Credible Sources for Evidence

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/03/08/climate/early-spring.html?_r=1

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Sample:

“By the 2017 calendar, the first day of spring is March 20. But spring leaves arrived in mid-January in some parts of the South, and spread northward like a wave. The map above plots the date of “first leaf,” a temperature-based calculation of when vegetation that has been dormant starts to show signs of life. This year, with the exception of a few small areas, the wave has arrived much earlier than the 30-year average.

An early spring means more than just earlier blooms of fruit trees and decorative shrubs like azaleas. It can wreak havoc on schedules that farmers follow for planting and that tourism officials follow for events that are tied to a natural activity like trees blooming. Some plant species that bud early may be susceptible to a snap frost later, and early growth of grasses and other vegetation can disrupt some animals’ usual cycles of spring feeding and growth.”

Description:

Article covering a report from scientists at World Weather Attribution that states the one likely cause for a warm Feb. in 2017 is climate change.

Author(s):

  • Jeremy White and Henry Fountain

Title:

  • Spring Came Early. Scientists Say Climate Change Is a Culprit.

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • March 8, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://phys.org/news/2017-02-scientists-categorize-earth-toxic-planet.html

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Sample:

“Humans emit more than 250 billion tonnes of chemical substances a year, in a toxic avalanche that is harming people and life everywhere on the planet.

“Earth, and all life on it, are being saturated with man-made chemicals in an event unlike anything in the planet’s entire history,” says Julian Cribb, author of ‘Surviving the 21st Century’ (Springer International 2017).

“Every moment of our lives we are exposed to thousands of these substances. They enter our bodies with each breath, meal or drink we take, the clothes and cosmetics we wear, the things we encounter every day in our homes, workplaces and travel.

Mr Cribb says that the poisoning of the planet through man-made chemical emissions is probably the largest human impact – and the one that is least understood or regulated. It is one of ten major existential risks now confronting humanity, he describes in Surviving the 21st Century.”

Description:

Article covering scientists comments about pollution and climate damage due to human activity like plastic pollution and manufactured chemicals.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Scientists categorize Earth as a ‘toxic planet’

Publisher:

  • Phys.org

Date:

  • February 7, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GlobalWarming/page4.php

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Sample:

“In Earth’s history before the Industrial Revolution, Earth’s climate changed due to natural causes not related to human activity. Most often, global climate has changed because of variations in sunlight. Tiny wobbles in Earth’s orbit altered when and where sunlight falls on Earth’s surface. Variations in the Sun itself have alternately increased and decreased the amount of solar energy reaching Earth. Volcanic eruptions have generated particles that reflect sunlight, brightening the planet and cooling the climate. Volcanic activity has also, in the deep past, increased greenhouse gases over millions of years, contributing to episodes of global warming.

These natural causes are still in play today, but their influence is too small or they occur too slowly to explain the rapid warming seen in recent decades. We know this because scientists closely monitor the natural and human activities that influence climate with a fleet of satellites and surface instruments.”

Description:

Article from NASA discussing the science behind the idea that climate change is strongly influenced by human activity even though it is partly natural.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Is Current Warming Natural?

Publisher:

  • NASA

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/science/scientific-consensus-on.html#.WK3WIjsrJAg

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Sample:

National Science Academies

  • U.S. National Academy of Sciences: Understanding and Responding to Climate Change

    “The scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify taking steps to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.” (2005)

  • International academies: Joint science academies’ statement: Global response to climate change

    “Climate change is real. There will always be uncertainty in understanding a system as complex as the world’s climate. However there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring.” (2005, 11 national academies of science)

  • International academies The Science of Climate Change

    “Despite increasing consensus on the science underpinning predictions of global climate change, doubts have been expressed recently about the need to mitigate the risks posed by global climate change. We do not consider such doubts justified.” (2001, 16 national academies of science)”

Description:

List of quotes and sources from scientific publications and organizations showing a consensus that climate change is caused by humans.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Scientific Consensus on Global Warming

Publisher:

  • Union of Concerned Scientists

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/10/04/public-views-on-climate-change-and-climate-scientists/

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Sample:

“Roughly four-in-ten Americans expect harmful effects from climate change on wildlife, shorelines and weather patterns. At the same time, many are optimistic that both policy and individual efforts to address climate change can have an impact. A narrow majority of Americans anticipate new technological solutions to problems connected with climate change, and some 61% believe people will make major changes to their way of life within the next half century.

On all of these matters there are wide differences along political lines with conservative Republicans much less inclined to anticipate negative effects from climate change or to judge proposed solutions as making much difference in mitigating any effects. Half or more liberal Democrats, by contrast, see negative effects from climate change as very likely and believe an array of policy solutions can make a big difference.

Americans who are more deeply concerned about climate issues, regardless of their partisan orientation, are particularly likely to see negative effects ahead from climate change, and strong majorities among this group think policy solutions can be effective at addressing climate change.”

Description:

Report on data collected by Pew Research Center on the American public’s views on climate change and the science supporting it, issued in 2016.

Author(s):

  • Cary Funk and Brian Kennedy

Title:

  • The Politics of Climate

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • October 4, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/earth/climate-change-acceptance/

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Sample:

“In the 1990s, Michael Ranney started informally asking people what they perceived to be the world’s biggest problem. He hadn’t set out to tackle environmental issues—he was first trained in applied physics and materials science before turning to cognitive psychology. But time and again, he heard “climate change” as an answer.

Ranney had also noticed that while the scientific community had converged on a consensus, the general public had not, at least not in the U.S. The Climategate controversy in late 2009 over leaked e-mails between climate scientists and Oklahoma Senator James Inhofe’s insistence that anthropogenic global warming is a hoax are just two examples of the widespread conflict among the American public over what is causing the planet to warm.

Ranney and his team say that a “wisdom deficit” is driving the wedge. Specifically, it’s a lack of understanding of the mechanism of global warming that’s been retarding progress on the issue. “For many Americans, they’re caught between a radio talk show host—of the sort that Rush Limbaugh is—and maybe a professor who just gave them a lecture on global warming. And if you don’t understand the mechanism, then you just have competing authorities, kind of like the Pope and Galileo,” he says. “Mechanism turns out to be a tie-breaker when there’s a contentious issue.””

Description:

PBS article investigating why many Americans do not believe global warming is caused by humans – despite data showing Americans trust scientists.

Author(s):

  • Brad Balukjian

Title:

  • Why Doesn’t Everyone Believe Humans Are Causing Climate Change?

Publisher:

  • PBS

Date:

  • November 19, 2014

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-atmospheric-concentrations-greenhouse-gases

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Sample:

  • “Global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and certain manufactured greenhouse gases have all risen significantly over the last few hundred years (see Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4).
  • Historical measurements show that the current global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are unprecedented compared with the past 800,000 years (see Figures 1, 2, and 3).
  • Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased substantially since the beginning of the industrial era, rising from an annual average of 280 ppm in the late 1700s to 401 ppm as measured at Mauna Loa in 2015—a 43 percent increase (see Figure 1). Almost all of this increase is due to human activities.1
  • The concentration of methane in the atmosphere has more than doubled since preindustrial times, reaching approximately 1,800 ppb in recent years (see the range of measurements for 2014 and 2015 in Figure 2). This increase is predominantly due to agriculture and fossil fuel use.2

Description:

Charts and data from the EPA on the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the increases since the early 20th century and prior.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Climate Change Indicators: Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • Environmental Protection Agency

Date:

  • April 2016 (Check source for updates to date)

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2141868/

doi:  10.1073/pnas.0702737104

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Sample:

“The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the largest human contributor to human-induced climate change, is increasing rapidly. Three processes contribute to this rapid increase. Two of these processes concern emissions. Recent growth of the world economy combined with an increase in its carbon intensity have led to rapid growth in fossil fuel CO2 emissions since 2000: comparing the 1990s with 2000–2006, the emissions growth rate increased from 1.3% to 3.3% y−1. The third process is indicated by increasing evidence (P = 0.89) for a long-term (50-year) increase in the airborne fraction (AF) of CO2 emissions, implying a decline in the efficiency of CO2 sinks on land and oceans in absorbing anthropogenic emissions. Since 2000, the contributions of these three factors to the increase in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate have been ≈65 ± 16% from increasing global economic activity, 17 ± 6% from the increasing carbon intensity of the global economy, and 18 ± 15% from the increase in AF. An increasing AF is consistent with results of climate–carbon cycle models, but the magnitude of the observed signal appears larger than that estimated by models. All of these changes characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected and sooner-than-expected climate forcing.”

Description:

Journal article investigating how economic activity is increasing carbon dioxide emissions and the rapid increases in the amount of these emissions.

Author(s):

  • Josep G. Canadell, Corinne Le Quéré, Michael R. Raupach, Christopher B. Field, Erik T. Buitenhuis, Philippe Ciais, Thomas J. Conway, Nathan P. Gillett, R. A. Houghton, and Gregg Marlandi

Title:

  • Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks

Publisher:

  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Date:

  • October 25, 2007

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/earth-will-cross-the-climate-danger-threshold-by-2036/

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Sample:

““Temperatures have been flat for 15 years—nobody can properly explain it,” the Wall Street Journal says. “Global warming ‘pause’ may last for 20 more years, and Arctic sea ice has already started to recover,” the Daily Mail says. Such reassuring claims about climate abound in the popular media, but they are misleading at best. Global warming continues unabated, and it remains an urgent problem.

The misunderstanding stems from data showing that during the past decade there was a slowing in the rate at which the earth’s average surface temperature had been increasing. The event is commonly referred to as “the pause,” but that is a misnomer: temperatures still rose, just not as fast as during the prior decade. The important question is, What does the short-term slowdown portend for how the world may warm in the future?

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is charged with answering such questions. In response to the data, the IPCC in its September 2013 report lowered one aspect of its prediction for future warming. Its forecasts, released every five to seven years, drive climate policy worldwide, so even the small change raised debate over how fast the planet is warming and how much time we have to stop it. The IPCC has not yet weighed in on the impacts of the warming or how to mitigate it, which it will do in reports that were due this March and April. Yet I have done some calculations that I think can answer those questions now: If the world keeps burning fossil fuels at the current rate, it will cross a threshold into environmental ruin by 2036. The “faux pause” could buy the planet a few extra years beyond that date to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the crossover—but only a few.”

Description:

Article exploring how the current rate of rise in global temperature will become dangerous for the planet around year 2036 if not slowed before then.

Author(s):

  • Michael E Mann

Title:

  • Earth Will Cross the Climate Danger Threshold by 2036

Publisher:

  • Scientific American

Date:

  • April 1, 2014

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nap.edu/read/21852/chapter/2#7

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Sample:

Confidence in attribution findings of anthropogenic influence is greatest for those extreme events that are related to an aspect of temperature, such as the observed long-term warming of the regional or global climate, where there is little doubt that human activities have caused an observed change. For extreme heat and cold events in particular, changes in long-term mean conditions provide a basis for expecting that there also should be related changes in extreme conditions. Heavy rainfall is influenced by a moister atmosphere, which is a relatively direct consequence of human-induced warming, though not as direct as the increase in temperature itself. The frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones and severe convective storms are related to large-scale climate parameters whose relationships to climate are understood to varying degrees but, in general, are more complex and less direct than are changes in either temperature or water vapor alone. Nevertheless, atmospheric circulation and dynamics play some role in the development of an extreme event, which is different for different event types. Changes in atmospheric circulation and dynamics are generally less directly controlled by temperature, less robustly simulated by climate models, and less well understood.”

Description:

This book is available online for free from the National Academies Press and examines the link between various kinds of extreme weather and climate change. This is a link to the beginning of the book, but the entire publication can be browsed online from that page.

Author(s):

  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Title:

  • Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change

Publisher:

  • The National Academies Press

Date:

  • 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nap.edu/read/12782/chapter/2#3

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Sample:

Conclusion 1: Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for—and in many cases is already affecting—a broad range of human and natural systems.

This conclusion is based on a substantial array of scientific evidence, including recent work, and is consistent with the conclusions of recent assessments by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (e.g., USGCRP, 2009a), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007a-d), and other assessments of the state of scientific knowledge on climate change. Both our assessment—the details of which can be found in Chapter 2 and Part II (Chapters 6-17) of this report—and these previous assessments place high or very high confidence1 in the following findings:

  • Earth is warming. Detailed observations of surface temperature assembled and analyzed by several different research groups show that the planet’s average surface temperature was 1.4°F (0.8°C) warmer during the first decade of the 21st century than during the first decade of the 20th century, with the most pronounced warming over the past three decades. These data are corroborated by a variety of independent observations that indicate warming in other parts of the Earth system, including the cryosphere (snow- and ice-covered regions), the lower atmosphere, and the oceans.

  • Most of the warming over the last several decades can be attributed to human activities that release carbon dioxide (CO2) and other heat-trapping greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas—for energy is the single largest human driver of climate change, but agriculture, forest clearing, and certain industrial activities also make significant contributions.

  • Natural climate variability leads to year-to-year and decade-to-decade fluctuations in temperature and other climate variables, as well as substantial regional differences, but cannot explain or offset the long-term warming trend.

  • Global warming is closely associated with a broad spectrum of other changes, such as increases in the frequency of intense rainfall, decreases in Northern Hemisphere snow cover and Arctic sea ice, warmer and more frequent hot days and nights, rising sea levels, and widespread ocean acidification.”

Description:

Advancing the Science of Climate Change one part of a 4-book series on the science of climate change made available online by the National Academies Press. This is a link to the beginning of the book, but the entire book can be browsed online from that page.

Author(s):

  • National Research Council

Title:

  • Advancing the Science of Climate Change

Publisher:

  • The National Academics Press

Date:

  • 2010

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2014/06/23/study-adds-up-benefits-climate-smart-development-lives-jobs-gdp

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Sample:

“By 2030, the benefits of these three sets of sector policies would include 94,000 premature deaths avoided annually and GDP growth of $1.8 trillion-$2.6 trillion per year. The policies would avoid 8.5 gigatons of CO2-equivalent and almost 16 billion kilowatt-hours of energy saved, roughly equivalent to taking 2 billion cars off the road. Together, these implementing these policies could represent about 30 percent of the total reduction needed in 2030 to limit global warming to 2 degrees Celsius.

The four simulated project case studies analyzed local development interventions scaled up to a national level in one country.

For example, in the Brazil landfill scenario, the report uses results from existing World Bank-supported projects in Brazil that are implementing a variety of integrated solid waste management options, including biodigesters, composting, and landfill technology that captures methane to produce electricity. If the same technologies were scaled up nationwide, over 20 years, the study estimates the changes could create more than 44,000 jobs, increase GDP by more than $13 billion, and reduce emissions by 158 million tons of CO2-equivalent.”

Description:

Article summarizing report published by the World Bank analyzing the impact of measures to combat climate change in terms of GDP, jobs, and economic growth.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • New Study Adds Up the Benefits of Climate-Smart Development in Lives, Jobs, and GDP

Publisher:

  • World Bank Group

Date:

  • June 23, 2014

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2458/why-a-half-degree-temperature-rise-is-a-big-deal/

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Sample:

“The Paris Agreement, which delegates from 196 countries hammered out in December 2015, calls for holding the ongoing rise in global average temperature to “well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels,” while “pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C.” How much difference could that half-degree of wiggle room (or 0.9 degree on the Fahrenheit scale) possibly make in the real world? Quite a bit, it appears.

The European Geosciences Union published a study in April 2016 that examined the impact of a 1.5 degree Celsius vs. a 2.0 C temperature increase by the end of the century, given what we know so far about how climate works. It found that the jump from 1.5 to 2 degrees—a third more of an increase—raises the impact by about that same fraction, very roughly, on most of the phenomena the study covered. Heat waves would last around a third longer, rain storms would be about a third more intense, the increase in sea level would be approximately that much higher and the percentage of tropical coral reefs at risk of severe degradation would be roughly that much greater.

But in some cases, that extra increase in temperature makes things much more dire. At 1.5 C, the study found that tropical coral reefs stand a chance of adapting and reversing a portion of their die-off in the last half of the century. But at 2 C, the chance of recovery vanishes. Tropical corals are virtually wiped out by the year 2100.”

Description:

Article published by NASA on the Paris Agreement and the impact even just half a degree change in global temperature can have on our climate.

Author(s):

  • Bob Silberg

Title:

  • Why a half-degree temperature rise is a big deal

Publisher:

  • NASA’s Jet Propulsion Labratory

Date:

  • June 30, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/greenhouse-gases

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Sample:

“In the United States, greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activities increased by 7 percent from 1990 to 2014. Since 2005, however, total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions have decreased by 7 percent. Carbon dioxide accounts for most of the nation’s emissions and most of the increase since 1990. Electricity generation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, followed by transportation. Emissions per person have decreased slightly in the last few years.”

Description:

EPA’s page on greenhouse gases with information about the impact of greenhouse gases, how they are created, and a chart on specific pollutants. This page also leads to more scientific resources on greenhouse gases and climate change.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Climate Change Indicators: Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • Environmental Protection Agency

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2537/nasa-noaa-data-show-2016-warmest-year-on-record-globally/

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Sample:

“Earth’s 2016 surface temperatures were the warmest since modern recordkeeping began in 1880, according to independent analyses by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Globally-averaged temperatures in 2016 were 1.78 degrees Fahrenheit (0.99 degrees Celsius) warmer than the mid-20th century mean. This makes 2016 the third year in a row to set a new record for global average surface temperatures.

The 2016 temperatures continue a long-term warming trend, according to analyses by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York. NOAA scientists concur with the finding that 2016 was the warmest year on record based on separate, independent analyses of the data.”

Description:

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • NASA, NOAA data show 2016 warmest year on record globally

Publisher:

  • Nasa’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies

Date:

  • January 18, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://afsic.nal.usda.gov/sustainable-agriculture-definitions-and-terms-1

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Sample:

“Both positive and negative consequences have come with the bounty associated with industrial farming. Some concerns about contemporary agriculture are presented below. They are drawn from the resources compiled at the end of this chapter. While considering these concerns, keep the following in mind: a) interactions between farming systems and soil, water, biota, and atmosphere are complex—we have much to learn about their dynamics and long term impacts; b) most environmental problems are intertwined with economic, social, and political forces external to agriculture; c) some problems are global in scope while others are experienced only locally; d) many of these problems are being addressed through conventional, as well as alternative, agricultural channels; e) the list is not complete; and f) no order of importance is intended.”

MLA Citation:

Gold, Mary. “Sustainable Agriculture: Definitions and Terms.” afsic.nal.usda.gov. United States Department of Agriculture, Aug. 2007.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://afsic.nal.usda.gov/sustainable-agriculture-definitions-and-terms-1>.

In-Text: (Gold)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Gold, M. (2007, Aug.). Sustainable agriculture: Definitions and terms. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from http://afsic.nal.usda.gov/sustainable-agriculture-definitions-and-terms-1

In-Text: (Gold, 2007)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/summary-info/global/201512

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Sample:

“During 2015, the average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces was 1.62°F (0.90°C) above the 20th century average. This was the highest among all 136 years in the 1880–2015 record, surpassing the previous record set last year by 0.29°F (0.16°C) and marking the fourth time a global temperature record has been set this century. This is also the largest margin by which the annual global temperature record has been broken. Ten months had record high temperatures for their respective months during the year. The five highest monthly departures from average for any month on record all occurred during 2015.”

MLA Citation:

“State of the Climate: Global Analysis for December 2015.” ncdc.noaa.gov. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Jan. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/summary-info/global/201512>.

In-Text: (“State of the Climate”)

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APA Citation:

State of the climate: Global analysis for December 2015. (2016, Jan.). NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/summary-info/global/201512

In-Text: (State of the climate)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://climate.nasa.gov/causes/

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Sample:

“Most climate scientists agree the main cause of the current global warming trend is human expansion of the “greenhouse effect”1 — warming that results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earth toward space.”

MLA Citation:

“A blanket around the Earth.” climate.nasa.gov. Earth Science Communications Team at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://climate.nasa.gov/causes/>.

In-Text: (“A blanket around the Earth”)

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APA Citation:

A blanket around the Earth. (n.d.). Earth Science Communications Team at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/causes/

In-Text: (A blanket around the Earth)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/indicators/

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Sample:

“Thousands of land and ocean temperature measurements are recorded each day around the globe. This includes measurements from climate reference stations, weather stations, ships, buoys and autonomous gliders in the oceans. These surface measurements are also supplemented with satellite measurements. These measurements are processed, examined for random and systematic errors, and then finally combined to produce a time series of global average temperature change. A number of agencies around the world have produced datasets of global-scale changes in surface temperature using different techniques to process the data and remove measurement errors that could lead to false interpretations of temperature trends. The warming trend that is apparent in all of the independent methods of calculating global temperature change is also confirmed by other independent observations, such as the melting of mountain glaciers on every continent, reductions in the extent of snow cover, earlier blooming of plants in spring, a shorter ice season on lakes and rivers, ocean heat content, reduced arctic sea ice, and rising sea levels.”

MLA Citation:

“Global Climate Change Indicators.” ncdc.noaa.gov. National Centers for Environmental Information, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/indicators/>.

In-Text: (“Global Climate Change Indicators”)

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APA Citation:

Global climate change indicators. (n.d.). National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/indicators/

In-Text: (Global Climate Change Indicators)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/

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Sample:

“The Earth’s climate has changed throughout history. Just in the last 650,000 years there have been seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat, with the abrupt end of the last ice age about 7,000 years ago marking the beginning of the modern climate era — and of human civilization. Most of these climate changes are attributed to very small variations in Earth’s orbit that change the amount of solar energy our planet receives.”

MLA Citation:

“Climate Change: How do we know?” climate.nasa.gov. Earth Science Communications Team at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/>.

In-Text: (“Climate Change: How do we know?”)

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APA Citation:

Climate change: How do we know? (n.d.). Earth Science Communications Team at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/

In-Text: (Climate change: How do we know?)

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