Credible Sources for Cancer

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/smoke-screen-are-e-cigarettes-safe/

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Sample:

“But are e-cigs truly safe? No one knows for sure. Yet there is no question that the nicotine they contain is addictive—which is one reason many public health experts have grown alarmed by their rapidly increasing popularity. Among their concerns: e-cigs might lure former smokers back to conventional cigarettes, expose users and bystanders alike to unidentified dangers, or become a gateway for teens who might subsequently experiment with tobacco products and other drugs.”

MLA Citation:

Maron, Dina. “Smoke Screen: Are E-Cigarettes Safe?” scientificamerican.com. Scientific American, 1 May 2014.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/smoke-screen-are-e-cigarettes-safe/>.

In-Text: (Maron)

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APA Citation:

Maron, D. (2014, May 1). Smoke screen: Are e-cigarettes safe? Scientific American.  Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/smoke-screen-are-e-cigarettes-safe/

In-Text: (Maron, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3889953/

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Sample:

“Among adults in primary care who screen positive for any recent illicit or non-medical prescription drug use, we were unable to detect an association between frequency of marijuana use and health, emergency department use, or hospital utilization.”

“Marijuana use has been associated with adverse health consequences, such as respiratory tract infections, small airway obstruction; lung, head and neck, and brain cancers, coronary heart disease and motor vehicle accidents. It has also been linked to HIV risk behaviors in those with and without HIV infection, and increased mortality risk in patients following inpatient detoxification. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that smoking marijuana increases mortality in the general population, and many non-dependent marijuana users have no associated medical problems.”

MLA Citation:

Fuster, Daniel, Debbie M. Cheng, Donald Allensworth-Davies, Tibor P. Palfai, Jeffrey H. Samet, and Richard Saitz. “No Detectable Association Between Frequency of Marijuana Use and Health or Healthcare Utilization Among Primary Care Patients Who Screen Positive for Drug Use.” Journal of General Internal Medicine 29.1 (Jan. 2014): 133-139. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3889953/>.

In-Text: (Fuster et al.)

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APA Citation:

Fuster, D.,Cheng D.M., Allensworth-Davies, D., Palfai T.P., Samet J.H., & Saitz, R. (2014, Jan.). No detectable association between frequency of marijuana use and health or healthcare utilization among primary care patients who screen positive for drug use. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 29(1), 133-139. doi: 10.1007/s11606-013-2605-z

In-Text: (Fuster et al.)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.dovepress.com/public-attitudes-about-lung-cancer-stigma-support-and-predictors-of-su-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-JMDH

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Sample:

“Lung cancer is the second most common cancer for both men and women, accounting for 13% of all new cancers. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2014, 224,210 new cases of lung cancer will be diagnosed.1 They estimate that 159,260 people will die from lung cancer. At 27% of cancer deaths, lung cancer is expected to remain the leading cause of cancer death, with more people dying of lung cancer than of colon cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer combined.1 In addition to its high mortality, lung cancer also causes a substantial burden of suffering before death.2 As a consequence, one might expect high rates of funding for lung cancer research, but lung cancer remains a substantially underfunded cancer. In 2013, the National Institute of Health spent US$281 million for colorectal cancer research, $657 million for breast cancer research, and $286 million for prostate cancer research.3 Despite dramatically higher mortality,1 lung cancer received less funding than each of these cancers at $208 million. When rephrased as funding per death, lung cancer is even more underfunded – per death, $1,337 will be invested in improving lung cancer care in 2014 compared to $5,725 for colorectal cancer, $16,850 for breast cancer, and $9,973 for prostate cancer.”

MLA Citation:

Weiss, J., B.J. Stephenson, L.J. Edwards, M. Rigney, A. Copeland. “Public attitudes about lung cancer: stigma, support, and predictors of support.” Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare 7 (16 July 2014): 293-300.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.dovepress.com/public-attitudes-about-lung-cancer-stigma-support-and-predictors-of-su-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-JMDH>.

In-Text: (Weiss et al.)

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APA Citation:

Weiss, J., Stephenson B.J., Edwards L.J., Rigney, M., Copeland, A. (2014, July 16). Public attitudes about lung cancer: stigma, support, and predictors of support. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 7, 293-300. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S65153

In-Text: (Weiss, Stephenson, Edwards, Rigney, Copeland, 2014)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/15/10/1829.long#cited-by

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Sample:

“Several lines of evidence, including the presence of known carcinogens and cocarcinogens in marijuana smoke, as well as results from cellular, tissue, animal, and human studies, suggest that marijuana smoking may predispose to cancer, particularly respiratory tract cancers (1). In a recent epidemiologic review of the marijuana-cancer association, we concluded that sufficient studies were not available to adequately evaluate the effect of marijuana on cancer risk (2). Two cohort studies and 14 case-control studies were reviewed. In the cohort studies, increased risks of lung or other tobacco-related cancers were not observed among persons who had used marijuana at least six times in their lifetimes, but increased risks of prostate and cervical cancers among tobacco nonsmokers, as well as adult-onset glioma among both tobacco smokers and nonsmokers, were observed (3, 4). The cutoff for marijuana use may have been too low for cancer risk to be detected, and confounding by life-style risk factors could not be ruled out for the cervical and prostate cancer findings.”

MLA Citation:

Hashibe, Mia, Hal Morgenstern, Yan Cui, et al. “Marijuana Use and the Risk of Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers: Results of a Population-Based Case-Control Study.” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 15 (2006).  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/15/10/1829.long>.

In-Text: (Hashibe, Morgenstern, Cui, et al.)

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APA Citation:

Hashibe, M., Morgenstern, H., Cui, Y., Tashkin, D.P., Zhang, Z., Cozen, W., … Greenland, S. (2006). Marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: Results of a population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 15. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0330

In-Text: (Hashibe et al.)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2015/12/28/jech-2015-206274.full

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Sample:

“Substantial evidence supports the notion that adult chronic diseases are not determined solely by exposures and events in adult life. Beyond genetic susceptibility, exposures and the social circumstances of early life begin a process that extends throughout the lifespan to influence adult disease. Epidemiologists take a life-course approach to the study of physical and social hazards during gestation, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood and midlife that can affect adult chronic disease risk and health outcomes. This well-established approach aims to identify the underlying biological, behavioural and psychosocial processes that operate across the lifespan. Aetiological factors may act during critical periods of development, with or without additional later life influences, or they may act through the accumulation of risk through various pathways. This approach focuses our attention on the importance of the early environment on human biological and psychological development and on the timing of a range of exposures during this critical period, including those associated with adverse socioeconomic circumstances.”

MLA Citation:

Vohra, Jyotsna,  Michael G Marmot, Linda Bauld, and Robert A Hiatt. “Socioeconomic position in childhood and cancer in adulthood: a rapid-review.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (29 Dec. 2015): n.p.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2015/12/28/jech-2015-206274.full>.

In-Text: (Vohra et al.)

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APA Citation:

Vohra, J., Marmot, M. G., Bauld, L., & Hiatt, Robert A. (2015, Dec 29). Socioeconomic position in childhood and cancer in adulthood: a rapid-review. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, n.p. doi:10.1136/jech-2015-206274

In-Text: (Vohra, Marmot, Bauld, Hiatt, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/what-is-cancer

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Sample:

“Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. Cancer cell growth is different from normal cell growth. Instead of dying, cancer cells continue to grow and form new, abnormal cells. Cancer cells can also invade (grow into) other tissues, something that normal cells can’t do. Growing out of control and invading other tissues are what makes a cell a cancer cell.”

MLA Citation:

“What is Cancer?” cancer.org. American Cancer Society, April 15. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/what-is-cancer>.

In-Text: (“What is Cancer?”)

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APA Citation:

What is cancer? (2015, April 15). American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/what-is-cancer

In-Text: (What is cancer? 2015)

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