Credible Sources for Othello

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699175/

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Sample:

“Sleep themes of insomnia, somnambulism, and nightmares are obvious in Hamlet and Macbeth; however they are evident throughout his work. This paper focuses on sleep references in Othello. First performed 400 years ago, Othello is one of Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies. The plot line of love and jealousy is deeply compelling, but there are a surprising number of sleep references embedded in the play that may not be immediately apparent to the casual reader. Instead, we understandably get caught up in the immense drama of the play, but sleep themes are there, lurking in every act. It’s not just references to insomnia but to other sleep problems—themes of domination through sleep deprivation, themes of sexual parasomnias, and themes of adverse effects of stress on sleep and the difficulty of treating insomnia. This paper will examine these passages and place them in the context of contemporary sleep medicine research.”

Description:

Article analyzing the themes and use of sleep and sleep deprivation by Shakespeare and his well-known play, Othello, in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. According to this article, sleep themes are apparent in much of Shakespeare’s work, like Hamlet and Macbeth, but also important in Othello.

Author(s):

  • Joel E. Dimsdale

Title:

  • Sleep in Othello

Publisher:

  • Journal: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 3

Date:

  • June 15 2009

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/critical-approaches-to-othello

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Sample:

“Othello was crafted at the dawn of the 17th century, shaped by complex social and geopolitical issues that new historicist critics, who seek to place literary works within a historical framework, have recently sought to unravel. Yet from its first staging to the present, Othello has also been among the few Shakespearean plays to be repeatedly staged to enthusiastic audiences, not only in England, but across the globe. This continuing appeal suggests that the tragedy transcends the time and location in which it was written, provoking new interpretations from generation to generation, place to place. In order to fully appreciate Othello, we need to see it in its multifaceted historical context – then – and consider the myriad ways it speaks to audiences now.”

Description:

Professor and Author Virginia Mason Vaughan looks at 4 recent critical approaches to Othello: feminist, new historicist, marxist and post-colonial. This source is published by the British Library, an excellent resource for analysis of English literature.

Author(s):

  • Virginia Mason Vaughan

Title:

  • Critical approaches to Othello

Publisher:

  • British Library

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ells/article/view/64746/34906

DOI: 10.5539/ells.v6n4p75

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Sample:

“The concept of evil has been researched since the Medieval era, leading to the conclusion that human beings have the freedom to choose good from bad, or evil from good. The origin of evil based on the religious teachings is Satan, who is described as the Rebel Angel, as explained by Dante in The Divine Comedy (Alighieri, 1957). Satan tempts human beings into sinning, as revenge against God for placing him in Hell. Based on the psychological point of view developed by Sigmund Freud, the source of evil is id which is distinctive (Freud, 1966). Villain motivations are driven by the tendency of the ego to make realistic decisions about meeting the unrealistic and unreasonable desires by the id. The other aspect that motivates villain actions include jealousy, anger and revenge, as indicated in the play. Shakespeare presents the villain character perfectly in his play Othello (1604) through Iago, whose main focus in life is to destroy others “So will I turn her virtue into pitch And out of her own goodness make the net That shall enmesh them all” (Shakespeare, 1993, p. 99). Through his manipulative skills, he makes the other characters trust him “Iago most honest” (Shakespeare, 1993, p. 75) and then fuel conflicts among them. Iago is motivated by anger, revenge and jealousy to commit the evil acts.”

Description:

Article on the concept of the ‘villain’ in Othello through the antagonist, Iago, who is “motivated by anger, revenge and jealousy to commit the evil acts.”

Author(s):

  • Marwan Alqaryouti and Ala Eddin Sadeq.

Title:

  • The Concept of Villain in Shakespeare’s Othello

Publisher:

  • Journal: English Language and Literature Studies, Vol. 6, No. 4

Date:

  • 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/racism-misogyny-and-motiveless-malignity-in-othello

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“Anyone who doubts that Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies were written from an imaginative standpoint far ahead of his time need only think of Othello. The basic idea of the play is so well known that it’s easy to forget the startling boldness of Shakespeare’s decision to take Cinthio’s brief tale of a doomed mixed-race marriage and transform it into a heart-breaking tragedy. In a country where few people outside London would ever have seen a black person, and centuries before the problems that fuel the tragedy became as ubiquitous and pressing as they are today, Shakespeare produced in Othello a searing critique of racial and sexual injustice, which is more powerful now in the 21st century than it could ever have been at the dawn of the 17th.

The tragic sequence of events is triggered by the elopement of Othello and Desdemona. The fact that they are obliged to elope makes the illicit nature of their relationship in the eyes of Venice immediately clear. But in their eyes and in Shakespeare’s there’s nothing illicit about their love, to which they regard themselves, and the play regards them, as fully entitled. Undeterred by the paternal wrath and widespread disapproval they are bound to incur, Othello and Desdemona act as if a black man from Africa and an upper-class white woman from Venice have every right to fall in love, marry and be left to live happily together. They act, in other words, as if they were already free citizens of a truly civilized future, instead of prisoners of a time when racial prejudice and sexual inequality are so ingrained that even their heroic hearts are tainted by them.”

Description:

Article from the British Library exploring the themes of racism and misogyny in Shakespeare’s well-known and ahead-of-its-time play, Othello. This article discusses how much of a force racism was in Othello as well as the society and time it is set in, as well as discussing how progressive Shakespeare was in presenting the love between an interracial couple at that time.

Author:

Kiernan Ryan

Title:

Racism, misogyny and ‘motiveless malignity’ in Othello

Publisher:

British Library

Citations:

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