Credible Sources for

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2709326/

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Sample:

“Every year, worldwide, about 42 million women with unintended pregnancies choose abortion, and nearly half of these procedures, 20 million, are unsafe. Some 68,000 women die of unsafe abortion annually, making it one of the leading causes of maternal mortality (13%). Of the women who survive unsafe abortion, 5 million will suffer long-term health complications. Unsafe abortion is thus a pressing issue. Both of the primary methods for preventing unsafe abortion—less restrictive abortion laws and greater contraceptive use—face social, religious, and political obstacles, particularly in developing nations, where most unsafe abortions (97%) occur. Even where these obstacles are overcome, women and health care providers need to be educated about contraception and the availability of legal and safe abortion, and women need better access to safe abortion and postabortion services. Otherwise, desperate women, facing the financial burdens and social stigma of unintended pregnancy and believing they have no other option, will continue to risk their lives by undergoing unsafe abortions.”

Description:

Study reviewing data of unsafe abortions by region, as well as the effect of things like abortion laws, access to contraception, and the health consequences.

Author(s):

  • Lisa B Haddad and Nawal M Nour

Title:

  • Unsafe Abortion: Unnecessary Maternal Mortality

Publisher:

  • Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Date:

  • 2009

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3395931/

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Sample:

Objective

Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study.

Method

278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study.

Results

The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively.

Conclusion

Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women’s health impact on family and population health.”

Description:

Study on the psychological consequences of having an abortion and analysis of the data.

Author(s):

  • Abolghasem Pourreza and Aziz Batebi

Title:

  • Psychological Consequences of Abortion among the Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

Publisher:

  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 6, No. 1

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.guttmacher.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/journals/3711005.pdf

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Sample:

“CONTEXT:Understanding women’s reasons for having abortions can inform public debate and policy regarding abortion and unwanted pregnancy. Demographic changes over the last two decades highlight the need for a reassessment of why women decide to have abortions. METHODS: In 2004, a structured survey was completed by 1,209 abortion patients at 11 large providers, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 38 women at four sites. Bivariate analyses examined differences in the reasons for abortion across subgroups, and multivariate logistic regression models assessed associations between respondent characteristics and reported reasons. RESULTS: The reasons most frequently cited were that having a child would interfere with a woman’s education, work or ability to care for dependents (74%); that she could not afford a baby now (73%); and that she did not want to be a single mother or was having relationship problems (48%). Nearly four in 10 women said they had completed their childbearing, and almost one-third were not ready to have a child. Fewer than 1% said their parents’ or partners’ desire for them to have an abortion was the most important reason. Younger women often reported that they were unprepared for the transition to motherhood, while older women regularly cited their responsibility to dependents. CONCLUSIONS: The decision to have an abortion is typically motivated by multiple, diverse and interrelated reasons. The themes of responsibility to others and resource limitations, such as financial constraints and lack of partner support, recurred throughout the study.”

Description:

Article on studies conducted on why women in the U.S. have abortions in 1987 and 2004, using quantitative and qualitative analysis.

Author(s):

  •  Lawrence B. Finer, Lori F. Frohwirth, Lindsay A. Dauphinee, Susheela Singh and Ann M. Moore

Title:

  • Reasons U.S. Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives

Publisher:

  • Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Volume 37, Number 3

Date:

  • September 2005

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5402385/

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Sample:

“Induced abortion accounts for 1 in 8 of approximately 600000 maternal deaths that occur annually worldwide (1, 2).

According to the WHO estimation, each year about 44 million induced abortions occur globally. About fifty percent of these abortions are unsafe, contributing substantially to maternal morbidity and approximately leading to 13 % of maternal mortality (3, 4).

The induced abortion rate varies considerably. It was approximated 12 per 1000 women aged 15-44 years old in Western Europe, comparing to 43 in Eastern Europe (5). The induced abortion rate is even higher in countries like Uganda, where there were 54 induced abortions per 1000 women in 2003 (6). Evidence shows the induced abortions are more likely in countries in which abortion is illegal or restricted compared to those liberated (5). The majority (98 %) of unsafe abortions occur in developing countries with low level socio-economic state (1, 4, 7). Induced abortion rate can be considered as one of the indicators for assessing availability of the appropriate reproductive health plans for women (5) and to identify needs for appropriate related health policies and programs (1). Aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on induced abortion rate worldwide.”

Description:

Detailed meta-analysis of induced abortion rates recorded in 38 studies at local, national, and continental levels. Study provides information on induced abortion rates by country and demographic.

Author(s):

  • Saeed Dastgiri, Maryam Yoosefian, Mehraveh Garjani, and Leila R Kalankesh

Title:

  • Induced Abortion: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Publisher:

  • Materia Socio-Medica

Date:

  • March 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.thetrace.org/2015/08/gun-deaths-charleston-chattanooga-lafayette/

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Sample:

“In the 37 days between the shootings in Charleston and Lafayette, at least 1,433 people were killed with a gun in the United States. On July 23, when a man with a checkered history opened fire in a Louisiana movie theater with a legally-purchased handgun, there were a total of 67 shooting incidents. Twenty-eight people died.

In the wake of this year’s most recent mass shootings, the daily tally of gun violence victims continues to rise, particularly in our nation’s urban centers. In Baltimore — which in July suffered the deadliest month in more than four decades, with 45 homicides — 11 people were shot last weekend, three of them fatally. In New York City, where the number of gun injuries and deaths has dropped dramatically since a period of violence spanning the 1970s through the 1990s, as many as 22 people were shot from Friday to Sunday.”

Description:

This article analyzes data showing a high-frequency of gun-related violence and deaths during a short period in 2015 between the high-profile Charleston and Lafayette shootings.

Author(s):

  • Jennifer Mascia and Emily Fuhrman

Title:

  • At Least 1,433 People Were Killed With a Gun in the U.S. Between the Charleston and Lafayette Shootings

Publisher:

  • The Trace

Date:

  • August 4, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/trump-signs-bill-revoking-obama-era-gun-checks-people-mental-n727221

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Sample:

“President Donald Trump quietly signed a bill into law Tuesday rolling back an Obama-era regulation that made it harder for people with mental illnesses to purchase a gun.

The rule, which was finalized in December, added people receiving Social Security checks for mental illnesses and people deemed unfit to handle their own financial affairs to the national background check database.

Had the rule fully taken effect, the Obama administration predicted it would have added about 75,000 names to that database.

President Barack Obama recommended the now-nullified regulation in a 2013 memo following the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, which left 20 first graders and six others dead. The measure sought to block some people with severe mental health problems from buying guns.”

Description:

Article detailing the repeal of an Obama-era rule that requires background checks including data on individuals with mental disabilities.

Author(s):

  • Ali Vitali

Title:

  • Trump Signs Bill Revoking Obama-Era Gun Checks for People With Mental Illnesses

Publisher:

  • NBC News

Date:

  • February 28, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2729620/

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Sample:

“In the past two years alone, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued alerts concerning suicidal ideation linked to the drug varenicline (Chantix®) as well as to numerous antiepileptic drugs. Meanwhile, the antiobesity drug rimonabant (Accomplia®)—not yet available in the US—was given a vote of no confidence by an FDA advisory panel, owing in part to the drug’s association with suicidality. All this occurs against the backdrop of intense controversy surrounding newer antidepressants and their possible association with increased suicidal ideation in a small percentage of younger patients.

The notion of a “depressogenic” drug is hardly new to medical practitioners. More than a half century ago, Freis first reported on “mental depression” in association with the antihypertensive drug, reserpine. And in his classic, Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), the English scholar Robert Burton identified alcohol as one cause of melancholy. Indeed, if alcohol is considered a drug, the concept of drug-induced depression (DID) may be traced to antiquity: In the Old Testament, for example, we read: “Who has woe? Who has sorrow? …Those who tarry long over wine…” (Proverbs 23:29–30).

In our own time, numerous medications and classes of medications have been implicated in DID, sometimes called substance-induced depression or drug-related depression. DID has important medical, medicolegal, and commercial implications. Any physician who has observed steroid-related mood swings—either mania or depression—knows that DID can drastically affect a patient’s clinical course. For example, one of us (R.P.) reported a case in which a young woman appeared to develop persistent bipolar mood swings after a single course of corticosteroids for treatment of ulcerative colitis.”

Description:

Peer-reviewed journal article discussing drug-induced depression, what drugs are typically associated with DID, and how difficult it is to establish DID.

Author(s):

  • Donald Rogers and Ronald Pies

Title:

  • General Medical Drugs Associated with Depression

Publisher:

  • Psychiatry

Date:

  • December 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1446422/pdf/11111261.pdf

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Sample:

“OBJECTIVES: This study examined incidence rates of medically identified suicide acts (self-inflicted injuries, either fatal or nonfatal) and case fatality rates by age, sex, race, and method used. METHODS: The authors analyzed data on 10,892 suicides and 57,439 attempted suicides among hospital-admitted individuals in 8 states, along with 6219 attempted suicides among individuals released from emergency departments in 2 states. RESULTS: The 8 states experienced a mean of 11 suicides and 119 attempted suicides per 100,000 residents each year. Groups with high suicide rates were men, the elderly, and Whites; groups with high attempted suicide rates were teenagers, young adults, women, and Blacks and Whites aged 25 to 44 years. Blacks aged 15 to 44 years evidenced high attempted suicide rates undocumented in previous studies. Poisoning and firearm were the most common methods used among those attempting suicide and those completing suicide acts, respectively. The most lethal method was firearm. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of suicides and attempted suicides differ dramatically. Method used is important in the lethality of the act.”

Description:

Study done on available suicide data from 8 states and broken down by race, sex, age and method of attempt to add to existing data on suicidal behavior.

Author(s):

  • Rebecca S. Spicer and Ted R. Miller

Title:

  • Suicide Acts in 8 States: Incidence and Case Fatality Rates by Demographics and Method

Publisher:

  • American Journal of Public Health

Date:

  • December 2000

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/african-american-mental-health

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Sample:

“According to the US HHS Office of Minority Health [3]:

  • Adult Black/African Americans are 20 percent more likely to report serious psychological distress than adult whites.
  • Adult Black/African Americans living below poverty are three times more likely to report serious psychological distress than those living above poverty.
  • Adult Black/African Americans are more likely to have feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness than are adult whites.
  • And while Black/African Americans are less likely than white people to die from suicide as teenagers, Black/African Americans teenagers are more likely to attempt suicide than are white teenagers (8.3 percent v. 6.2 percent).”

Description:

Article from Mental Health America covering in detail the increased prevalence of depression in African American communities and what the causes are.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Black & African American Communities and Mental Health

Publisher:

  • Mental Health America

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2395346/

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Sample:

“In this article we discuss the traditional behavioral models of depression and some of the challenges analyzing a phenomenon with such complex and varied features. We present the traditional model and suggest that it does not capture the complexity of the phenomenon, nor do syndromal models of depression that dominate the mainstream conceptualization of depression. Instead, we emphasize ideographic analysis and present depression as a maladaptive dysregulation of an ultimately adaptive elicited emotional response. We emphasize environmental factors, specifically aversive control and private verbal events, in terms of relational frame theory, that may transform an adaptive response into a maladaptive disorder. We consider the role of negative thought processes and rumination, common and debilitating aspects of depression that have traditionally been neglected by behavior analysts.”

Description:

Research article discussing the analysis of depression using traditional behavioral models and the difficulty of it due to the complexity of the disorder.

Author(s):

  • Jonathan W Kanter, Andrew M Busch, Cristal E Weeks, and Sara J Landes

Title:

  • The Nature of Clinical Depression: Symptoms, Syndromes, and Behavior Analysis

Publisher:

  • Association for Behavior Analysis International

Date:

  • 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml

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Sample:

“Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the U.S. Current research suggests that depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.

Depression can happen at any age, but often begins in adulthood. Depression is now recognized as occurring in children and adolescents, although it sometimes presents with more prominent irritability than low mood. Many chronic mood and anxiety disorders in adults begin as high levels of anxiety in children.

Depression, especially in midlife or older adults, can co-occur with other serious medical illnesses, such as diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and Parkinson’s disease. These conditions are often worse when depression is present. Sometimes medications taken for these physical illnesses may cause side effects that contribute to depression. A doctor experienced in treating these complicated illnesses can help work out the best treatment strategy.”

Description:

Overview of depression from the National Institutes of Health with information on the effects of depression, what causes it, and how it is treated.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Depression

Publisher:

  • National Institutes of Mental Health

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC474733/

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Sample:

“Millions of Americans suffer from clinical depression each year. Most depressed patients first seek treatment from their primary care providers. Generally, depressed patients treated in primary care settings receive pharmacologic therapy alone. There is evidence to suggest that the addition of cognitive-behavioral therapies, specifically exercise, can improve treatment outcomes for many patients. Exercise is a behavioral intervention that has shown great promise in alleviating symptoms of depression. The current review discusses the growing body of research examining the exercise-depression relationship that supports the efficacy of exercise as an adjunct treatment. Databases searched were Medline, PsycLit, PubMed, and SportsDiscus from the years 1996 through 2003. Terms used in the search were clinical depression, depression, exercise, and physical activity. Further, because primary care physicians deliver important mental health services to the majority of depressed patients, several specific recommendations are made regarding counseling these patients on the adoption and maintenance of exercise programs.

Depression affects roughly 9.5% of the U.S. adult population each year, and it is estimated that approximately 17% of the U.S. population will suffer from a major depressive episode at some point in their lifetime. Depression has been ranked as the leading cause of disability in the United States, with over $40 billion being spent each year on lost work productivity and medical treatment related to this illness. Recent research suggests that between the years of 1987 and 1997, the rate of outpatient treatment for depression in the United States tripled and that health care costs related to this disorder continue to rise.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of studies done on exercise as a treatment for depression showing that, while more research is needed, there is evidence exercise can help.

Author(s):

  • Lynette L. Craft and Frank M. Perna

Title:

  • The Benefits of Exercise for the Clinically Depressed

Publisher:

  • The Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

Date:

  • 2004

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2017/04/27/peds.2016-2615

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Sample:

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bullying is a significant public health concern, and it has received considerable attention from the media and policymakers over the past decade, which has led some to believe that it is increasing. However, there are limited surveillance data on bullying to inform our understanding of such trends over the course of multiple years. The current study examined the prevalence of bullying and related behaviors between 2005 and 2014 and explored whether any such changes varied across schools or as a function of school-level covariates.”

CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of bullying and related behaviors generally decreased over this 10-year period with the most recent years showing the greatest improvements in school climate and reductions in bullying. Additional research is needed to identify factors that contributed to this declining trend.”

Description:

Results from a 10-year study conducted in Maryland schools shows a decrease in bullying behaviors and increase in school environment for grades 4-12.

Author(s):

  • Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Elise T. Pas, Benjamin Zablotsky, Catherine P. Bradshaw

Title:

  • Ten-Year Trends in Bullying and Related Attitudes Among 4th- to 12th-Graders

Publisher:

  • Pediatrics

Date:

  • May, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/20th-century-literature/articles/nineteen-eighty-four-and-the-politics-of-dystopia

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Sample:

“One of the crucial questions about Nineteen Eighty-Four is whether Orwell is interested in the potential for opposition to the totalitarian state, or if his last book offers only despair. Orwell lived just long enough – he died in January 1950 – to see his book appropriated by right-wing political forces for the defence of American freedom, against which he protested in vain. This was the beginning of a long dispute over the interpretation of the book, which shows no sign of ending. Is it an anti-communist rant of a comrade who betrayed the cause? Or is it principally anti-fascist, a chilling realisation of the totalitarian imaginings of the German or Italian fascist state? But perhaps the book was anti-capitalist too, since one of the biggest influences on Orwell was James Burnham’s critique of the rise of a ‘managerialist’ class in both East and West, Russia and America, that would see technocrats overwhelm democratic institutions in the future?[2] Is it a humanist lament that is so despairing that it ends up building a monument to anti-humanism? Nineteen Eighty-Four is a mirror: it is impossible for the reader not to find their own politics reflected, challenged or distorted in its fiercely polished plain prose. This is perhaps why so many towering literary and political critics have ended up engaging with the novel in one way or another.”

Description:

In-depth analysis of the political climate during George Orwell’s life and how that influenced key parts of his well-known dystopian novel, 1984.

Author(s):

  • Roger Luckhurst

Title:

  • Nineteen Eighty Four and the politics of dystopia

Publisher:

  • British Library

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.wired.com/2008/02/does-the-techno/

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Sample:

“We can’t know what George Orwell, author of Nineteen Eighty-Four, would think about his old neighborhood being watched by dozens of cameras. It’s not hard to make an educated guess.

But while the West is a society under surveillance, the novel’s sinister technology goes far beyond CCTV. Science fiction, like Oceania, can tailor technology to an arbitrary vision of reality. Even now, could a totalitarian government craft 1984 as Orwell described it?

Telescreens

Often compared to today’s ubiquitous cameras, Nineteen Eighty-Four’s telescreens were sinister creations: huge, thin, and inherently two-way.”

Description:

Interesting article that compares the tech from George Orwell’s 1984, published in 1949, to the technology of the modern world.

Author(s):

  • Rob Beschizza

Title:

  • Does the Technology of Orwell’s 1984 Really Exist?

Publisher:

  • Wired

Date:

  • February 5, 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-21337504

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Sample:

“For years the question of Orwell’s intentions in Nineteen Eighty-Four has caused great debate.

With a few exceptions on the far left, every political tendency has wanted to claim him. So there has been a well-established and heartfelt desire on the more moderate left to claim that Orwell was indeed a genuine socialist whose warning was aimed at totalitarianism in general, not at the left per se.

The right, of course, have had the easier task of suggesting that Orwell was writing about what he appeared to be writing about. It seems to me that the right probably has the better argument.”

Description:

Article from BBC detailing George Owell’s life and how the geopolitical environment in which he lived and influenced his well-known novel, 1984.

Author(s):

  • David Aaronovitch

Title:

  • 1984: George Orwell’s road to dystopia

Publisher:

  • BBC

Date:

  • February 8th, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/25/books/1984-george-orwell-donald-trump.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“Even outside the United States, interest in “1984” has grown. So far this year, sales have risen by 20 percent in Britain and Australia compared to the same period a year ago, according to Jess Harrison, a London-based editor at Penguin Books. The novel is usually a best-seller, she said, and it sold 100,000 copies last year in English-speaking countries outside the United States and Canada. “But we’ve definitely seen an uplift” in sales, she added.

Dystopian novels are “chiming with people,” Ms. Harrison said, adding that “The Man in the High Castle” by Philip K. Dick, an alternative history in which the Nazis defeated America to win World War II, is also selling well. A television series based on Mr. Dick’s novel is now in its second season at Amazon.”

Description:

Report from NY Times detailing increases in sales of Orwell’s 1984 related to 2016 U.S. Election and Kellyanne Conway ‘alternative facts’ comments.

Author(s):

  • Kimiko de Freytas-Tamura

Title:

  • George Orwell’s ‘1984’ Is Suddenly a Best-Seller

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • January 25, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2013/06/sales-of-orwells-1984-increase-as-details-of-nsa-scandal-emerge/

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Sample:

“Sales of “1984,” George Orwell’s 1949 classic novel about the oppressiveness of government overreach and life in a world where there is no place to escape the watchful eye of Big Brother, have risen more than 3,000 percent on Amazon since the country learned of the U.S. government surveillance programs.

As of noon today, the book was number 5 on the “movers and shakers list,” which represent the biggest gains in sales over the past 24 hours. The book’s sales rank had jumped to 194, from 6,750 Monday.”

Description:

ABC News report on an increase in 1984 book sales after news reports of mass NSA surveillance programs in the U.S. that seem reminiscent of the book’s plot.

Author(s):

  • Alana Abramson

Title:

  • Sales of Orwell’s ‘1984’ Increase as Details of NSA Scandal Emerge

Publisher:

  • ABC News

Date:

  • June 11, 2013

Citations:

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Credible Sources

There is no shortage of research and scientific data on the web showing the effect of human activity on the Earth’s climate, but with so much information available, and from so many different sources, it can be hard for a student to sort through everything to find the sources needed for your research assignments. CRS has compiled a large collection of credible sources around this topic, and in this post we have placed them all in one spot and organized them by the information you can find in each. If you need more research on this topic or another, use the Study Hall to get help from us and other students. (Note: some of the sources below will appear under more than one category, keep that in mind.)

 

The Basics

The following sources cover all the basics of climate change, including the causes and indicators, as well as a great Q&A format post covering the effects of global warming, the Paris Agreement, and whether or not it’s too late save our planet. There are much more in depth sources in this guide, but all of these are great starting points for research. Furthermore, the websites linked to (NASA, National Climatic Data Center) have much more information about global warming, greenhouse gasses, and the science of climate change.

 

Human Activity and Greenhouse Gases

One of the main points of the climate change debate is not whether or not it is really happening (which is now very well-documented), but whether or not it is caused by human activity or simply a naturally occurring process. There is an abundance of evidence below to show how human activity is impacting the Earth’s climate, complete with scientific data, physical evidence in our air and oceans, and how our industries are contributing to the problem (and have been for a long time).

 

Renewable Resources

Renewable energy is one of the most important parts of combating climate change and preventing further damage to the Earth. The sources below provide information on the various types of renewable energy, how they help fight against climate change, and common misunderstandings about renewable energies.

 

Extreme Weather

It would be pretty hard for anyone living in the U.S. to ignore the odd and sometimes extreme weather that has occurred in recent years. With the scientific community frequently stating that global warming and climate change will have negative impacts on our planet, it is quite natural to wonder if we are already seeing these negative impacts in the form of extreme weather events, mild winters, and early springs. Here is all the research you need to determine that for yourself.

 

Benefits of Preventing Climate Change

There is at least one obvious benefit to preventing climate change: saving our planet. There are more, however, which are just as important and beneficial to society. Embracing renewable energy will not only protect our atmosphere but also create an enormous economic sector and an abundance of jobs, while the efficiency of renewable energies will also serve to bring down costs, like those of production and transportation, over time.

 

On Climate Change Denial…

Unfortunately, there are some who disagree with the entire scientific community on the topic of climate change. Whatever the reasons for this, it is a very dangerous misconception and should be addressed. With all of this research, it seems difficult to deny the impact of human activity on our climate and the impact of global warming on our planet, but here are some more sources to specifically address the denial.

Climate Change and the Integrity of ScienceThe above link leads to an article published in the scholarly journal Science published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which argues the questioning of climate change research is equal to doubting the entire scientific community. It is signed by dozens of scientists and researchers, and it may in fact be the most concisely written argument against climate change denial that exists today.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/the-cost-of-punishment.aspx

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Sample:

“Many state-initiated analyses—including reports from Michigan, New Mexico and South Dakota—have found administering capital punishment is significantly more expensive than housing prisoners for life without parole.

A study released last month found California has spent more than $4 billion on capital punishment since 1978, executing 13 criminals. That’s about $184 million more a year than life sentences would have cost.

Much of the cost results from litigating numerous appeals during the convict’s time on death row, where the average inmate spends 13 years prior to execution.

This lengthy process also influenced Bateman’s decision to sponsor an abolishment bill. “I spoke to many families who went through trying emotional times during the appeals for death row inmates,” he says. “Transferring an inmate from death row to life without parole allows for the aggrieved families to have a sense of calmness in their life without having to relive the tragic events over and over again.” “

Description:

Article from the National Conference of State Legislatures examining the cost of the death penalty and situations where states have stopped its use.

Author(s):

  • Richard Williams

Title:

  • The Cost of Punishment: July/August 2011

Publisher:

  • National Conference of State Legislatures

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/16/executions-state-by-state/

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Sample:

 

StateExecutions in 1991Total
Utah03
Florida227
Nevada05
Indiana02
Texas542
Virginia213
Alabama08
Georgia115
Louisiana120
Mississippi04
North Carolina14
South Carolina14
Missouri16
Oklahoma01
Arkansas02
Illinois01

Description:

Interactive chart showing the number of executions in each state by year, provided by Pew Research Center.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Number of Executions in Each State Since 1977

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • April 16, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/racial-discrimination-and-capital-punishment-the-indefensible-death-sentence-of-duane-buck

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Sample:

“Racial discrimination is unavoidable in considering the Texas death-penalty case of Duane Buck. In the campaign to reduce his punishment from execution to life in prison, the Inc. Fund has been prominent and tenacious, because the discrimination in his case is blatant. Buck was convicted of murdering two women in 1996. He was sentenced to death in 1997. To sentence an offender to death under Texas law, a jury must unanimously conclude that the defendant is likely to commit future criminal acts of violence. In the Buck case, a psychologist named Walter Quijano provided evidence to that effect. Before trial, he claimed in a report that Buck was more likely to be dangerous because he is black. He wrote, “Race. Black. Increased probability.”

Major studies have disproved the long-standing, prejudicial assumption of a link between race and dangerousness. In 2000, the Texas attorney general said that asserting that connection was both false and unconstitutional. In the case of Victor Hugo Saldaño, who was found guilty of murder, the Supreme Court vacated his death sentence and sent the matter back to a Texas court for a new sentencing hearing at the request of the attorney general. “My position in this matter is taken with full respect and empathy for the suffering experienced by victims of crime and their families,” he said. “But the public cannot have confidence in a criminal justice system if race is going to be considered at all in determining whether the ultimate penalty will be given.” He pledged that in the Buck case and six others, “in which testimony was offered by Dr. Quijano that race should be a factor for the jury to consider in making its determination about the sentence in a capital murder trial,” there would be new and fair sentencing hearings.”

Description:

Piece from The New Yorker which details through multiple criminal cases that the U.S. justice system unfairly favored the death penalty for black men.

Author(s):

  • Lincoln Caplan

Title:

  • Racial Discrimination and Capital Punishment: The Indefensible Death Sentence of Duane Buck

Publisher:

  • The New Yorker

Date:

  • April 20, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/09/29/support-for-death-penalty-lowest-in-more-than-four-decades/

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Sample:

“Only about half of Americans (49%) now favor the death penalty for people convicted of murder, while 42% oppose it. Support has dropped 7 percentage points since March 2015, from 56%. Public support for capital punishment peaked in the mid-1990s, when eight-in-ten Americans (80% in 1994) favored the death penalty and fewer than two-in-ten were opposed (16%). Opposition to the death penalty is now the highest it has been since 1972.

Though support for the death penalty has declined across most groups, a Pew Research Center survey conducted Aug. 23-Sept. 2 among 1,201 adults finds that most Republicans continue to largely favor its use in cases of murder, while most Democrats oppose it. By more than two-to-one, more Republicans (72%) than Democrats (34%) currently favor the death penalty.”

Description:

Survey data showing Americans’ support for the death penalty in 2016 is lower than any other time since 1970, and among lowest in history.

Author(s):

  • Baxter Oliphant

Title:

  • Support for death penalty lowest in more than four decades

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • September 29, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cnn.com/2015/08/25/health/us-canada-obesity-rates/

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Sample:

“Rates of obesity among children and teenagers in the U.S. have increased substantially more than in Canada since the late 1970s, according to a new report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Although the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. is well known, this report shines a light on how we compare to our neighbors to the north, said Cynthia L. Ogden, an epidemiologist at the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics and lead author of the new study.

The report found that, whereas the obesity rate among children between 3 and 19 was about 5% in both the U.S. and Canada in the late 1970s, it rose to 17.5% in the U.S. by 2012 and only 13% in Canada by 2013. However in both countries, the rates have leveled off in the last 10 years.”

Description:

CNN report of a study done on obesity rates in children in the U.S. and Canada, showing rates climbed faster in the U.S. since 1980.

Author(s):

  • Carina Storrs

Title:

  • U.S. kids outweigh Canadian kids, says study

Publisher:

  • CNN

Date:

  • August 25, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-trends/global-obesity-trends-in-children/

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Sample:

“Obesity rates are higher in adults than in children. But in relative terms, the U.S., Brazil, China, and other countries have seen the problem escalate more rapidly in children than in adults. (5)

Of course, some regions still struggle mightily with child hunger, such as Southeastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. (6) But globalization has made the world wealthier, and wealth and weight are linked.

As poor countries move up the income scale and switch from traditional diets to Western food ways, obesity rates rise. (7) One result of this so-called “nutrition transition” is that low- and middle-income countries often face a dual burden: the infectious diseases that accompany malnutrition, especially in childhood, and, increasingly, the debilitating chronic diseases linked to obesity and Western lifestyles.”

Description:

Report from Harvard with Childhood Obesity data from various countries in every continent and discussing the different effects obesity has in each region.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Child Obesity

Publisher:

  • Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-foodlobby-idUSBRE83Q0ED20120427

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Sample:

“After aggressive lobbying, Congress declared pizza a vegetable to protect it from a nutritional overhaul of the school lunch program this year. The White House kept silent last year as Congress killed a plan by four federal agencies to reduce sugar, salt and fat in food marketed to children.

And during the past two years, each of the 24 states and five cities that considered “soda taxes” to discourage consumption of sugary drinks has seen the efforts dropped or defeated.

At every level of government, the food and beverage industries won fight after fight during the last decade. They have never lost a significant political battle in the United States despite mounting scientific evidence of the role of unhealthy food and children’s marketing in obesity.”

Description:

Special report from Reuters highlighting how the food industry’s lobbying has prevented regulations aimed at improving public health, especially in kids.

Author(s):

  • Duff Wilson and Janet Roberts

Title:

  • Special Report: How Washington went soft on childhood obesity

Publisher:

  • Reuters

Date:

  • April 27, 2012

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/childhood-obesity/symptoms-causes/dxc-20268891

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Sample:

  • Family factors. If your child comes from a family of overweight people, he or she may be more likely to put on weight. This is especially true in an environment where high-calorie foods are always available and physical activity isn’t encouraged.
  • Psychological factors. Personal, parental and family stress can increase a child’s risk of obesity. Some children overeat to cope with problems or to deal with emotions, such as stress, or to fight boredom. Their parents may have similar tendencies.
  • Socioeconomic factors. People in some communities have limited resources and limited access to supermarkets. As a result, they may opt for convenience foods that don’t spoil quickly, such as frozen meals, crackers and cookies. In addition, people who live in lower income neighborhoods might not have access to a safe place to exercise.

Description:

Informational page on Childhood Obesity from the Mayo Clinic with details about causes and symptoms, and links to info on diagnosis and treatment.

Author(s):

  • Mayo Clinic Staff

Title:

  • Childhood obesity

Publisher:

  • Mayo Clinic

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3161123/

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Sample:

“Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, proposed in 1943, has been one of the most cognitively contagious ideas in the behavioral sciences. Anticipating later evolutionary views of human motivation and cognition, Maslow viewed human motives as based in innate and universal predispositions. We revisit the idea of a motivational hierarchy in light of theoretical developments at the interface of evolutionary biology, anthropology, and psychology. After considering motives at three different levels of analysis, we argue that the basic foundational structure of the pyramid is worth preserving, but that it should be buttressed with a few architectural extensions. By adding a contemporary design feature, connections between fundamental motives and immediate situational threats and opportunities should be highlighted. By incorporating a classical element, these connections can be strengthened by anchoring the hierarchy of human motives more firmly in the bedrock of modern evolutionary theory. We propose a renovated hierarchy of fundamental motives that serves as both an integrative framework and a generative foundation for future empirical research.”

Description:

The authors discuss how best to modify Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs with modern psychology and anthropology while keeping the basis intact.

Author(s):

  • Douglas T. Kenrick, Vladas Griskevicius, Steven L. Neuberg, and Mark Schaller

Title:

  • Renovating the Pyramid of Needs: Contemporary Extensions Built Upon Ancient Foundations

Publisher:

  • Perspectives on Psychological Science

Date:

  • May 2010

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123518/

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Sample:

“Those against, contend that the benefit to humans does not justify the harm to animals. Many people also believe that animals are inferior to humans and very different from them, hence results from animals cannot be applied to humans. Those in favor of animal testing argue that experiments on animals are necessary to advance medical and biological knowledge. Claude Bernard, known as the father of physiology, stated that “experiments on animals are entirely conclusive for the toxicology and hygiene of man. The effects of these substances are the same on man as on animals, save for differences in degree”. Bernard established animal experimentation as part of the standard scientific method.

Drug testing using animals became important in the twentieth century. In 1937, a pharmaceutical company in the USA created a preparation of sulfanilamide, using diethylene glycol (DEG) as a solvent, and called the preparation ‘Elixir Sulfanilamide’. DEG was poisonous to humans, but the company’s chief pharmacist and chemist was not aware of this. He simply added raspberry flavoring to the sulfa drug, which he had dissolved in DEG, and the company marketed the product. The preparation led to mass poisoning causing the deaths of more than a hundred people. No animal testing was done. The public outcry caused by this incident and other similar disasters led to the passing of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requiring safety testing of drugs on animals before they could be marketed.”

Description:

Article discussing the importance of animal test subjects to medicinal research and current efforts to limit such tests and make them safer.

Author(s):

  • Rachel Hajar

Title:

  • Animal Testing and Medicine

Publisher:

  • Heart Views

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2254450/

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Sample:

“Animal models are widely recognized as being essential to the progress of medical science. In countering the critics’ arguments of the use of animals in medicine, one statement has acquired almost talismanic importance:

‘Virtually every medical achievement of the last century has depended directly or indirectly on research with animals.’

In this essay, the origins and justification of this oft-repeated statement are examined. Despite its endorsement by leading academic bodies, it is far from clear that the statement has been, or even could be, formally validated.”

Description:

In this article the author decides to examine the claim that “Virtually every medical achievement of the last century has depended directly or indirectly on research with animals,” which is often cited when justifying the continued use of animal models in science.

Author(s):

  • Robert AJ Matthews

Title:

  • Medical progress depends on animal models – doesn’t it?

Publisher:

  • Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine

Date:

  • February 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/experiments_1.shtml

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Sample:

“Animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products.

Many of these experiments cause pain to the animals involved or reduce their quality of life in other ways.

If it is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer then experimenting on animals produces serious moral problems.

Animal experimenters are very aware of this ethical problem and acknowledge that experiments should be made as humane as possible.

They also agree that it’s wrong to use animals if alternative testing methods would produce equally valid results.”

Description:

BBC article exploring the ethics of animal experimenting to determine if it is actually humane or effective to conduct experiments on animals.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Experimenting on animals

Publisher:

  • BBC

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594046/

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Sample:

“Nonhuman animal (“animal”) experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.”

Description:

Scholarly article discussing what merit there is to using animal testing for healthcare treatment, concluding it can be dangerous due to misleading results.

Author(s):

  • Aysha Akhtar

Title:

  • The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation

Publisher:

  • Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics

Date:

  • October 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/15/magazine/the-dream-and-the-myth-of-the-womens-vote.html?_r=0

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Sample:

“When Victoria Woodhull ran for president of the United States, she couldn’t even vote for herself. “If the women can be allowed to vote,” The New York Herald claimed when Woodhull announced her bid in 1870, “Mrs. Woodhull may rely on rolling up the heaviest majority ever polled in this or any other nation.” After all, the paper said, “women always take the part of each other.” The Herald called for passage of a women’s suffrage amendment, and then “victory for Victoria in 1872.”

That was before the sex scandal hit. Woodhull was a divorced woman, and sexual history was already a point of controversy. But soon the papers dredged up a truly salacious item: She once shared her home with both her first and second husbands. Woodhull defended herself in the press. She explained that her family had taken in her alcoholic, disabled ex-husband as an act of charity, not bigamy. But the headlines branded her “disgraced” and called her career “BUSTED.” Woodhull was evicted from her home and forced to withdraw her 11-year-old daughter from school. The cartoonist Thomas Nast literally drew her as the Devil.”

Description:

Article discussing the discrepancy between the idea of the ‘Women’s Vote’ – that will women will vote together – and the reality in the 2016 election.

Author(s):

  • Amanda Hess

Title:

  • The Dream — and the Myth — of the ‘Women’s Vote’

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • November 15, 2016

Citations:

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RESEARCH GUIDE

URL:

http://guides.library.harvard.edu/schlesinger/suffrage

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Sample:

Description:

Thorough and detailed research guide provided by Harvard’s Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, with dozens of links to more useful information.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Women’s Suffrage

Publisher:

  • Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in the America

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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PRIMARY SOURCES

URL:

http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/womens-suffrage/

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What You’ll Find:

Description:

Collection of primary sources from the Women’s Suffrage movement provided by the Library of Congress, including original texts, photos, and an audio file.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Women’s Suffrage

Publisher:

  • Library of Congress

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/docs/sbatrial.html

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Sample:

“As a matter of outward form the defendant was asked if she had anything to say why the sentence of the court should not be pronounced upon her. “Yes, your honor,” replied Miss Anthony, “I have many things to say. My every right, constitutional, civil, political and judicial has been tramped upon. I have not only had no jury of my peers, but I have had no jury at all.” Court—”Sit down Miss Anthony. I cannot allow you to argue the question.” Miss Anthony—”I shall not sit down. I will not lose my only chance to speak.” Court—”You have been tried, Miss Anthony, by the forms of law, and my decision has been rendered by law.” Miss Anthony—”Yes, but laws made by men, under a government of men, interpreted by men and for the benefit of men. The only chance women have for justice in this country is to violate the law, as I have done, and as I shall continue to do,” and she struck her hand heavily on the table in emphasis of what she said. “Does your honor suppose that we obeyed the infamous fugitive slave law which forbade to give a cup of cold water to a slave fleeing from his master? I tell you we did not obey it; we fed him and clothed him, and sent him on his way to Canada. So shall we trample all unjust laws under foot. I do not ask the clemency of the court. I came into it to get justice, having failed in this, I demand the full rigors of the law.” Court—”The sentence of the court is $100 fine and the costs of the prosecution.” Miss Anthony—”I have no money to pay with, but am $10,000 in debt.” Court—”You are not ordered to stand committed till it is paid.””

Description:

3 accounts of remarks given by Susan B. Anthony at her Illegal Voting trial, regarded as “one of the best-known texts in the history of woman suffrage.”

Author(s):

  • Ann D. Gordon (Editor)

Title:

  • Remarks by Susan B. Anthony in the Circuit Court of the United States for the Northern District of New York

Publisher:

  • Rutgers University

Date:

  • 2000

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nps.gov/wori/learn/historyculture/susan-b-anthony.htm

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Sample:

“In 1848 Susan B. Anthony was working as a teacher in Canajoharie, New York and became involved with the teacher’s union when she discovered that male teachers had a monthly salary of $10.00, while the female teachers earned $2.50 a month. Her parents and sister Marry attended the 1848 Rochester Woman’s Rights Convention held August 2.

Anthony’s experience with the teacher’s union, temperance and antislavery reforms, and Quaker upbringing, laid fertile ground for a career in women’s rights reform to grow. The career would begin with an introduction to Elizabeth Cady Stanton.”

Description:

Biography of Susan B. Anthony from the National Parks Service detailing how she discovered disproportionate pay for men and women.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Susan B. Anthony

Publisher:

  • National Parks Service

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/biography/biographies/susan-brownell-anthony/

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Sample:

“At age 26 Anthony began working as a teacher. Over the next 15 years, Anthony would not only teach, but advocate for equal pay between male and female teachers and equal access to education regardless of race or gender. She continued her call for equal pay, and in 1870 Anthony helped form and was elected president of the Workingwomen’s Central Association. This organization evaluated working conditions and created educational opportunities for working women. Anthony was also active in the anti-slavery movement, working as an agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society, often making speeches for the cause. Anthony and fellow activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a Women’s National Loyal League in support of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1863. “

Description:

Biography of Susan B. Anthony from the National Women’s History Museum, chronicling her leadership in various advocacy groups and women’s suffrage movement.

Author(s):

  • Jeanette Patrick

Title:

  • Susan Brownell Anthony (1820-1906)

Publisher:

  • National Women’s History Museum

Date:

  • 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3830171/

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Sample:

“Individuals who perceive their bodies negatively with regard to culturally valued features may have low self-esteem, low satisfaction in life and feeling of inferiority and pose themselves at higher risk for depression, anxiety or eating disorders. At the highest level of dissatisfaction, this may result in significant impairment of social, educational and/or occupational functioning. Currently, beautiful is considered good and thinness is synonymous with beauty, which makes it valued by society while its opposite, obesity, is strongly rejected. Although the ideals of female beauty vary as a function of esthetical standards adopted at each time, studies show that women have tried to change their bodies to follow these standards.[5]

Obesity has been identified as one of the rising epidemic across globe with consequential rise of non-communicable diseases including disproportionate health care cost on individuals, family and society. According to latest WHO estimates, 14.4% (male) and 15% (female) adult aged 15 years and above are obese in the world.[6] More than half a billion adults (205 million men and 297 million women over the age of 20 years) world-wide were obese in 2008. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was highest in WHO regions of America and lowest in South-East Asia.[7]

Overweight children, adolescents, and adults generally have lower body esteem than do their normal-weight peers and this is especially true for females.[8] It is generally believed that body image distortion and related consequences is a western societal phenomenon however, it has made its presence felt into diverse culture including developing countries also. With the change in epidemiological shift, India is witnessing simultaneous manifestation of double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease with a challenging and daunting task for stakeholders to identify issues, resolve conflict, mobilize resources and overcome situation with innovative solution and strategies. Considering this background, a cross-sectional descriptive study sought to determine body image satisfaction, a hitherto underexplored arena in our setting. Using body satisfaction described in words, this study also investigated relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables.”

Description:

Study published in the Industrial Psychiatry Journal aiming to measure the body-image satisfaction among female students entering college.

Author(s):

  • Shweta Goswami, Sandeep Sachdeva, and Ruchi Sachdeva

Title:

  • Body image satisfaction among female college students

Publisher:

  • Industrial Psychiatry Journal

Date:

  • 2012

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139177

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Sample:

“Body image is the subjective “picture” that people have of their own body, regardless of how their body actually looks. Body image is a multifaceted construct, consisting of cognitive and affective components (i.e., how people think and feel about their body), perceptual components (i.e., how people perceive the size and shape of their body and body parts), and behavioural components (i.e., the actions that people perform for the purpose of checking on, tending to, altering, or concealing their body). Negative body image is expressed in one or more of the components of body image and is often characterised by a dissatisfaction with appearance and engaging in behaviours such as frequent self-weighing or mirror checking, or avoidance of public situations.

Studies have shown that negative body image can emerge in childhood. Approximately 50% of preadolescent girls and 30% of preadolescent boys dislike their body. In adults, approximately 60% of women and 40% of men have a negative body image, and these rates remain stable across the lifespan. Negative body image contributes to the development and maintenance of body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, and is associated with low self-esteem, depression, social anxiety, and impaired sexual functioning. In addition, negative body image has serious consequences for health behaviours. For instance, negative body image predicts physical inactivity, unhealthy eating, and weight gain, and is associated with unsafe sex, smoking, and skin cancer risk behaviours.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of various interventions meant to improve body image, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, fitness training, media literacy, and others.

Author(s):

  • Jessica M. Alleva, Paschal Sheeran, Thomas L. Webb, Carolien Martijn, Eleanor Miles

Title:

  • A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image

Publisher:

  • PLoS ONE

Date:

  • September 29, 2015

Citations:

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Primary Sources

Below is a list of great websites for finding historical primary sources, ranging from the Constitution to the Civil War and even WWII.  You will be able to find transcripts, text documents, photos, and other important pieces of history to use in your research papers and assignments. Don’t forget to bookmark this page for easy access!

 

Archives.gov

This resource allows you to browse all primary sources available from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, with topics including America’s founding documents, science and technology, and military records. This is one of the most comprehensive places to find primary sources on for America’s history on the web. Here are some examples of what you will find there:

 

The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History

This resource provides an enormous collection of American historical documents ranging from letters, diaries, maps, newspapers, and photos.  The sources found here range from the very beginning of American history, the landing of columbus, to Barack Obama’s first inaugural address. Some examples of what you’ll find include:

 

OurDocuments.gov

This resource provides a long list of primary sources that chronicles American history from 1776 to 1965. The documents listed here include:

 

CivilWar.org

This website is dedicated to information about the American Civil War and provides a thorough list of any primary sources available from that period, including speeches, military correspondence, and photos. Here is some of what you’ll find:

 

Famous-Trials.com

Famous-trials.com is a website operated by professor Douglas O. Linder from the UMKC School of Law. The site provides primary documents and information on many very well-known trials throughout history, going all the way back to the Trial of Socrates, and also most recently covering the George Zimmerman case involving Trayvon Martin. Here are some examples of what you can find here:

 

TeachingAmericanHistory.org

Despite the name of the website, this resource is not just for teachers as it does provide access to many primary sources from American history. The page linked to here lists 50 “core documents that tell America’s story” and include the Declaration of Independence and 1944 State of the Union address. Here is some of what you’ll find:

 

Library of Congress

The Library of Congress is a major record-keeping entity of the U.S. government and contains many documents of all kinds that are important to American history and culture. The link listed above takes you to a page where you can search, or select from the links on the right side of the page to browse be era. Here are those links, for your convenience:

 

Further Resources

The combination of resources above should do well in meeting any students needs for primary sources on topics relating to American history, but there are still many other resources available to access these kinds of documents. Here is a gigantic list of other websites that can provide a wide variety of primary sources:

 

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.aedweb.org/index.php/23-get-involved/position-statements/89-aed-statement-on-body-shaming-and-weight-prejudice-in-public-endeavors-to-reduce-obesity-3

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Sample:

“In summary, eating disorders are biologically-based, serious mental illnesses because:

• There is medical and scientific evidence that anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are as heritable as other psychiatric conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression) that are considered biologically based. • The behaviors of restricting food intake, bingeing and purging have been shown to alter brain structure, metabolism and neurochemistry in ways that make it difficult for individuals to discontinue the behaviors. • Eating disorders are associated with impairment in emotional and cognitive functioning that greatly limits life activities. • Eating disorders are life-threatening illnesses and are associated with numerous medical complications. Mortality rates for anorexia nervosa are the highest of any psychiatric disorder.”

Description:

Position statement from the Academy of Eating Disorders that describes why it eating disorders are considered a “serious” mental illness, as well as the impact of insurers and others in the healthcare industry not classifying it as such.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Position Statement: Eating Disorders are Serious Mental Illnesses

Publisher:

  • Academy for Eating Disorders

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nature.com/articles/nrdp201626

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Sample:

Note: BID is Body Image Distortion and AN is Anorexia Nervosa.

“Findings from an increasing number of functional MRI (fMRI) studies . . . provide valuable insights into the neural basis of BID in AN. Unfortunately, we felt that these issues were not entirely addressed by the Primer, making it difficult to understand the ‘reasonably consistent’ (Ref. 7) evidence produced by this research. The review summarized that the ‘affective’ component of BID in AN is related to alterations of the prefrontal cortex, the insula and the amygdala and that the ‘perceptive’ component of BID is related to alterations of the parietal lobes (which have roles in spatial and body representations, body ownership and other features requiring multisensory integration) or, more accurately, the posterior parietal regions (which are involved in visuospatial processing). A deficit in parietal cortex-mediated functions in AN is also underscored by findings from neurocognitive studies. Although both extant neuroimaging and behavioural data suggest that two components of body image (the estimation of one’s own body size and the attitude towards one’s own body in terms of an emotional evaluation) are disturbed in individuals with AN, these aspects might have been described in more detail in the Primer. In fact, although two (widely accepted) body-image components can be distinguished, this does not imply that they are independent. Indeed, experimental evidence supports a direct (unidirectional) link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body. The aforementioned specific neural bases of the affective component of BID in AN also support an altered emotional response to unpleasant (for example, self-distorted fat image) stimuli. Furthermore, in the few available fMRI studies based on a word paradigm (that is, tasks using ‘fat’, ‘thin’ and ‘neutral’ words), a variation in amygdala response was absent — making the involvement of this brain region less clear but suggesting the greater relevance of self-perception and the mechanism of body-image construction (see below). There is the need to take into account these (and other convergent) clues and the considerable room for improvement that remains from the first-line prevention and psychotherapeutic interventions, currently described in the Primer (for example, the Body Project and enhanced cognitive–behavioural therapy), and targeting the ‘affective’ body-image component. Thus, we would suggest that it is now time to consider the development of intervention strategies that target the perceptive component.”

Description:

Article discussing recent reviews of research into Anorexia Nervosa and related body-image issues through brain scans and other available data.

Author(s):

  • Antonios Dakanalis, Santino Gaudio, Silvia Serino, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà & Giuseppe Riva

Title:

  • Body-image distortion in anorexia nervosa

Publisher:

  • Nature Reviews Disease Primers (Journal)

Date:

  • April 21, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4489037/

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Sample:

“Recent research suggests that social networking sites (SNSs: Facebook and Instagram) are increasingly used by college-aged females as the preferred social resource over conventional media forms, for example magazines and television [19]. Moreover, a growing literature suggests that SNSs have addictive properties [20]. Social comparison theory postulates that individuals are more likely to engage in comparisons with similar (peer groups) rather than dissimilar (others) personal attributes [21]. Accordingly, the relationship between AC and BID should be enhanced in SNSs where portrayed females are perceived as real, age- and status-related, and thus more personally identified with in contrast to professional models in conventional media [22].

Studies of self-presentation within SNSs have consistently found that users strategically manipulate their profiles in accordance with societal ideals of attractiveness [23–25]. Women viewing images of professional models represented in conventional forms of media remain aware that these have been digitally enhanced [26] thereby reducing the likelihood of self- comparison and propensity for BID [27]. In contrast, SNS images of ‘real’ women are assumed to be digitally unaltered and, hence accepted as more accurate and personally relevant [28].

Facebook is a popular SNS [29], with more than a billion active users [30]. Fifty eight percent of users are women [31] with users spending around an average of 16 h accessing Facebook per month [30]. In Australia there are currently 11,489,580 Facebook users, with the largest age group being 25–34 year-olds, followed by 18–24 year-olds [31].

Social media, unlike conventional media, also provides a virtual forum for fat talk, conversational threads about one’s own and other’s eating and exercise habits, weight concerns and ideal body shapes [32], thus serving to intensify the influence of AC on BID [33]. Typical Facebook profiles contain strategically selected thin photos of peers coupled with complimentary comments on appearance; for example “you look so skinny and beautiful” [24]. One study [34] found that 70.2 % of profiles of American undergraduate students referenced exercise and 12.3 %, eating habits with comments like “just did my morning work-out, feeling great!”. Of 600 Facebook users aged 16 to 40, 50 % reported that Facebook content made them more body-conscious; 31 % feeling “sad” as a result of comparing photos of themselves to those of Facebook friends, and 44 % reported desiring the same body or weight as Facebook friends [35].”

Description:

Article in the Journal of Eating Disorders analyzing the effect of social media, like Facebook and Instagram, have on body image satisfaction.

Author(s):

  • Rachel Cohen and Alex Blaszczynski

Title:

  • Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction

Publisher:

  • Journal of Eating Disorders

Date:

  • July 2, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/prevalence/eating-disorders-among-children.shtml

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Sample:

“The following chart shows eating disorder information from the National Comorbidity Survey – Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) , and defines an eating disorder broadly as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and/or binge eating disorder. It shows key information about eating disorders among 13 to 17 year olds, including an estimate of 2.7 percent for those suffering from an eating disorder and that girls are more than two and a half times as likely as boys to have an eating disorder.”

Description:

Infographics with data from the National Institutes of Mental Health on the prevalence of various eating disorders in children in various age ranges.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Eating Disorders Among Children

Publisher:

  • National Institutes of Health

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/eating-disorders/index.shtml?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss

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Sample:

“Anorexia nervosa

People with anorexia nervosa may see themselves as overweight, even when they are dangerously underweight. People with anorexia nervosa typically weigh themselves repeatedly, severely restrict the amount of food they eat, and eat very small quantities of only certain foods. Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any mental disorder. While many young women and men with this disorder die from complications associated with starvation, others die of suicide. In women, suicide is much more common in those with anorexia than with most other mental disorders.

Symptoms include:

  • Extremely restricted eating
  • Extreme thinness (emaciation)
  • A relentless pursuit of thinness and unwillingness to maintain a normal or healthy weight
  • Intense fear of gaining weight
  • Distorted body image, a self-esteem that is heavily influenced by perceptions of body weight and shape, or a denial of the seriousness of low body weight

Other symptoms may develop over time, including:

  • Thinning of the bones (osteopenia or osteoporosis)
  • Mild anemia and muscle wasting and weakness
  • Brittle hair and nails
  • Dry and yellowish skin
  • Growth of fine hair all over the body (lanugo)
  • Severe constipation
  • Low blood pressure, slowed breathing and pulse
  • Damage to the structure and function of the heart
  • Brain damage
  • Multiorgan failure
  • Drop in internal body temperature, causing a person to feel cold all the time
  • Lethargy, sluggishness, or feeling tired all the time
  • Infertility”

Description:

Mental health webpage from the National Institutes of Health on eating disorders including information on the symptoms and causes, as well as treatment.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Eating Disorders

Publisher:

  • National Institutes of Mental Health

Date:

  • February 2016 (check source for changes to date due to updates)

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.anad.org/get-information/about-eating-disorders/eating-disorders-statistics/

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Sample:

General statistics:

  • At least 30 million people of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder in the U.S. 1, 2
  • Every 62 minutes at least one person dies as a direct result from an eating disorder.3
  • Eating disorders have the highest mortality rate of any mental illness.4
  • 13% of women over 50 engage in eating disorder behaviors.5
  • In a large national study of college students, 3.5% sexual minority women and 2.1% of sexual minority men reported having an eating disorder.6
  • 16% of transgender college students reported having an eating disorder.6
  • In a study following active duty military personnel over time, 5.5% of women and 4% of men had an eating disorder at the beginning of the study, and within just a few years of continued service, 3.3% more women and 2.6% more men developed an eating disorder.7
  • Eating disorders affect all races and ethnic groups.8
  • Genetics, environmental factors, and personality traits all combine to create risk for an eating disorder.”

Description:

General statistics and data on various types of eating disorders including rates of occurrence among males and females, as well as other demographics.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Eating Disorder Statistics

Publisher:

  • National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://millercenter.org/president/adams/life-before-the-presidency

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Sample:

“Adams launched his legal career in Boston in 1758. He faced several years of struggle in establishing his practice. He had only one client his first year and did not win his initial case before a jury until almost three years after opening his office. Thereafter, his practice grew. Once his practice started to flourish, he began to court Abigail Smith, the daughter of a Congregational minister in nearby Weymouth. They were married in 1764. Five children followed in the next eight years, although one, Susanna, died in infancy. By 1770, Adams was a highly successful lawyer with perhaps the largest caseload of any attorney in Boston, and he was chosen to defend the British soldiers who were charged in the Boston Massacre in March 1770. Through his able defense, none of the accused soldiers were sent to jail. During these years, he lived alternately in Boston and Quincy, an outgrowth of Braintree, where he had been reared. As success came, Adams wrote extensively, publishing numerous essays in Boston newspapers on social, legal, and political issues.

When the colonial protest against parliamentary policies erupted against the Stamp Act in 1765, Adams was initially reluctant to play a prominent role in the popular movement. With a young and growing family, he feared for his legal practice. In addition, he distrusted many of the radical leaders, including his cousin Samuel Adams. He not only believed the imperial leaders in London had simply blundered but also suspected that the colonial radicals had a hidden agenda, including American independence. Nevertheless, under pressure to act, he did assist the popular movement, writing anonymous newspaper essays and helping to churn out propaganda pieces. In time, as Britain continued its attempts to tax the colonies and to strip them of their autonomy, Adams gradually grew convinced that the radicals had been correct, and he became an open foe of ministerial policy.

In 1774, Adams went to Philadelphia as one of the four delegates from Massachusetts to the First Continental Congress. He was reelected to the Second Continental Congress, which convened in May 1775, just a few days after war with the mother country had erupted at Lexington and Concord. When Congress created the Continental army in June 1775, Adams nominated George Washington of Virginia to be its commander. Adams soon emerged as the leader of the faction in Congress that pushed to declare independence. In June 1776, Congress appointed Adams, together with Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin, among others, to prepare the Declaration of Independence. Adams served on more committees than any other congressman—ninety in all, of which he chaired twenty. He was the head of the Board of War and Ordinance, the congressional committee that oversaw the operations of the Continental army. He was also an important member of the committee that prepared the Model Treaty, which guided the envoys that Congress sent to France to secure foreign trade and military assistance.”

Description:

Biography of John Adams life before his presidency from the University of Virginia’s Miller Center, with detailed info about his education and career.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • John Adams: Life Before the Presidency

Publisher:

  • Miller Center, University of Virginia

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/johnadams

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Sample:

“When Adams became President, the war between the French and British was causing great difficulties for the United States on the high seas and intense partisanship among contending factions within the Nation.

His administration focused on France, where the Directory, the ruling group, had refused to receive the American envoy and had suspended commercial relations.

Adams sent three commissioners to France, but in the spring of 1798 word arrived that the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand and the Directory had refused to negotiate with them unless they would first pay a substantial bribe. Adams reported the insult to Congress, and the Senate printed the correspondence, in which the Frenchmen were referred to only as “X, Y, and Z.”

The Nation broke out into what Jefferson called “the X. Y. Z. fever,” increased in intensity by Adams’s exhortations. The populace cheered itself hoarse wherever the President appeared. Never had the Federalists been so popular.”

Description:

Biography of John Adams as Vice President and President in his dealings with the French and political opposition, as well as early life and retirement.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • John Adams

Publisher:

  • whitehouse.gov

Date:

  • None.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/VP_John_Adams.htm

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Sample:

“On April 21, 1789, John Adams, the first vice president of the United States, began his duties as president of the Senate. Adams’ role in the administration of George Washington was sharply constrained by the constitutional limits on the vice-presidency and his own reluctance to encroach upon executive prerogative. He enjoyed a cordial but distant relationship with President Washington, who sought his advice on occasion but relied primarily on the cabinet. Adams played a more active role in the Senate, however, particularly during his first term.

As president of the Senate, Adams cast twenty-nine tie-breaking votes—a record that no successor has ever threatened. His votes protected the president’s sole authority over the removal of appointees, influenced the location of the national capital, and prevented war with Great Britain. On at least one occasion he persuaded senators to vote against legislation that he opposed, and he frequently lectured the Senate on procedural and policy matters. Adams’ political views and his active role in the Senate made him a natural target for critics of the Washington administration. Toward the end of his first term, he began to exercise more restraint in the hope of realizing the goal shared by many of his successors: election in his own right as president of the United States.”

Description:

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • John Adams, 1st Vice President (1789-1797)

Publisher:

  • United State Senate, Senate Historical Office

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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