How Technology Makes Bullying (Cyberbullying) More Harmful –



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“Although research is consistent that traditional bullying andharassment is more prevalent, experts note that technology-based bullying and harassment may be more distressing to victims because online harassers have the ability to post pictures or videos, anonymously to widespread audiences; the aggression can reach targets at any time of the day and night, including in their homes; more people may see and join in the harassment; and youth may have difficulty removing negative content or stopping the harassment once it is online (Dempsey et al., 2009; Fredstrom et al., 2011; Kowalski & Limber, 2007; Mishna et al., 2009; Sticca & Perren, 2013). Although these are testable hypotheses, so far they have not been the focus of much empirical study. One comparative study found that after controlling for traditional or school-based victimization, electronic victimization was still predictive of problems with self-esteem, anxiety, and depression (Fredstrom et al., 2011), and others have found some differences in the relationship patterns between perpetration and victimization and psychosocial outcomes, depending on whether the harassment was traditional or used new technology (Kowalski & Limber, 2013; Wang, Nansel, & Iannotti, 2011). There is also evidence that youth who are victims of multiple types of peer harassment, including technology-based harassment, report depression, injury and medical concerns at higher rates than traditional victims (Wang et al., 2010).”

MLA Citation:

Mitchell, Kimberly J., Lisa M. Jones, Heather A. Turner, Anne Shattuck, and Janis Wolak. “The Role of Technology in Peer Harassment: Does It Amplify Harm for Youth?” American Psychological Association, 1 Jun. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <>.

In-Text: (Mitchell et al.)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Mitchell, K. J., Jones, L. M., Turner, H. A., Shattuck, A., & Wolak, J. (2015, June 1). The Role of
Technology in Peer Harassment: Does It Amplify Harm for Youth?. Psychology of Violence.

In-Text: (Mitchell, Jones, Turner, Shattuck, & Wolak, 2015)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

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