Credible Sources for Writers

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/20th-century-literature/articles/nineteen-eighty-four-and-the-politics-of-dystopia

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Sample:

“One of the crucial questions about Nineteen Eighty-Four is whether Orwell is interested in the potential for opposition to the totalitarian state, or if his last book offers only despair. Orwell lived just long enough – he died in January 1950 – to see his book appropriated by right-wing political forces for the defence of American freedom, against which he protested in vain. This was the beginning of a long dispute over the interpretation of the book, which shows no sign of ending. Is it an anti-communist rant of a comrade who betrayed the cause? Or is it principally anti-fascist, a chilling realisation of the totalitarian imaginings of the German or Italian fascist state? But perhaps the book was anti-capitalist too, since one of the biggest influences on Orwell was James Burnham’s critique of the rise of a ‘managerialist’ class in both East and West, Russia and America, that would see technocrats overwhelm democratic institutions in the future?[2] Is it a humanist lament that is so despairing that it ends up building a monument to anti-humanism? Nineteen Eighty-Four is a mirror: it is impossible for the reader not to find their own politics reflected, challenged or distorted in its fiercely polished plain prose. This is perhaps why so many towering literary and political critics have ended up engaging with the novel in one way or another.”

Description:

In-depth analysis of the political climate during George Orwell’s life and how that influenced key parts of his well-known dystopian novel, 1984.

Author(s):

  • Roger Luckhurst

Title:

  • Nineteen Eighty Four and the politics of dystopia

Publisher:

  • British Library

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.wired.com/2008/02/does-the-techno/

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Sample:

“We can’t know what George Orwell, author of Nineteen Eighty-Four, would think about his old neighborhood being watched by dozens of cameras. It’s not hard to make an educated guess.

But while the West is a society under surveillance, the novel’s sinister technology goes far beyond CCTV. Science fiction, like Oceania, can tailor technology to an arbitrary vision of reality. Even now, could a totalitarian government craft 1984 as Orwell described it?

Telescreens

Often compared to today’s ubiquitous cameras, Nineteen Eighty-Four’s telescreens were sinister creations: huge, thin, and inherently two-way.”

Description:

Interesting article that compares the tech from George Orwell’s 1984, published in 1949, to the technology of the modern world.

Author(s):

  • Rob Beschizza

Title:

  • Does the Technology of Orwell’s 1984 Really Exist?

Publisher:

  • Wired

Date:

  • February 5, 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-21337504

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Sample:

“For years the question of Orwell’s intentions in Nineteen Eighty-Four has caused great debate.

With a few exceptions on the far left, every political tendency has wanted to claim him. So there has been a well-established and heartfelt desire on the more moderate left to claim that Orwell was indeed a genuine socialist whose warning was aimed at totalitarianism in general, not at the left per se.

The right, of course, have had the easier task of suggesting that Orwell was writing about what he appeared to be writing about. It seems to me that the right probably has the better argument.”

Description:

Article from BBC detailing George Owell’s life and how the geopolitical environment in which he lived and influenced his well-known novel, 1984.

Author(s):

  • David Aaronovitch

Title:

  • 1984: George Orwell’s road to dystopia

Publisher:

  • BBC

Date:

  • February 8th, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/25/books/1984-george-orwell-donald-trump.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“Even outside the United States, interest in “1984” has grown. So far this year, sales have risen by 20 percent in Britain and Australia compared to the same period a year ago, according to Jess Harrison, a London-based editor at Penguin Books. The novel is usually a best-seller, she said, and it sold 100,000 copies last year in English-speaking countries outside the United States and Canada. “But we’ve definitely seen an uplift” in sales, she added.

Dystopian novels are “chiming with people,” Ms. Harrison said, adding that “The Man in the High Castle” by Philip K. Dick, an alternative history in which the Nazis defeated America to win World War II, is also selling well. A television series based on Mr. Dick’s novel is now in its second season at Amazon.”

Description:

Report from NY Times detailing increases in sales of Orwell’s 1984 related to 2016 U.S. Election and Kellyanne Conway ‘alternative facts’ comments.

Author(s):

  • Kimiko de Freytas-Tamura

Title:

  • George Orwell’s ‘1984’ Is Suddenly a Best-Seller

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • January 25, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2013/06/sales-of-orwells-1984-increase-as-details-of-nsa-scandal-emerge/

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Sample:

“Sales of “1984,” George Orwell’s 1949 classic novel about the oppressiveness of government overreach and life in a world where there is no place to escape the watchful eye of Big Brother, have risen more than 3,000 percent on Amazon since the country learned of the U.S. government surveillance programs.

As of noon today, the book was number 5 on the “movers and shakers list,” which represent the biggest gains in sales over the past 24 hours. The book’s sales rank had jumped to 194, from 6,750 Monday.”

Description:

ABC News report on an increase in 1984 book sales after news reports of mass NSA surveillance programs in the U.S. that seem reminiscent of the book’s plot.

Author(s):

  • Alana Abramson

Title:

  • Sales of Orwell’s ‘1984’ Increase as Details of NSA Scandal Emerge

Publisher:

  • ABC News

Date:

  • June 11, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/witchcraft-in-shakespeares-england

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Sample:

“In Shakespeare’s England, anxiety about witchcraft and belief in magic and the supernatural were not limited to the lower or uneducated classes. Macbeth is a powerful man of high estate, and though at times he questions the validity of the three witches and their prophecies, he ultimately accepts the potential of witchcraft and magic. One of Queen Elizabeth’s courtiers, Sir Walter Ralegh, described witches as women controlled by the Devil. But others, such as Reginald Scot, author of The Discoverie of Witchcraft, were far more sceptical; Scot argued against the existence of supernatural witchcraft and claimed that some accused witches were women with mental illness while others may have been con artists. Indeed, at the height of the witchcraft trials almost all of those accused were women, and many of them poor or economically vulnerable who, like the witches of Macbeth, might beg their neighbours for something to eat. But unlike the stage witches, who, in Act 4, Scene 1, truly can conjure powerful magic, while some of those accused were convinced they were able to do so, ability to perform such magic was only on stage.”

Description:

Article discussing how witchcraft trials in the 16th century influenced England’s culture and Shakespeare’s writing in Macbeth. This piece argues that King James I certainty in the existence of witchcraft and interest in it led Shakespeare to craft the story of Macbeth to “please his new king.”

Author(s):

  • Carole Levin

Title:

  • Witchcraft in Shakespeare’s England

Publisher:

  • British Library

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2007/04/12/shakespeare-and-the-uses-of-power/

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Sample:

“Macbeth himself seems tormented by the question. To be sure, his anxiety derives in part from a straightforward prudential concern, a fear that what he metes out will inevitably be meted out to him, measure for measure. But his queasiness has deeper roots in his sense of ethical obligation, in this case the obligation to obey and serve the king his master. His wife, who knows her husband’s character all too well, has already cannily anticipated his inner struggle:

Thou wouldst be great,

Art not without ambition, but without

The illness should attend it.

(1.5.16–18)

Hence faced with the perfect opportunity to seize the crown—King Duncan is a guest in his castle—Macbeth holds back. He is, he reflects, Duncan’s kinsman and subject, and at this moment he is also the king’s host, “who should against his murderer shut the door,/ Not bear the knife myself.” Above all, there has been nothing in the king’s comportment that would make his murder a remotely justifiable act. (Shakespeare characteristically altered his source in order to eliminate evidence of Duncan’s incompetence and thus to eliminate a rational basis for his assassination.) On the contrary, Macbeth broods,

this Duncan Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been

So clear in his great office, that his virtues

Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued against

The deep damnation of his taking-off.

(1.7.16–120)

“Meek” is a strange word to describe a king whom we have just seen conducting a bloody military campaign and ordering the summary execution of his enemy, the Thane of Cawdor. But it serves to intensify Macbeth’s brooding on the deep damnation that will befall Duncan’s assassin.”

Description:

Long-form review of Shakespeare’s use of political power or status in his stories, including detailed analysis of Macbeth.

Author(s):

  • Stephen Greenblatt

Title:

  • Shakespeare and the Uses of Power

Publisher:

  • New York Review of Books

Date:

  • April 12, 2007

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/manhood-and-the-milk-of-human-kindness-in-macbeth

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Sample:

Macbeth is the tragedy of a man torn apart and destroyed by the conflicting conceptions of masculinity at war within him. But it’s also a tragedy that glimpses beyond that conflict the prospect of humanity’s liberation from the destructive male fantasies that still plague it and threaten its survival.

In case the play’s obsession with manhood escapes us, Shakespeare enlists that scurrilous wise fool the Porter to bring it into focus. In the immediate aftermath of Duncan’s murder and its traumatic impact on Macbeth, as the dreadful knocking at the gate subsides, the self-styled ‘porter of Hell Gate’ (2.3.2) treats Macduff to an incongruous comic lecture on the fate booze has in store for the sexually aroused male:

Lechery, sir, it provokes and unprovokes: it provokes the desire, but it takes away the performance. Therefore much drink may be said to be an equivocator with lechery: it makes him and it mars him; it sets him on, and it takes him off; it persuades him, and disheartens him; makes him stand to, and not stand too; in conclusion, equivocates him in a sleep, and giving him the lie, leaves him. (2.3.29–36)

But on closer inspection the Porter’s lewd gag turns out to be anything but incongruous. What it provides, in the guise of light relief from the tension of the preceding scenes, is a vulgar comic version of Macbeth’s tragic plight. In a sly plebeian parody of the play’s ‘imperial theme’ (1.3.129) Macbeth’s disabling agonies of conscience before and after killing his king are reduced to the embarrassment of impotent lust. This covert caricature of Macbeth’s ‘Thriftless ambition’ (2.4.28), which fails to be satisfied by regicide, as a failure to translate desire into deed by maintaining an erection, pinpoints what’s ultimately at stake in this tragedy: male power and masculinity itself.”

Description:

Article from the British Library exploring the role “manhood” and “conceptions of masculinity” play in Shakespeare’s tragedy, Macbeth.

Author(s):

  • Kiernan Ryan

Title:

  • Manhood and the ‘milk of human kindness’ in Macbeth

Publisher:

  • British Library

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/unsex-me-here-lady-macbeths-hell-broth

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Sample:

“Throughout most of literary history, Lady Macbeth – the scheming spouse who plots the villainy at the centre of Shakespeare’s devastating ‘Scottish play’ – has been seen as a figure of ‘almost peerless malevolence’. Monstrous and murderous, she was based on a woman described in Holinshed’s Chronicles as ‘burning in unquenchable desire to beare the name of a queene’. Yet actors who played this part have often debated her character. Writing in the early 19th century, the great Sarah Siddons declared that this infamous heroine was ‘a woman in whose bosom the passion of ambition has almost obliterated all the characteristics of human nature’, and recalled that she first learned the part ‘in a paroxysm of terror’, so fearful that the rustling of her own silk dress seemed ‘like the movement of a spectre pursuing me’. But later in the century the charismatic actor Ellen Terry thought it ‘strange’ that Lady Macbeth should be seen ‘as a sort of monster’, claiming that ‘I conceive [her] as a small, slight woman of acute nervous sensibility’, who was perhaps ‘not good, but not much worse than many women you know – me for instance’. The critic Anna Jameson similarly declared that ‘the woman herself remains a woman to the last’.”

Description:

Literary analysis of Lady Macbeth with respect to gender roles, as well as her motivations and how they lead her on a murderous quest to be queen.

Author(s):

  • Sandra Gilbert

Title:

  • ‘Unsex Me Here’: Lady Macbeth’s ‘Hell Broth’

Publisher:

  • British Library

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699175/

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“Sleep themes of insomnia, somnambulism, and nightmares are obvious in Hamlet and Macbeth; however they are evident throughout his work. This paper focuses on sleep references in Othello. First performed 400 years ago, Othello is one of Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies. The plot line of love and jealousy is deeply compelling, but there are a surprising number of sleep references embedded in the play that may not be immediately apparent to the casual reader. Instead, we understandably get caught up in the immense drama of the play, but sleep themes are there, lurking in every act. It’s not just references to insomnia but to other sleep problems—themes of domination through sleep deprivation, themes of sexual parasomnias, and themes of adverse effects of stress on sleep and the difficulty of treating insomnia. This paper will examine these passages and place them in the context of contemporary sleep medicine research.”

Description:

Article analyzing the themes and use of sleep and sleep deprivation by Shakespeare and his well-known play, Othello, in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. According to this article, sleep themes are apparent in much of Shakespeare’s work, like Hamlet and Macbeth, but also important in Othello.

Author(s):

  • Joel E. Dimsdale

Title:

  • Sleep in Othello

Publisher:

  • Journal: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 3

Date:

  • June 15 2009

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/critical-approaches-to-othello

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Sample:

“Othello was crafted at the dawn of the 17th century, shaped by complex social and geopolitical issues that new historicist critics, who seek to place literary works within a historical framework, have recently sought to unravel. Yet from its first staging to the present, Othello has also been among the few Shakespearean plays to be repeatedly staged to enthusiastic audiences, not only in England, but across the globe. This continuing appeal suggests that the tragedy transcends the time and location in which it was written, provoking new interpretations from generation to generation, place to place. In order to fully appreciate Othello, we need to see it in its multifaceted historical context – then – and consider the myriad ways it speaks to audiences now.”

Description:

Professor and Author Virginia Mason Vaughan looks at 4 recent critical approaches to Othello: feminist, new historicist, marxist and post-colonial. This source is published by the British Library, an excellent resource for analysis of English literature.

Author(s):

  • Virginia Mason Vaughan

Title:

  • Critical approaches to Othello

Publisher:

  • British Library

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ells/article/view/64746/34906

DOI: 10.5539/ells.v6n4p75

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Sample:

“The concept of evil has been researched since the Medieval era, leading to the conclusion that human beings have the freedom to choose good from bad, or evil from good. The origin of evil based on the religious teachings is Satan, who is described as the Rebel Angel, as explained by Dante in The Divine Comedy (Alighieri, 1957). Satan tempts human beings into sinning, as revenge against God for placing him in Hell. Based on the psychological point of view developed by Sigmund Freud, the source of evil is id which is distinctive (Freud, 1966). Villain motivations are driven by the tendency of the ego to make realistic decisions about meeting the unrealistic and unreasonable desires by the id. The other aspect that motivates villain actions include jealousy, anger and revenge, as indicated in the play. Shakespeare presents the villain character perfectly in his play Othello (1604) through Iago, whose main focus in life is to destroy others “So will I turn her virtue into pitch And out of her own goodness make the net That shall enmesh them all” (Shakespeare, 1993, p. 99). Through his manipulative skills, he makes the other characters trust him “Iago most honest” (Shakespeare, 1993, p. 75) and then fuel conflicts among them. Iago is motivated by anger, revenge and jealousy to commit the evil acts.”

Description:

Article on the concept of the ‘villain’ in Othello through the antagonist, Iago, who is “motivated by anger, revenge and jealousy to commit the evil acts.”

Author(s):

  • Marwan Alqaryouti and Ala Eddin Sadeq.

Title:

  • The Concept of Villain in Shakespeare’s Othello

Publisher:

  • Journal: English Language and Literature Studies, Vol. 6, No. 4

Date:

  • 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/racism-misogyny-and-motiveless-malignity-in-othello

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Sample:

“Anyone who doubts that Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies were written from an imaginative standpoint far ahead of his time need only think of Othello. The basic idea of the play is so well known that it’s easy to forget the startling boldness of Shakespeare’s decision to take Cinthio’s brief tale of a doomed mixed-race marriage and transform it into a heart-breaking tragedy. In a country where few people outside London would ever have seen a black person, and centuries before the problems that fuel the tragedy became as ubiquitous and pressing as they are today, Shakespeare produced in Othello a searing critique of racial and sexual injustice, which is more powerful now in the 21st century than it could ever have been at the dawn of the 17th.

The tragic sequence of events is triggered by the elopement of Othello and Desdemona. The fact that they are obliged to elope makes the illicit nature of their relationship in the eyes of Venice immediately clear. But in their eyes and in Shakespeare’s there’s nothing illicit about their love, to which they regard themselves, and the play regards them, as fully entitled. Undeterred by the paternal wrath and widespread disapproval they are bound to incur, Othello and Desdemona act as if a black man from Africa and an upper-class white woman from Venice have every right to fall in love, marry and be left to live happily together. They act, in other words, as if they were already free citizens of a truly civilized future, instead of prisoners of a time when racial prejudice and sexual inequality are so ingrained that even their heroic hearts are tainted by them.”

Description:

Article from the British Library exploring the themes of racism and misogyny in Shakespeare’s well-known and ahead-of-its-time play, Othello. This article discusses how much of a force racism was in Othello as well as the society and time it is set in, as well as discussing how progressive Shakespeare was in presenting the love between an interracial couple at that time.

Author:

Kiernan Ryan

Title:

Racism, misogyny and ‘motiveless malignity’ in Othello

Publisher:

British Library

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/daughters-in-shakespeare-dreams-duty-and-defiance

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Sample:

“A number of Shakespeare’s plays show daughters negotiating the demands of their fathers, often trying to reconcile duty with a desire for independence. Kim Ballard considers five of Shakespeare’s most memorable literary daughters: Juliet, Desdemona, Portia, Katherina and Cordelia.

When we consider that Shakespeare lived in an age when all actors were male and the subject matter of serious drama focused heavily on the exploits of men, it’s hardly surprising that female characters are in a minority in his plays. And yet Shakespeare created many complex and engaging female roles for his young male actors to perform. Parent-child relationships feature heavily, and a significant number of these involve fathers and daughters. Interestingly, mothers are often absent from the drama, throwing the daughter/father relationship into sharp relief. A father of two daughters himself, Shakespeare’s dramatic daughters make a formidable line-up of young women, most of them at a transitional stage between the protection of their childhood home and an adult life beyond it. The transition is rarely a smooth one: in both comedies and tragedies, tension rises as daughters go in search of love, adventure and independence. “

MLA Citation:

Ballard, Kim. “Daughters in Shakespeare: dreams, duty and defiance.” British Library, n.d., https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/daughters-in-shakespeare-dreams-duty-and-defiance. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Ballard)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Ballard, K. (n.d.). Daughters in Shakespeare: dreams, duty and defiance. British Library. Retrieved from https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/daughters-in-shakespeare-dreams-duty-and-defiance

In-Text: (Ballard)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/juliets-eloquence

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Sample:

“That most famous Shakespearean scene, the balcony scene (Act 2, Scene 1), must have been an extraordinary surprise to the play’s first audience – not only because of its dramatic daring but because Juliet speaks again, and now with even richer eloquence. At first she seems to be talking only to herself – but we ‘overhear’ her (as Romeo does) actually arguing a complex philosophical case:

’Tis but thy name that is my enemy. Thou art thyself, though not a Montague. … What’s in a name? That which we call a rose By any other word would smell as sweet. (2.1.80–81, 85–86)

Juliet displays the greater emotional realism in this famous scene of young love. Not for her Romeo’s reaching for poetical clichés, swearing by ‘yonder blessed moon’; rather, she says,

do not swear. Although I joy in thee, I have no joy in this contract tonight. It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden … (2.1.158–60)”

MLA Citation:

Gay, Penny. “Juliet’s eloquence.” British Library, n.d., https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/juliets-eloquence. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Gay)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Gay, P. (n.d.). Juliet’s eloquence. British Library. Retrieved from https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/juliets-eloquence

In-Text: (Gay)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/new-mutiny-the-violence-of-romeo-and-juliet

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Sample:

“And while Romeo and Juliet has barely been off stage or screen since – it may well be Shakespeare’s most performed and adapted play – it takes on a particular intensity in places and periods where violence is more than a mere literary device. In communist Czechoslovakia in 1963, Czech director Otomar Krejča directed it at the Prague National Theatre in a famous version that, drawing heavily upon its Cold War context, made it into a parable of disaffected youth versus negligent age (seeing it in Paris the following year, Peter Brook declared this ‘the best production of the tragedy he had ever seen’). Indeed, according to some theatre historians Romeo and Juliet was one of the most popular plays behind the Iron Curtain; at Moscow’s Vakhtangov Theatre in 1956, Josef Rapoport offered an image of the lovers crushed by violent social forces, an approach echoed by Tamás Major’s Hungarian production of 1971, which played the feud as an outright civil war, put down by an overbearing military regime.”

MLA Citation:

Dickson, Andrew. “The violence of Romeo and Juliet.” British Library, n.d., http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/new-mutiny-the-violence-of-romeo-and-juliet. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Dickson)

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APA Citation:

Dickson, A. (n.d.). The violence of Romeo and Juliet. British Library. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/new-mutiny-the-violence-of-romeo-and-juliet

In-Text: (Dickson)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0305/hamlet.html

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“Bloom dismissed the notion that Hamlet, goaded by his father’s ghost, was motivated by revenge to kill his uncle Claudius, who had ascended the throne and married the queen, Gertrude, Hamlet’s mother. He also said Freud’s attempt “to fasten the Oedipus complex on Hamlet … will not stick.”

“Something in Hamlet dies before the play opens, and I set aside the prevalent judgment that the deepest cause of his melancholia is his mourning for the dead father and his outrage at his mother’s sexuality,” Bloom said. “The only vital relationship Hamlet has ever had was with Yorick, the King Hamlet’s jester, who died, the Grave-digger tells us, when the prince was seven. … Yorick the jester was Hamlet’s true father and mother.””

MLA Citation:

French, Yvonne. “Harold Bloom Interprets ‘Hamlet’.” Library of Congress, May 2013, https://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0305/hamlet.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (French)

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APA Citation:

French, Y. (2013, May). Harold Bloom interprets ‘Hamlet’. Library of Congress. Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0305/hamlet.html

In-Text: (French, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/robert-penn-warren

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“A distinguished poet, novelist, critic, and teacher, he won virtually every major award given to writers in the United States and was the only person to receive a Pulitzer Prize in both fiction (once) and poetry (twice). Described by Newsweek reviewer Annalyn Swan as “America’s dean of letters and, in all but name, poet laureate,” Robert Penn Warren was among the last surviving members of a major literary movement that emerged in the South shortly after World War I. He also achieved a measure of commercial success that eludes many other serious artists. In short, as Hilton Kramer once observed in the New York Times Book Review, Warren ‘has enjoyed the best of both worlds. … Few other writers in our history have labored with such consistent distinction and such unflagging energy in so many separate branches of the literary profession. He is a man of letters on the old-fashioned, outsize scale, and everything he writes is stamped with the passion and the embattled intelligence of a man for whom the art of literature is inseparable from the most fundamental imperatives of life.'”

MLA Citation:

“Robert Penn Warren.” Poetry Foundation, n.d., https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/robert-penn-warren. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Robert Penn Warren”)

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APA Citation:

Robert Penn Warren. (n.d.). Poetry Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/robert-penn-warren

In-Text: (“Robert Penn Warren”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/robert-penn-warren

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“Though regarded as one of the best poets of his generation, Warren was better known as a novelist and received tremendous recognition for All the King’s Men, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1947. As his southern background was exchanged for a later life spent in New England, with homes in Fairfield, Connecticut and Stratton, Vermont, Warren’s youthful conservatism eventually gave way to more liberal views, both aesthetically and socially.”

MLA Citation:

“Robert Penn Warren.” poets.org, Academy of American Poets, n.d., https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/robert-penn-warren. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Robert Penn Warren”)

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APA Citation:

Robert Penn Warren. (n.d.). ACademy of American Poets. Retrieved from https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/robert-penn-warren

In-Text: (“Robert Penn Warren”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0104%3Aalphabetic+letter%3DO%3Aentry+group%3D2%3Aentry%3Doedipus-bio-1

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“From this point traditions again differ,for according to some, Oedipus in his blindness was expelled from Thebes by his sons and brother-in-law, Creon, who undertook the government, and he was guided and accompanied by Antigone in his exile to Attica; but according to others he was imprisoned by his sons at Thebes, in order that his disgrace might remain concealed from the eves of the world. The father now cursed his sons, who agreed to rule over Thebes alternately, but became involved in a dispute, in consequence of which they fought in single combat, and slew each other. Hereupon Creon succeeded to the throne, and expelled Oedipus. After long wanderings Oedipus arrived in the grove of the Eumenides, near Colonus, in Attica; he was there honoured by Theseus in his misfortune, and, according to an oracle, the Eumenides removed him from the earth, and no one was allowed to approach his tomb (Soph. Oed. Col. 1661, &c.; Eurip. Phoen. init.; Apollod. 3.5.9; Diod. 4.64; Hyg. Fab. 67).”

MLA Citation:

Smith, William. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology.  Spottiswoode and Co., n.d., Archived at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0104%3Aalphabetic+letter%3DO%3Aentry+group%3D2%3Aentry%3Doedipus-bio-1. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Smith)

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APA Citation:

Smith, W. (n.d.). A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology. London: Spottiswoode and Co. Retrieved from http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0104%3Aalphabetic+letter%3DO%3Aentry+group%3D2%3Aentry%3Doedipus-bio-1

In-Text: (Smith)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.maicar.com/GML/Oedipus.html

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Sample:

“After the burial of Laius 1, performed by King Damasistratus of Plataea (a city between Attica and Boeotia), Jocasta’s brother Creon 2 became regent in Thebes. It is during his rule that a new and heavy calamity befell Thebes: the Sphinx appeared in Boeotia, laying waste the Theban fields and declaring that it would not depart unless someone interpreted the riddle that she proposed, and that, in the meantime, she would destroy whoever failed to give the correct answer. This beast—offspring of either Typhon or Orthus by Echidna—had the face of a woman, the breast, feet and tail of a lion, and the wings of a bird. She had learned her riddle from the MUSES, and sitting on Mount Phicium, propounded it to any Theban willing to solve it:

“What is that which has one voice and yet becomes four-footed and two-footed and three-footed?” (Apollodorus, Library 3.5.7).”

MLA Citation:

Parada, Carlos and Maicar Forlag. “Oedipus.” Greek Mythology Link, n.d., http://www.maicar.com/GML/Oedipus.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Parada and Forlag)

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APA Citation:

Parada, C. & Forlag, M. Oedipus. Greek Mythology Link. Retrieved from http://www.maicar.com/GML/Oedipus.html

In-Text: (Parada and Forlag)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-and-revenge

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“For centuries critics have tied themselves in knots trying to solve the baffling problem Hamlet appears to pose. Commanded by his father’s ghost in Act 1 to ‘Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder’ by his brother Claudius, who has robbed him of his wife and throne as well as his life, Hamlet swears that ‘with wings as swift / As meditation, or the thoughts of love,’ he will ‘sweep to [his] revenge’ (1.5.25, 29–31). He then spends almost the entire play spectacularly failing to keep his oath, despite the ghost’s reappearance in Act 3 to remind him: ‘Do not forget! This visitation / Is but to whet thy almost blunted purpose’ (3.4.110–11). Indeed after his departure for England, Hamlet’s obligation to avenge his father seems all but forgotten, and on his return he shows no sign of planning to take his uncle’s life. When he does at last kill Claudius in the dying moments of Act 5, he does so suddenly, without forethought, poisoning the King in revenge for conniving to poison him and for accidentally poisoning Gertrude.”

MLA Citation:

Ryan, Kiernan. “Hamlet and revenge.” www.bl.uk. British Library Board, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-and-revenge>.

In-Text: (Ryan)

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APA Citation:

Ryan, Kiernan. (n.d.). Hamlet and revenge. British Library Board. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-and-revenge

In-Text: (Ryan)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-the-play-within-the-play

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“Outward displays of emotion are untrustworthy, Hamlet reasons, because a person could ‘play’ or mimic them. Indeed, even his own sincere demonstrations of sadness are compromised because it would be easy to feign them. So while Hamlet’s mourning clothes, sighs and tears ‘seem’ to express his grief, Hamlet insists they are not significant: his inner feelings are his true meaning. This relationship between ‘show’ and ‘authenticity’, ‘performance’ and ‘reality’, preoccupies Hamlet throughout the play. When he discovers that his uncle has murdered his father, Hamlet interprets the news as a lesson in deceitful appearances: ‘meet it is I set it down / That one may smile, and smile, and be a villain!’ (1.5.107–08). However, the tragedy complicates any easy moral distinctions between acting and authenticity. Hamlet himself, despite his petulant outburst against ‘seeming’, cannot escape the human impulse to perform. Not only does he successfully adopt an ‘antic disposition’ (1.5.172) to deflect attention from his revenge plot, but his endless soliloquising makes him all the more theatrical, even as he meditates on ‘that within which passes show’. At the very moment Hamlet insists that his mourning is authentic and internal, he seems deliberately to parade his grief for all to see. In this tragedy, Shakespeare explores the ways in which performance exists in and shapes reality.”

MLA Citation:

Woods, Gillian. “Hamlet: the play within the play.” www.bl.uk. British Library Board, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-the-play-within-the-play>.

In-Text: (Woods)

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APA Citation:

Woods, G. (n.d.). Hamlet: the play within the play. British Library Board. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-the-play-within-the-play

In-Text: (Woods)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-looking-backwards

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“Hamlet’s personal situation reflects the political concerns of the period. For some reason the play never fully explains, this adult male heir does not inherit the throne from his father. The play is thus obliquely concerned with the great but unspeakable topical preoccupation of the end of the 16th century: the question of who would succeed the unmarried Queen Elizabeth. It was a crime to discuss the succession directly, but the theatre was able to glance at it through parallel, and in this way Hamlet has close affinities with Shakespeare’s plays on English historical subjects which rehearse similar issues.”

MLA Citation:

Smith, Emma. “Hamlet: looking backwards.” www.bl.uk. British Library Board, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-looking-backwards>.

In-Text: (Smith)

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APA Citation:

Smith, E. (n.d.). Hamlet: looking backwards. British Library Board. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-looking-backwards

In-Text: (Smith)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/19/tv/cover-story-holmes-loses-the-hat-and-watson-gets-hip.html

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“Mr. Attwood even advanced a rationale for making the thinking man’s detective less a thinker and more a doer. ”In the novels, it’s said that Holmes was a ‘master of the short stick,’ meaning tht he could handle himself in a fight,” he said, explaining why he replaced the ”pipe-and-carpet-slippers Holmes” with a ”don’t-you-mess-with-me Holmes.” But he maintained that any deviations made from Holmesian tradition were calculated to rescue the novel from earlier ”cozy versions suffused with lovely Victoriana” and to restore Conan Doyle’s original concept of ”The Hound of the Baskervilles” as a dark and terrifying tale of the supernatural. ”We wanted to scare people,” he said of his melodramatic storytelling techniques, which tend to cast the storyteller’s face in candlelight while the rain beats down and the fog rolls in and unearthly creatures stir in the night.”

MLA Citation:

Stasio, Marilyn. “Holmes Loses the Hat, and Watson Gets Hip.” nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 19 Jan. 2003.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/19/tv/cover-story-holmes-loses-the-hat-and-watson-gets-hip.html>.

In-Text: (Stasio)

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APA Citation:

Stasio, M. (2003, Jan. 19). Holmes loses the hat, and Watson gets hip. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/19/tv/cover-story-holmes-loses-the-hat-and-watson-gets-hip.html

In-Text: (Stasio, 2003)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/an-introduction-to-the-hound-of-the-baskervilles

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“The Hound of the Baskervilles, the third novel by Arthur Conan Doyle to feature Sherlock Holmes, is arguably the most famous detective story in fiction. The tale was a huge success upon its first appearance in The Strand Magazine where it ran from August 1901 to April 1902. Indeed the story’s popularity was such that for the first (and only) time in The Strand’s history a seventh printing of the magazine was required in order to keep up with demand. The story of a seemingly supernatural hound that haunts Dartmoor caught the public imagination, pitting as it did the supremely rational Sherlock Holmes against the unearthly family curse that terrorises the Baskervilles. The novel also merged two popular genres, the detective story and the Gothic tale, using an ingenious double-narrative to do so. In addition, along with its late-Victorian Gothic predecessors Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886); The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891) and Dracula (1897) the book addressed many of the fears that assailed the final years of the 19th century.”

MLA Citation:

Buzwell, Greg. “An introduction to The Hound of the Baskervilles.” bl.uk. British Library Board, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/an-introduction-to-the-hound-of-the-baskervilles>.

In-Text: (Buzwell)

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APA Citation:

Buzwell, G. (n.d.). An introduction to The Hound of the Baskervilles. British Library Board. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/an-introduction-to-the-hound-of-the-baskervilles

In-Text: (Buzwell)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/08/10/the-courthouse-ring

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“One of Atticus Finch’s strongest critics has been the legal scholar Steven Lubet, and Lubet’s arguments are a good example of how badly the brand of Southern populism Finch represents has aged over the past fifty years. Lubet’s focus is the main event of “To Kill a Mockingbird”—Finch’s defense of Tom Robinson. In “Reconstructing Atticus Finch,” in the Michigan Law Review, Lubet points out that Finch does not have a strong case. The putative rape victim, Mayella Ewell, has bruises on her face, and the supporting testimony of her father, Robert E. Lee Ewell. Robinson concedes that he was inside the Ewell house, and that some kind of sexual activity took place. The only potentially exculpatory evidence Finch can come up with is that Mayella’s bruises are on the right side of her face while Robinson’s left arm, owing to a childhood injury, is useless. Finch presents this fact with great fanfare. But, as Lubet argues, it’s not exactly clear why a strong right-handed man can’t hit a much smaller woman on the right side of her face. Couldn’t she have turned her head? Couldn’t he have hit her with a backhanded motion? Given the situation, Finch designs his defense, Lubet says, “to exploit a virtual catalog of misconceptions and fallacies about rape, each one calculated to heighten mistrust of the female complainant.””

MLA Citation:

Gladwell, Malcolm. “The Courthouse Ring.” newyorker.com. The New Yorker, 10 Aug. 2009.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/08/10/the-courthouse-ring>.

In-Text: (Gladwell)

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APA Citation:

Gladwell, M. (2009, Aug. 10). The Courthouse Ring. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/08/10/the-courthouse-ring

In-Text: (Gladwell, 2009)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://wayback.archive.org/web/20080910082631/http://www.dunphy.de/ac/pdf/Meena’s_Mockingbird.pdf

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“Syal’s novel Anita and Me describes the childhood of Meena, a young member of the Asian diaspora in Britain in the late 1960s. The article demonstrates how this book draws on Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird for inspiration, and shows how a post-colonial reading of Lee’s description of the American South provides a way into a similar reading of Syal. The relationship of the two may then be understood as a post-colonial `writing back’.”

“Meera Syal’s 1996 novel Anita and Me is probably the first work by a woman author of the British Asian community to achieve international recognition, and it very quickly became the subject of academic interest.’ It tells the story of Meena Kumar, the daughter of a Punjabi household in the village of Tollington in the English Midlands, who like the author is a second-generation member of the immigrant Indian community. Biographically, the first-person narrator mirrors the author, as the echo in the name (Meera/Meena) suggests: Syal was born in 1963 and brought up in the Staffordshire mining village of Essington, just outside Wolverhampton; although there are no dates for the action of the novel, the references to contemporary children’s television place the nine-year-old Meena at the turn of the sixties and seventies, and the fictional Tollington could easily be Essington. The theme is childhood, but specifically childhood against the backdrop of racial diversity and cultural hybridity.”

MLA Citation:

Dunphy, Graeme. “Meena’s Mockingbird: From Harper Lee to Meera Syal.” Neophilologus 88 (2004): 637-659.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://wayback.archive.org/web/20080910082631/http://www.dunphy.de/ac/pdf/Meena’s_Mockingbird.pdf>.

In-Text: (Dunphy)

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APA Citation:

Dunphy, G. (2004). Meena’s mockingbird: From Harper Lee to Meera Syal. Neophilologus, 88, 637-659. Retrieved from http://wayback.archive.org/web/20080910082631/http://www.dunphy.de/ac/pdf/Meena’s_Mockingbird.pdf

In-Text: (Dunphy, 2004)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/13/books/the-invisible-hand-behind-harper-lees-to-kill-a-mockingbird.html?_r=0

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“Now, this week’s publication of “Go Set a Watchman” offers a rare glimpse at the before and after of a book widely regarded as a masterpiece. The main characters may be the same, but “Watchman” is an entirely different book in both shape and tone from “Mockingbird.” Scout is not an impressionable child in Maycomb, Ala., looking up to her heroic father, but a young woman from Maycomb living in New York. Her father, the great Atticus Finch, is a bigot.

The release of “Watchman,” which has been only lightly copy-edited, also leads inevitably to the question: Who was the invisible hand guiding Ms. Lee as she transformed this book into “Mockingbird”? Maybe more to the point, how big a role did she play in reconceiving the story from a dark tale of a young woman’s disillusionment with her father’s racist views, to a redemptive one of moral courage and human decency? And, for that matter, how would Ms. Hohoff have felt about the decision, more than a half-century later, to publish a prototype of “Mockingbird”?”

MLA Citation:

Mahler, Jonathan. “The Invisible Hand Behind Harper Lee’s ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’.” nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 12 July. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/13/books/the-invisible-hand-behind-harper-lees-to-kill-a-mockingbird.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (Mahler)

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APA Citation:

Mahler, J. (2015, July 12). The invisible hand behind Harper Lee’s ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/13/books/the-invisible-hand-behind-harper-lees-to-kill-a-mockingbird.html?_r=0

In-Text: (Mahler)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/hamlet-a-love-story

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Sample:

“The idea of love as something tied to emptiness or nothingness is central to psychoanalysis. Often, Webster and Critchley write, we’re inclined to think of love as the opposite of emptiness—we see it as “a system of mutual favors” that acts as a kind of bonus to life, a surplus. Instead, we love because we lack. Inside each of us there’s an emptiness, and that emptiness can never be filled. None of us can ever be loved enough—by our parents, by our children, by our husbands or wives. The bottomlessness of our need for love means that, even in our most stable, permanent, and healthy relationships, love “can only be renewed and invented anew, again and again. I love you. I love you. I love you.” Each time you declare your love, you admit that there’s a lack in yourself. And when two people are in love with one another, they’re offering up their equivalent emptinesses. When love works, it makes something out of nothing.”

MLA Citation:

Rothman, Joshua. “Hamlet: A Love Story.” newyorker.com. Conde Nast, 14 Aug. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/hamlet-a-love-story>.

In-Text: (Rothman)

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APA Citation:

Rothman, J. (2013, Aug. 14). Hamlet: A love story. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/hamlet-a-love-story

In-Text: (Rothman, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.rsc.org.uk/hamlet/about-the-play/dates-and-sources

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“The immediate source of Hamlet is an earlier play dramatising the same story of Hamlet, the Danish prince who must avenge his father. No printed text of this play survives and it may well have been seen only in performance and never in print. References from the late 1580s through to the mid 1590s testify to its popularity and to the presence of a ghost crying out for revenge. There is general scholarly agreement that the author of this early version of Hamlet was Thomas Kyd, famous as the writer of the revenge drama, The Spanish Tragedy. This play did survive in print and was a huge theatrical hit in the late 1580s and 90s, delighting the contemporary taste for intrigue, bloodshed and ghostly presences.”

MLA Citation:

“Dates and Sources.” rsc.org. Royal Shakespeare Council, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.rsc.org.uk/hamlet/about-the-play/dates-and-sources>.

In-Text: (“Dates and Sources”)

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APA Citation:

Dates and sources. (n.d.). Royal Shakespeare Council. Retrieved from http://www.rsc.org.uk/hamlet/about-the-play/dates-and-sources

In-Text: (Dates and sources)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/culture/richard-brody/why-the-great-gatsby-endures

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“Gatsby, returning stateside after five months in a program at Oxford reserved for American officers, spent three years doing the things that made him fabulously wealthy—bootlegging, maybe some gambling, maybe some shady financial dealings, maybe some oil business—and doing it apparently by design, in the hope of impressing and wooing Daisy. “

MLA Citation:

Broody, Richard. “Why ‘The Great Gatsby’ Endures.” newyorker.com. Conde Naste,  29 April 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.newyorker.com/culture/richard-brody/why-the-great-gatsby-endures>.

In-Text: (Broody)

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APA Citation:

Broody, R. (2013, April 29). Why The Great Gatsby Endures. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/culture/richard-brody/why-the-great-gatsby-endures

In-Text: (Broody, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.shakespeare-literature.com/l_biography.html

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“SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM (1564—1616), English poet, player and playwright, was baptized in the parish church of Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire on the 26th of April. Birth 1564. The exact date of his birth is not known. 18th-century antiquaries, William Oldys and Joseph Greene, gave it as April 23, but without quoting authority for their statements, and the fact that April 23 was the day of Shakespeare’s death in 1616 suggests a possible source of error. In any case his birthday cannot have been later than April 23, since the inscription upon his monument is evidence that on April 23, 1616, he had already begun his fifty-third year. His father, John Shakespeare, was a burgess of the recently constituted corporation of Stratford, and had already filled certain minor municipal offices. From 1561 to 1563 he had been one of the two chamberlains to whom the finance of the town was entrusted. By occupation he was a glover, but he also appears to have dealt from time to time in various kinds of agricultural produce, such as barley, timber and wool. Aubrey (Lives, 1680) spoke of him as a butcher, and it is quite possible that he bred and even killed the calves whose skins he manipulated. He is sometimes described in formal documents as a yeoman, and it is highly probable that he combined a certain amount of farming with the practice of his trade. He was living in Stratford as early as 1552, in which year he was fined for having a dunghill in Henley Street, but he does not appear to have been a native of the town, in whose records the name is not found before his time; and be may reasonably be identified with the John Shakespeare of Snitterfield, who administered the goods of his father, Richard Shakespeare, in 1561.”

MLA Citation:

“William Shakespeare Biography”. shakeseare-literature.com. Shakespeare-literature.com, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.shakespeare-literature.com/l_biography.html>.

In-Text: (“William Shakespeare Biography”)

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APA Citation:

William Shakespeare Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.shakespeare-literature.com/l_biography.html

In-Text: (William Shakespeare Biography)

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URL:

http://www.bardweb.net/man.html

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Sample:

“For all his fame and celebration, William Shakespeare remains a mysterious figure with regards to personal history. There are just two primary sources for information on the Bard: his works, and various legal and church documents that have survived from Elizabethan times. Naturally, there are many gaps in this body of information, which tells us little about Shakespeare the man.”

MLA Citation:

Pressley, J.M. “Shakespeare’s Biography”. barbweb.net. The Shakespeare Resource Center, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bardweb.net/man.html>.

In-Text: (Pressley)

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APA Citation:

Pressley, J. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bardweb.net/man.html

In-Text: (Pressley)

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URL:

http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/122

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Sample:

“William Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564, in Stratford-on-Avon. The son of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden, he was probably educated at the King Edward IV Grammar School in Stratford, where he learned Latin and a little Greek and read the Roman dramatists. At eighteen, he married Anne Hathaway, a woman seven or eight years his senior. Together they raised two daughters: Susanna, who was born in 1583, and Judith (whose twin brother died in boyhood), born in 1585.”

MLA Citation:

“William Shakespeare”. poets.org. Academy of American Poets, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/122>.

In-Text: (“William Shakespeare”)

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APA Citation:

William Shakespeare. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/122

In-Text: (William Shakespeare)

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URL:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/nov/18/yossarian-slept-here-erica-heller-review?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487

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“Heller owed it all to one novel, published by Simon & Schuster on 10 October 1961; copies cost $5.95, in a print run of 7,500. Erica Heller, in her memoir of her father, calls it simply “the book”. Tracy Daugherty, in his biography (Just One Catch: The Passionate Life of Joseph Heller, Robson Press, £25), traces the trajectory towards its publication: how Catch-22 became catch-22. Erica is concerned more with the consequences: how Catch-22 became a catch-22.”

MLA Citation:

Sanson, Ian. “Yossarian Slept Here by Erica Heller — Review”. guardian.co.uk. The Guardian, 18 Nov. 2011. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/nov/18/yossarian-slept-here-erica-heller-review?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487>.

In-Text: (Sanson)

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APA Citation:

Sanson, I. (18 Nov 2011). Yossarian Slept Here by Erica Heller — Review. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/nov/18/yossarian-slept-here-erica-heller-review?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487

In-Text: (Sanson)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/10/catch-22-50-years-joseph-heller

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“The Catch-22 itself is a bureaucratic idiocy so sublime it leaves you staring out the window with wonder. As many of you will already know, the novel is set on a made-up island off the coast of Italy during the second world war, where an American bombing group is stationed. Desperate to impress his superiors, Colonel Cathcart keeps raising the number of missions his men have to fly. Our hero, Yossarian, has flown 50. Driven half-mad by his will to live, he wants out. But he’s thwarted by Catch-22, a clause which states that pilots don’t have to fly if they are certified as insane, but that being driven mad by fear is fundamentally rational. As it’s described in the novel: “Orr would be crazy to fly more missions and sane if he didn’t, but if he was sane he had to fly them. If he flew them he was crazy and didn’t have to; but if he didn’t want to he was sane and had to.” The result, put simply, is that no one can get off the ride.”

MLA Citation:

Cox, Chris. “Catch-22: 50 Years Later”. guardian.co.uk. The Guardian, 10 Oct. 2011. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/10/catch-22-50-years-joseph-heller>.

In-Text: (Cox)

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APA Citation:

Cox, Chris. (10 Oct, 2011). Catch-22: 50 Years Later. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), fromhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/10/catch-22-50-years-joseph-heller

In-Text: (Cox, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/09/04/joseph-heller-catch-22-50th-anniversary-how-the-novel-changed-america.html

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“Most books disappear quickly down the memory hole. Even powerful literary works rarely outlast their generation. The world moves on and last year’s sensation can seem as dated as yesterday’s papers. For a book to survive half a century it must excite passion in individual readers and touch a nerve in the national psyche. Joseph Heller’s much-loved 1961 novel Catch-22 is just such a book, as unkillable as Yossarian, its stubbornly nay-saying anti-hero. The novel did not take off immediately, despite the publisher’s brilliantly conceived roll-out, but it broke through the following year as a mass-market paperback when young people could afford to buy it. Mixed reviews showed that its farcical deflation of a Mediterranean bombing campaign late in the “good war,” and especially its cartoonish technique, could make it a closed book to many older readers. But word-of-mouth and changing times soon made it a classic.”

MLA Citation:

Dickstein, Morris. “The Catch in ‘Cathc-22′”. thedailybeast.com. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Company LLC, 4 Sep. 2011. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/09/04/joseph-heller-catch-22-50th-anniversary-how-the-novel-changed-america.html>.

In-Text: (Dickstein)

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APA Citation:

Dickstein, M. (4 Sep, 2011). The Catch in “Catch-22”. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/09/04/joseph-heller-catch-22-50th-anniversary-how-the-novel-changed-america.html

In-Text: (Dickstein, 2011)

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Read More Comments Off on Catch-22, Joseph Heller, Great Analysis

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/booksblog/2013/jan/30/rereading-stephen-king-christine

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“Christine is the story of Arnold “Arnie” Cunningham (a name taken from two Happy Days characters), a shortsighted bookish type (a “loser”) who has only one friend and not much of a life. He’s an aching stereotype, but that’s not always a bad thing – as King had shown before – particularly when the stereotype breaks their mould and becomes the hero. So, we accept that he is somewhat nerdy; we accept that his one friend, Dennis, is one of the most hollow characters King has ever written, seemingly existing only to tell Arnie to be careful (and given that he’s the narrator of the book, that’s some going); and we accept that Arnie would see a battered, ruined 1958 Plymouth Fury on his way home from school and just buy it. No ifs or buts: he’s taken in, wanting to be cool, and he falls in love.”

MLA Citation:

Smythe, James. “Rereading Stephen King: week 15 – Christine”. guardian.co.uk. The Guardian, 30 Jan. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/booksblog/2013/jan/30/rereading-stephen-king-christine>.

In-Text: (Smythe)

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APA Citation:

Smythe, J. (30 Jan, 2013). Rereading Stephen King: week 15 – Christine. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/booksblog/2013/jan/30/rereading-stephen-king-christine

In-Text: (Smythe)

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URL:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/jun/22/rereading-stephen-king-the-shining

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“The Shining is the story of Jack Torrance, who is employed as the caretaker of the gargantuan Overlook Hotel in Colorado one winter. Moving his wife, Wendy, and their son, Danny, into it for the season, he hopes to find peace: to finish his writing project, to escape his latent alcoholism, and to stich his fractured family unit together. But when they’re alone, Jack appears to go insane, pushed into fantasy – or hallucination. Eventually, he attacks his family, attempting to kill them in a twisted mirroring of the awful events that, it transpires, occurred in the hotel’s past. This is the story of both King’s 1977 novel and Stanley Kubrick’s film adaptation three years later, but they’re vastly distinctive beasts. For the King fan, however, it’s hard to think of one without the other. The Shining is two stories, both the same, but somehow very different.”

MLA Citation:

Smythe, James. “Rereading Stephen King: week three – The Shining”. gaurdian.co.uk. The Gaurdian, 22 Jun. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/jun/22/rereading-stephen-king-the-shining>.

In-Text: (Smythe)

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APA Citation: 

Smythe, J. (22 Jun, 2012). Rereading Stephen King: week three – The Shining. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/jun/22/rereading-stephen-king-the-shining

In-Text: (Smythe)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/may/24/rereading-stephen-king-carrie

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Sample:

“Structurally it’s a really weird one, with a standard Kingian third-person narrative voice interspersed with extracts from other media: newspaper reports, autobiographies of characters, transcripts of police interviews, that sort of thing. It’s not a structure that entirely works, as the extracts are still slightly too close to King’s standard narrative voice, and are often the worst (read: slowest) parts of the novel. While still reeling from the excitement of some of the third-person sections – particularly the classic prom scene – being dragged somewhere else entirely and presented with an often less-interesting viewpoint isn’t always ideal. (In particular, there’s a series of extracts from Susan Snell’s fake biography; none are very interesting. Apart from anything else, they don’t read like biography: they read like monologues.)”

MLA Citation:

Smythe, James. “Rereading Stephen King: week one – Carrie”. gaurdian.co.uk. The Gaurdian, 24 May. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/may/24/rereading-stephen-king-carrie>.

In-Text: (Smythe)

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APA Citation:

Smythe, J. (24 May, 2012). Rereading Stephen King: week one – Carrie. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/may/24/rereading-stephen-king-carrie

In-Text: (Smythe)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://absoluteshakespeare.com/guides/hamlet/characters/characters.htm

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

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Sample:

“Claudius: The present King of Denmark, King Claudius took Queen Gertrude whom he loves as his queen and wife, much to the consternation of Hamlet who believes his mother has betrayed him and his father’s memory by doing so. Cautious and suspicious, Claudius has courtiers Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and Hamlet’s love interest Ophelia spying on Hamlet for him since as he says, the great ones must be watched. Distrustful of Hamlet and his “madness”, King Claudius has Hamlet deported to England to be killed when he fears he has become a threat.”

MLA Citation:

“Hamlet, Prince of Denmark Characters”. absoluteshakespeare.com. AbsoluteShakespeare.com, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://absoluteshakespeare.com/guides/hamlet/characters/characters.htm>.

In-Text: (“Hamlet, Prince of Denmark”)

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APA Citation:

Hamlet, Prince of Denamrk Characters. (n.d.). Absoluteshakespeare.com. Retrieved from http://absoluteshakespeare.com/guides/hamlet/characters/characters.htm

In-Text: (Absoluteshakespeare.com)

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URL:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/9934731/They-could-be-savage-and-sensual.html

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“Nor the documentary suggests were they quite the blushing virgins we imagine. When Charlotte and Emily stayed in Brussels to improve their French, the former fell passionately in love with her married tutor, Constantin Heger. Although unlikely that the love was consummated, the British Library holds parchment letters ripped up by Heger to avoid detection and carefully sewn back together by his nosy wife, in which Charlotte makes her ardour plain.”

MLA Citation:

Lockyer, Daphne. “‘They could be savage and sensual'”. telegraph.co.uk. Telegraph Media Group, 17 Mar. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/9934731/They-could-be-savage-and-sensual.html>.

In-Text: (Lockyer)

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APA Citation:

Lockyer, Daphne. (17 Mar, 2013). They could be savage and sensual. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/9934731/They-could-be-savage-and-sensual.html

In-Text: (Lockyer, 2013)

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Read More Comments Off on Bronte Sisters, Documentary

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URL:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/bronte_sisters.shtml

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“Charlotte was born on 21 April 1816, Emily on 30 July 1818 and Anne on 17 January 1820 all in Thornton, Yorkshire. They had two sisters, both of whom died in childhood and a brother, Branwell. Their father, Patrick, was an Anglican clergyman who was appointed as the rector of the village of Haworth, on the Yorkshire moors. After the death of their mother in 1821, their Aunt Elizabeth came to look after the family.”

MLA Citation:

“The Brontë Sisters (1818-1855)”. bbc.co.uk. BBC, 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/bronte_sisters.shtml>.

In-Text: (“The Brontë Sisters (1818-1855)”)

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APA Citation:

The Brontë Sisters (1818-1855). 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/bronte_sisters.shtml

In-Text: (The Brontë Sisters (1818-1855), 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1027439,00.html

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“There was another struggle in Miller, who died today at 89: between the polemicist’s need to blame society for its ills and the artist’s gift for discovering shadings, ambiguities, in the best or worst of men — for fleshing caricature into character. Blame runs through Miller’s two early Broadway hits, All My Sons (1947) and Death of a Salesman(1949) like toxic waste in a sylvan stream. Joe Keller, the munitions manufacturer in the first play, fudges the specs on airplane cylinders; to do otherwise would doom his company and, he thinks, his family. Because of his shortsightedness, other men’s sons die, and Joe pins the crime on his partner. Blame blame, shame shame. Willy Loman is not so black-and-white a figure — at least, not so black — but his compulsion to be accepted, along with his adulteries on the road and his inability to understand his sons, certainly set him up for the audience’s disapproval.”

MLA Citation:

Corliss, Richard. time.com. Time Inc., 11 Feb. 2005.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1027439,00.html>.

In-Text: (Corliss)

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APA Citation:

Corliss, R. (11 Feb, 2005). Death of The Salesman. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1027439,00.html

In-Text: (Corliss, 2005)

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Read More Comments Off on Death of a Salesman, Arthur Miller, Analysis, Biography

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/quotations/famous-quotations-and-stories

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Sample:

” “Never Surrender”

“We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air. We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing-grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender!”

—House of Commons, 4 June 1940, following the evacuation of British and French armies from Dunkirk as the German tide swept through France.”

MLA Citation:

“Famous Quotations and Stories”. winstonchurchill.org. The Churchill Centre and Museum at the Churchill War Rooms, 8 Oct. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/quotations/famous-quotations-and-stories>.

In-Text: (Famous Quotations and Stories)

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APA Citation:

Famous Quotations and Stories. (8 Oct, 2012). Retrieved from http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/quotations/famous-quotations-and-stories

In-Text: (Famous Quotations and Stories)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/biography/biography

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

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Sample:

“He won early fame as a war correspondent, covering the Cuban revolt against Spain (1895), and British campaigns in the Northwest Frontier of India (1897), the Sudan (1898) and South Africa during the Boer War (1899).”

MLA Citation:

Hayward, Steven. “Chart of Achievements.” winstonchurchill.org. The Churchill Centre and Museum at the Churchill War Rooms, 12 May. 2011, http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/biography/biography. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Hayward)

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APA Citation:

Hayward, S. (12 May, 2011). Chart of achievements. The Churchill Centre and Museum at the Churchill War Rooms. Retrieved from http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/biography/biography

In-Text: (Hayward, 2011)

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URL:

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1953/churchill-bio.html

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Sample:

“The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965), the son of Lord Randolph Churchill and an American mother, was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst. After a brief but eventful career in the army, he became a Conservative Member of Parliament in 1900. He held many high posts in Liberal and Conservative governments during the first three decades of the century. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty – a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915. In May, 1940, he became Prime Minister and Minister of Defence and remained in office until 1945. He took over the premiership again in the Conservative victory of 1951 and resigned in 1955. However, he remained a Member of Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election. Queen Elizabeth II conferred on Churchill the dignity of Knighthood and invested him with the insignia of the Order of the Garter in 1953. Among the other countless honours and decorations he received, special mention should be made of the honorary citizenship of the United States which President Kennedy conferred on him in 1963.”

MLA Citation:

“The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953”. nobelprize.org. The Nobel Foundation, 1969.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1953/churchill-bio.html>.

In-Text: (The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953)

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APA Citation:

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953. (1969). Retrieved from http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1953/churchill-bio.html

In-Text: (The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953)

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URL:

http://shakespearean.org.uk/ham1-haz.htm

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Sample:

“Hamlet is a name; his speeches and sayings but the idle coinage of the poet’s brain. What then, are they not real? They are as real as our own thoughts. Their reality is in the reader’s mind. It is we who are Hamlet. This play has a prophetic truth, which is above that of history. Whoever has become thoughtful and melancholy through his own mishaps or those of others; whoever has borne about with him the clouded brow of reflection, and thought himself “too much i’ th’ sun;” whoever has seen the golden lamp of day dimmed by envious mists rising in his own breast, and could find in the world before him only a dull blank with nothing left remarkable in it; whoever has known “the pangs of despised love, the insolence of office, or the spurns which patient merit of the unworthy takes;” he who has felt his mind sink within him, and sadness cling to his heart like a malady, who has had his hopes blighted and his youth staggered by the apparitions of strange things; who cannot well be at ease, while he sees evil hovering near him like a spectre; whose powers of action have been eaten up by thought, he to whom the universe seems infinite, and himself nothing; whose bitterness [75] of soul makes him careless of consequences, and who goes to a play as his best resource is to shove off, to a second remove, the evils of life by a mock representation of them – this is the true Hamlet.”

MLA Citation:

Hazlitt, William. “Characters of Shakespeare’s Plays”. shakespearean.org.uk. n.p., n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://shakespearean.org.uk/ham1-haz.htm>.

In-Text: (Hazlitt)

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APA Citation:

Hazlitt, William. (n.d.). Characters of Shakespear’s Plays. Retrieved from http://shakespearean.org.uk/ham1-haz.htm

In-Text: (Hazlitt, n.d.)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.bartleby.com/200/sw9.html

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Sample:

“FEW critics have even admitted that Hamlet the play is the primary problem, and Hamlet the character only secondary. And Hamlet the character has had an especial temptation for that most dangerous type of critic: the critic with a mind which is naturally of the creative order, but which through some weakness in creative power exercises itself in criticism instead. These minds often find in Hamlet a vicarious existence for their own artistic realization. Such a mind had Goethe, who made of Hamlet a Werther; and such had Coleridge, who made of Hamlet a Coleridge; and probably neither of these men in writing about Hamlet remembered that his first business was to study a work of art. The kind of criticism that Goethe and Coleridge produced, in writing of Hamlet, is the most misleading kind possible. For they both possessed unquestionable critical insight, and both make their critical aberrations the more plausible by the substitution—of their own Hamlet for Shakespeare’s—which their creative gift effects. We should be thankful that Walter Pater did not fix his attention on this play.”

MLA Citation:

Eliot, T.S. Hamlet and His Problems (1921). bartleby.com. Bartleby.com, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bartleby.com/200/sw9.html>.

In-Text: (Eliot)

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APA Citation:

Eliot, T.S. (1921). Hamlet and His Problems. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/200/sw9.html

In-Text: (T.S. Eliot, 1921)

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