as increases in the frequency of intense rainfall, decreases in Northern Hemisphere snow cover and Arctic sea ice, warmer and more frequent hot days and nights, rising sea levels, and widespread ocean acidification.”

Description:

Advancing the Science of Climate Change one part of a 4-book series on the science of climate change made available online by the National Academies Press. This is a link to the beginning of the book, but the entire book can be browsed online from that page.

Author(s):

  • National Research Council

Title:

  • Advancing the Science of Climate Change

Publisher:

  • The National Academics Press

Date:

  • 2010

Citations:

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