Credible Sources for Vaccines

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewinternet.org/2017/02/02/vast-majority-of-americans-say-benefits-of-childhood-vaccines-outweigh-risks/

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Sample:

“Yet, public concerns about childhood vaccines linger in the public discourse, often linked to a now discredited and retracted research study published nearly two decades ago that raised questions about a possible link between the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and autism. Despite assurances of vaccine safety from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics and a host of other scientific bodies that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine does not cause autism, a number of prominent figures have expressed concerns about the safety of childhood vaccines. President Donald Trump raised questions about the safety of childhood vaccines on the campaign trail and during the transition period met with Robert Kennedy Jr. reportedly about the possibility of leading a commission on vaccine safety and scientific integrity. Kennedy edited a book that argues that a preservative used in some vaccines causes neurological disorders, including autism.

A new Pew Research Center survey conducted prior to the election finds the “vaccine hesitant” views expressed by Trump and other public figures to be at odds with most Americans’ views. An overwhelming majority of Americans (82%) support requiring all healthy schoolchildren to be vaccinated for measles, mumps and rubella. Some 73% of Americans see high preventive health benefits from use of the MMR vaccine, and 66% believe there is a low risk of side effects from the vaccine. Overall, 88% believe that the benefits of these inoculations outweigh the risks.”

Description:

Report from Pew Research Center published in 2017 stating most Americans support required vaccination of schoolchildren and believe they are beneficial.

Author(s):

  • Cary Funk, Brian Kennedy, and Meg Hefferon

Title:

  • Vast Majority of Americans Say Benefits of Childhood Vaccines Outweigh Risks

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • February 2, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12528:region-americas-declared-free-measles&Itemid=1926&lang=en

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Sample:

“Measles transmission had been considered interrupted in the Region since 2002, when the last endemic case was reported in the Americas. However, as the disease had continued to circulate in other parts the world, some countries in the Americas experienced imported cases. The International Expert Committee reviewed evidence on measles elimination presented by all the countries of the Region between 2015 and August 2016 and decided that it met the established criteria for elimination. The process included six years of work with countries to document evidence of the elimination.

Measles is one of the most contagious diseases and affects primarily children. It is transmitted by airborne droplets or via direct contact with secretions from the nose, mouth, and throat of infected individuals. Symptoms include high fever, generalized rash all over the body, stuffy nose, and reddened eyes. It can cause serious complications including blindness, encephalitis, severe diarrhea, ear infections and pneumonia, particularly in children with nutritional problems and in immunocompromised patients.”

MLA Citation:

“Region of the Americas is declared free of measles.” Pan American Health Organization, 29 Sep. 2016, http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12528:region-americas-declared-free-measles&Itemid=1926&lang=en. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Region of the Americas is declared free of measles.”)

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APA Citation:

Region of the Americas is declared free of measles. (2016, Sep. 29). Pan American Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12528:region-americas-declared-free-measles&Itemid=1926&lang=en

In-Text: (“Region of the Americas is declared free of measles,” 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.vaccines.gov/more_info/work

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Sample:

“There are two major kinds of lymphocytes, T cells and B cells, and they do their own jobs in fighting off infection. T cells function either offensively or defensively. The offensive T cells don’t attack the microbe directly, but they use chemical weapons to eliminate the human cells that have already been infected. Because they have been “programmed” by their exposure to the microbe’s antigen, these cytotoxic T cells, also called killer T cells, can “sense” diseased cells that are harboring the microbe. The killer T cells latch onto these cells and release chemicals that destroy the infected cells and the microbes inside.”

MLA Citation:

“How Vaccines Work.” Vaccines.org, Department of Health and Human Services, 23 June 2016, http://www.vaccines.gov/more_info/work. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“How Vaccines Work”)

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APA Citation:

How vaccines work. (2016, June 23). Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.vaccines.gov/more_info/work

In-Text: (“How vaccines work,” 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/patient-ed/conversations/downloads/vacsafe-understand-color-office.pdf

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Sample:

“Vaccines help develop immunity by imitating an infection. This type of infection, however, does not cause illness, but it does cause the immune system to produce T-lymphocytes and antibodies. Sometimes, after getting a vaccine, the imitation infection can cause minor symptoms, such as fever. Such minor symptoms are normal and should be expected as the body builds immunity.

Once the imitation infection goes away, the body is left with a supply of “memory” T-lymphocytes, as well as B-lymphocytes that will remember how to fight that disease in the future. However, it typically takes a few weeks for the body to produce T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes after vaccination. Therefore, it is possible that a person who was infected with a disease just before or just after vaccination could develop symptoms and get a disease, because the vaccine has not had enough time to provide protection.”

MLA Citation:

“Understanding How Vaccines Work.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Feb. 2013, http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/patient-ed/conversations/downloads/vacsafe-understand-color-office.pdf. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Understanding How Vaccines Work”)

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APA Citation:

Understanding how vaccines work. (2011, Feb.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/patient-ed/conversations/downloads/vacsafe-understand-color-office.pdf

In-Text: (Understanding how vaccines work, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bmj.com/content/342/bmj.c7452

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Sample:

“Authored by Andrew Wakefield and 12 others, the paper’s scientific limitations were clear when it appeared in 1998. As the ensuing vaccine scare took off, critics quickly pointed out that the paper was a small case series with no controls, linked three common conditions, and relied on parental recall and beliefs. Over the following decade, epidemiological studies consistently found no evidence of a link between the MMR vaccine and autism. By the time the paper was finally retracted 12 years later, after forensic dissection at the General Medical Council’s (GMC) longest ever fitness to practise hearing, few people could deny that it was fatally flawed both scientifically and ethically. But it has taken the diligent scepticism of one man, standing outside medicine and science, to show that the paper was in fact an elaborate fraud.”

MLA Citation:

Goodlee, Fiona, Jane Smith, and Harvey Marcovitch. “Wakefield’s article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent.” British Medical Journal, 06 Jan. 2011, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c7452. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Goodlee, Smith, Marcovitch)

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APA Citation:

Goodlee, F., Smith, J., & Marcovitch, H. (2011, Jan. 06). Wakefield’s article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent. British Medical Journal. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c7452

In-Text: (Goodlee, Smith, Marcovitch, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/02/us/a-discredited-vaccine-studys-continuing-impact-on-public-health.html?

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Sample:

“Typically, the M.M.R. shot is given to infants at about 12 months and again at age 5 or 6. This doctor, Andrew Wakefield, wrote that his study of 12 children showed that the three vaccines taken together could alter immune systems, causing intestinal woes that then reach, and damage, the brain. In fairly short order, his findings were widely rejected as — not to put too fine a point on it — bunk. Dozens of epidemiological studies found no merit to his work, which was based on a tiny sample. The British Medical Journal went so far as to call his research “fraudulent.” The British journal Lancet, which originally published Dr. Wakefield’s paper, retracted it. The British medical authorities stripped him of his license.

Nonetheless, despite his being held in disgrace, the vaccine-autism link has continued to be accepted on faith by some. Among the more prominently outspoken is Jenny McCarthy, a former television host and Playboy Playmate, who has linked her son’s autism to his vaccination: He got the shot, and then he was not O.K. Post hoc, etc.”

MLA Citation:

Haberman, Clyde. “A Discredited Vaccine Study’s Continuing Impact on Public Health.” The New York Times, 1 Feb. 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/02/us/a-discredited-vaccine-studys-continuing-impact-on-public-health.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Haberman)

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APA Citation:

Haberman, C. (2015. Feb. 1). A discredited vaccine study’s continuing impact on public health. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/02/us/a-discredited-vaccine-studys-continuing-impact-on-public-health.html

In-Text: (Haberman, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/lancet-retracts-wakefield-article/

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Sample:

“However, error should not include scientific fraud, or science that is thoroughly misrepresented. One aspect of the transparency demanded by science, and increasingly an issue, is disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. This is the issue that first got Wakefield in hot water with the Lancet – the journal that published his original research. Wakefield was being paid as an expert by lawyers who were suing over alleged vaccine injury. In fact some of the children in the study were the children of parents who were suing. This is a massive conflict of interest.

When this came to light the Lancet responded by contacting the co-authors of the article and essentially asking them if they still stand by the results of the study. Ten of the original 12 authors of the study retracted their support for the study and its interpretation. In 2004 the Lancet published a retraction. However, it was only a partial retraction, and the study remained as part of the published literature.”

MLA Citation:

Novella, Steven. “The Lancet retracts Andrew Wakefield’s article.” sciencebasedmedicine.org, 3 Feb. 2010, https://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/lancet-retracts-wakefield-article. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Novella)

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APA Citation:

Novella, S. (2011, Feb. 3). The Lancet retracts Andrew Wakefield’s article. Sciencebasedmedicine.org. Retrieved from https://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/lancet-retracts-wakefield-article

In-Text: (Novella, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/01/05/autism.vaccines/index.html

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Sample:

“Wakefield has been unable to reproduce his results in the face of criticism, and other researchers have been unable to match them. Most of his co-authors withdrew their names from the study in 2004 after learning he had had been paid by a law firm that intended to sue vaccine manufacturers — a serious conflict of interest he failed to disclose. After years on controversy, the Lancet, the prestigious journal that originally published the research, retracted Wakefield’s paper last February.”

MLA Citation:

“Retracted autism study an ‘elaborate fraud,’ British journal finds.” CNN, 5 Jan. 2011, http://www.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/01/05/autism.vaccines/index.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Retracted autism study an ‘elaborate fraud,’ British journal finds”)

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APA Citation:

Retracted autism study an ‘elaborate fraud,’ British journal finds. (2011, Jan. 5). CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/01/05/autism.vaccines/index.html

In-Text: (“Retracted autism study an ‘elaborate fraud,’ British journal finds”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/vaccines/Pages/typesVaccines.aspx

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Sample:

“Scientists take many approaches to designing vaccines against a microbe. These choices are typically based on fundamental information about the microbe, such as how it infects cells and how the immune system responds to it, as well as practical considerations, such as regions of the world where the vaccine would be used. The following are some of the options that researchers might pursue:

Live, attenuated vaccines Inactivated vaccines Subunit vaccines Toxoid vaccines Conjugate vaccines DNA vaccines Recombinant vector vaccines”

MLA Citation:

“Types of Vaccines.” National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 3 April 2012, https://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/vaccines/Pages/typesVaccines.aspx. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Types of Vaccines”)

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APA Citation:

Types of vaccines. (2012, April 3). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Retrieved from https://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/vaccines/Pages/typesVaccines.aspx

In-Text: (“Types of vaccines,” 2012)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/features/how-vaccines-autism-battle-continues-despite-scientific-consensus-924080

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Sample:

“Stars have played a key role in stoking vaccine alarm and shaping the narrative around immunization suspicion. That atmosphere of doubt helped contribute to a decline in childhood shot rates across the country over the past decade, including across L.A. Jenny McCarthy’s outright connection of shots with autism has been the most conspicuous example of celebrity engagement. While many others, including Schneider, Toni Braxton and Aidan Quinn, share this concern, high-profile dissident behavior runs the gamut. It can be advocacy of irregular, choose-your-own immunization schedules unsupported by medical authorities (Holly Robinson Peete, Alicia Silverstone) to protesting SB 277 as a matter of government overreach thwarting individual rights (Danny Masterson, Jim Carrey).

Whatever the talking point, their Q Scores significantly amplify it. “A celebrity saying something gives it a lot more attention — period,” says Michael Sitrick, CEO of L.A. crisis management firm Sitrick and Company. “It’s the same reason why marketers have celebrities endorsing products.””

MLA Citation:

Baum, Gary. “How Hollywood Stars, Trump and Scientologists Inflame the Vaccine Wars: ‘It’s Spurious but Effective’.” The Hollywood Reporter, 1 Sept. 2016, http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/features/how-vaccines-autism-battle-continues-despite-scientific-consensus-924080. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Baum)

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APA Citation:

Baum, G. (2016. Sept. 1). How Hollywood stars, Trump and Scientologists inflame the vaccine wars: “It’s spurious but effective.” The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved from http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/features/how-vaccines-autism-battle-continues-despite-scientific-consensus-924080

In-Text: (Baum, 2016)

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