Credible Sources for Greenhouse Gases

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://phys.org/news/2017-02-scientists-categorize-earth-toxic-planet.html

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Sample:

“Humans emit more than 250 billion tonnes of chemical substances a year, in a toxic avalanche that is harming people and life everywhere on the planet.

“Earth, and all life on it, are being saturated with man-made chemicals in an event unlike anything in the planet’s entire history,” says Julian Cribb, author of ‘Surviving the 21st Century’ (Springer International 2017).

“Every moment of our lives we are exposed to thousands of these substances. They enter our bodies with each breath, meal or drink we take, the clothes and cosmetics we wear, the things we encounter every day in our homes, workplaces and travel.

Mr Cribb says that the poisoning of the planet through man-made chemical emissions is probably the largest human impact – and the one that is least understood or regulated. It is one of ten major existential risks now confronting humanity, he describes in Surviving the 21st Century.”

Description:

Article covering scientists comments about pollution and climate damage due to human activity like plastic pollution and manufactured chemicals.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Scientists categorize Earth as a ‘toxic planet’

Publisher:

  • Phys.org

Date:

  • February 7, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-atmospheric-concentrations-greenhouse-gases

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Sample:

  • “Global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and certain manufactured greenhouse gases have all risen significantly over the last few hundred years (see Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4).
  • Historical measurements show that the current global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are unprecedented compared with the past 800,000 years (see Figures 1, 2, and 3).
  • Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased substantially since the beginning of the industrial era, rising from an annual average of 280 ppm in the late 1700s to 401 ppm as measured at Mauna Loa in 2015—a 43 percent increase (see Figure 1). Almost all of this increase is due to human activities.1
  • The concentration of methane in the atmosphere has more than doubled since preindustrial times, reaching approximately 1,800 ppb in recent years (see the range of measurements for 2014 and 2015 in Figure 2). This increase is predominantly due to agriculture and fossil fuel use.2

Description:

Charts and data from the EPA on the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the increases since the early 20th century and prior.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Climate Change Indicators: Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • Environmental Protection Agency

Date:

  • April 2016 (Check source for updates to date)

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2141868/

doi:  10.1073/pnas.0702737104

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Sample:

“The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the largest human contributor to human-induced climate change, is increasing rapidly. Three processes contribute to this rapid increase. Two of these processes concern emissions. Recent growth of the world economy combined with an increase in its carbon intensity have led to rapid growth in fossil fuel CO2 emissions since 2000: comparing the 1990s with 2000–2006, the emissions growth rate increased from 1.3% to 3.3% y−1. The third process is indicated by increasing evidence (P = 0.89) for a long-term (50-year) increase in the airborne fraction (AF) of CO2 emissions, implying a decline in the efficiency of CO2 sinks on land and oceans in absorbing anthropogenic emissions. Since 2000, the contributions of these three factors to the increase in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate have been ≈65 ± 16% from increasing global economic activity, 17 ± 6% from the increasing carbon intensity of the global economy, and 18 ± 15% from the increase in AF. An increasing AF is consistent with results of climate–carbon cycle models, but the magnitude of the observed signal appears larger than that estimated by models. All of these changes characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected and sooner-than-expected climate forcing.”

Description:

Journal article investigating how economic activity is increasing carbon dioxide emissions and the rapid increases in the amount of these emissions.

Author(s):

  • Josep G. Canadell, Corinne Le Quéré, Michael R. Raupach, Christopher B. Field, Erik T. Buitenhuis, Philippe Ciais, Thomas J. Conway, Nathan P. Gillett, R. A. Houghton, and Gregg Marlandi

Title:

  • Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks

Publisher:

  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Date:

  • October 25, 2007

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/earth-will-cross-the-climate-danger-threshold-by-2036/

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Sample:

““Temperatures have been flat for 15 years—nobody can properly explain it,” the Wall Street Journal says. “Global warming ‘pause’ may last for 20 more years, and Arctic sea ice has already started to recover,” the Daily Mail says. Such reassuring claims about climate abound in the popular media, but they are misleading at best. Global warming continues unabated, and it remains an urgent problem.

The misunderstanding stems from data showing that during the past decade there was a slowing in the rate at which the earth’s average surface temperature had been increasing. The event is commonly referred to as “the pause,” but that is a misnomer: temperatures still rose, just not as fast as during the prior decade. The important question is, What does the short-term slowdown portend for how the world may warm in the future?

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is charged with answering such questions. In response to the data, the IPCC in its September 2013 report lowered one aspect of its prediction for future warming. Its forecasts, released every five to seven years, drive climate policy worldwide, so even the small change raised debate over how fast the planet is warming and how much time we have to stop it. The IPCC has not yet weighed in on the impacts of the warming or how to mitigate it, which it will do in reports that were due this March and April. Yet I have done some calculations that I think can answer those questions now: If the world keeps burning fossil fuels at the current rate, it will cross a threshold into environmental ruin by 2036. The “faux pause” could buy the planet a few extra years beyond that date to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the crossover—but only a few.”

Description:

Article exploring how the current rate of rise in global temperature will become dangerous for the planet around year 2036 if not slowed before then.

Author(s):

  • Michael E Mann

Title:

  • Earth Will Cross the Climate Danger Threshold by 2036

Publisher:

  • Scientific American

Date:

  • April 1, 2014

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nature.com/news/one-third-of-our-greenhouse-gas-emissions-come-from-agriculture-1.11708

doi: 10.1038/nature.2012.11708

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Sample:

“The global food system, from fertilizer manufacture to food storage and packaging, is responsible for up to one-third of all human-caused greenhouse-gas emissions, according to the latest figures from the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), a partnership of 15 research centres around the world.

In two reports published today1, 2, the CGIAR says that reducing agriculture’s carbon footprint is central to limiting climate change. And to help to ensure food security, farmers across the globe will probably have to switch to cultivating more climate-hardy crops and farming practices.

“The food-related emissions and the impacts of climate change on agriculture and the food system will profoundly alter the way we grow and produce food,” says Sonja Vermeulen, a plant scientist at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and a co-author of one of the studies, which estimates the emissions footprint of food.”

Description:

Report from scholarly journal Nature stating agriculture is responsible for roughly one-third of “all human-caused greenhouse-gas emissions.”

Author(s):

  • Natasha Gilbert

Title:

  • One-third of our greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture

Publisher:

  • Nature

Date:

  • October 31 2012

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring-references/faq/greenhouse-gases.php

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Sample:

“Many chemical compounds present in Earth’s atmosphere behave as ‘greenhouse gases’. These are gases which allow direct sunlight (relative shortwave energy) to reach the Earth’s surface unimpeded. As the shortwave energy (that in the visible and ultraviolet portion of the spectra) heats the surface, longer-wave (infrared) energy (heat) is reradiated to the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases absorb this energy, thereby allowing less heat to escape back to space, and ‘trapping’ it in the lower atmosphere. Many greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide, while others are synthetic. Those that are man-made include the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), as well as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Atmospheric concentrations of both the natural and man-made gases have been rising over the last few centuries due to the industrial revolution. As the global population has increased and our reliance on fossil fuels (such as coal, oil and natural gas) has been firmly solidified, so emissions of these gases have risen. While gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere, through our interference with the carbon cycle (through burning forest lands, or mining and burning coal), we artificially move carbon from solid storage to its gaseous state, thereby increasing atmospheric concentrations.”

Description:

Detailed information on greenhouse gases with a list of specific chemical compounds and how they affect Earth’s atmosphere to create a warmer climate. Click through the different compounds at the top of the page to browse the content.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • National Centers for Environmental Information, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/01/150122-food-waste-climate-change-hunger/

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Sample:

“More than a third of all of the food that’s produced on our planet never reaches a table. It’s either spoiled in transit or thrown out by consumers in wealthier countries, who typically buy too much and toss the excess. This works out to roughly 1.3 billion tons of food, worth nearly $1 trillion at retail prices.

Aside from the social, economic, and moral implications of that waste—in a world where an estimated 805 million people go to bed hungry each night—the environmental cost of producing all that food, for nothing, is staggering.

The water wastage alone would be the equivalent of the entire annual flow of the Volga—Europe’s largest river—according to a UN report. The energy that goes into the production, harvesting, transporting, and packaging of that wasted food, meanwhile, generates more than 3.3 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide. If food waste were a country, it would be the world’s third largest emitter of greenhouse gases, behind the U.S. and China.”

Description:

National Geographic article about how food production generates more greenhouse gases than many countries and how limiting food waste can help.

Author(s):

  • Roff Smith

Title:

  • How Reducing Food Waste Could Ease Climate Change

Publisher:

  • National Geographic

Date:

  • Jan. 22, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nap.edu/read/21852/chapter/2#7

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Sample:

Confidence in attribution findings of anthropogenic influence is greatest for those extreme events that are related to an aspect of temperature, such as the observed long-term warming of the regional or global climate, where there is little doubt that human activities have caused an observed change. For extreme heat and cold events in particular, changes in long-term mean conditions provide a basis for expecting that there also should be related changes in extreme conditions. Heavy rainfall is influenced by a moister atmosphere, which is a relatively direct consequence of human-induced warming, though not as direct as the increase in temperature itself. The frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones and severe convective storms are related to large-scale climate parameters whose relationships to climate are understood to varying degrees but, in general, are more complex and less direct than are changes in either temperature or water vapor alone. Nevertheless, atmospheric circulation and dynamics play some role in the development of an extreme event, which is different for different event types. Changes in atmospheric circulation and dynamics are generally less directly controlled by temperature, less robustly simulated by climate models, and less well understood.”

Description:

This book is available online for free from the National Academies Press and examines the link between various kinds of extreme weather and climate change. This is a link to the beginning of the book, but the entire publication can be browsed online from that page.

Author(s):

  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Title:

  • Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change

Publisher:

  • The National Academies Press

Date:

  • 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nap.edu/read/12782/chapter/2#3

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Sample:

Conclusion 1: Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for—and in many cases is already affecting—a broad range of human and natural systems.

This conclusion is based on a substantial array of scientific evidence, including recent work, and is consistent with the conclusions of recent assessments by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (e.g., USGCRP, 2009a), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007a-d), and other assessments of the state of scientific knowledge on climate change. Both our assessment—the details of which can be found in Chapter 2 and Part II (Chapters 6-17) of this report—and these previous assessments place high or very high confidence1 in the following findings:

  • Earth is warming. Detailed observations of surface temperature assembled and analyzed by several different research groups show that the planet’s average surface temperature was 1.4°F (0.8°C) warmer during the first decade of the 21st century than during the first decade of the 20th century, with the most pronounced warming over the past three decades. These data are corroborated by a variety of independent observations that indicate warming in other parts of the Earth system, including the cryosphere (snow- and ice-covered regions), the lower atmosphere, and the oceans.

  • Most of the warming over the last several decades can be attributed to human activities that release carbon dioxide (CO2) and other heat-trapping greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas—for energy is the single largest human driver of climate change, but agriculture, forest clearing, and certain industrial activities also make significant contributions.

  • Natural climate variability leads to year-to-year and decade-to-decade fluctuations in temperature and other climate variables, as well as substantial regional differences, but cannot explain or offset the long-term warming trend.

  • Global warming is closely associated with a broad spectrum of other changes, such as increases in the frequency of intense rainfall, decreases in Northern Hemisphere snow cover and Arctic sea ice, warmer and more frequent hot days and nights, rising sea levels, and widespread ocean acidification.”

Description:

Advancing the Science of Climate Change one part of a 4-book series on the science of climate change made available online by the National Academies Press. This is a link to the beginning of the book, but the entire book can be browsed online from that page.

Author(s):

  • National Research Council

Title:

  • Advancing the Science of Climate Change

Publisher:

  • The National Academics Press

Date:

  • 2010

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/greenhouse-gases

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Sample:

“In the United States, greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activities increased by 7 percent from 1990 to 2014. Since 2005, however, total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions have decreased by 7 percent. Carbon dioxide accounts for most of the nation’s emissions and most of the increase since 1990. Electricity generation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, followed by transportation. Emissions per person have decreased slightly in the last few years.”

Description:

EPA’s page on greenhouse gases with information about the impact of greenhouse gases, how they are created, and a chart on specific pollutants. This page also leads to more scientific resources on greenhouse gases and climate change.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Climate Change Indicators: Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • Environmental Protection Agency

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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