Credible Sources for Police Brutality

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4504294/

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Sample:

““I can’t breathe.” “Hands up.” “Black lives matter.” These statements developed in reaction to the recent deaths of Eric Garner, an unarmed Black man strangled to death by police in Staten Island, New York, and Michael Brown, an unarmed Black adolescent shot to death by police in Ferguson, Missouri. To racial scholars, activists, and many community members, these preventable deaths were only two recent examples of the stark racial injustices that have plagued our country’s history. In both instances, the White police officers responsible for the deaths were neither charged with any crime, nor taken to trial. However, despite the national and international media attention these cases drew, they are by no means isolated incidents. Moreover, despite the media’s disproportionate focus on cases involving men, intersectional analyses demonstrate that racialized police violence and misconduct are inflicted upon women and transgendered persons of color as well.

These cases bring to light how racism, defined as a “system of structuring opportunity and assigning value based on race, that unfairly disadvantages some individuals and communities,” and advantages others, affects the daily realities in communities of color. As public health professionals, we are committed to achieving optimal health for all. Thus, these violent, premature deaths of people of color should enrage us because they directly oppose the vision of Healthy People 2020, “A society in which all people live long, healthy lives.” Therefore, our commentary calls upon our field to recognize the pervasive role of racism in public health and to reshape our discourse and agenda so that we all actively engage in racial justice work.

Our position is not a new one. In 1998, the American Public Health Association (APHA) released a policy statement on the disproportionate impact of police violence on people of color. This statement recommended strategies for reversing the trends; however, to date, there has been no record whether these policy recommendations have been implemented. The relevance of the 1998 APHA statement to the most recent incidents of racialized police violence is chilling. Yet, almost two decades later, explicit conversations about racism remain glaringly absent from most mainstream public health discourse.”

Description:

Article published in the American Journal of Public Health providing analysis of the Black Lives  Matter movement from a public health perspective.

Author(s):

  • Jennifer Jee-Lynn Garcia and Mienah Zulfacar Sharif

Title:

  • Black Lives Matter: A Commentary on Racism and Public Health

Publisher:

  • American Journal of Public Health

Date:

  • August 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/black-tweets-matter-180960117/

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Sample:

“In July 2013, a 32-year-old writer named Alicia Garza was sipping bourbon in an Oakland bar, eyes on the television screen as the news came through: George Zimmerman had been acquitted by a Florida jury in the killing of Trayvon Martin, an African-American teenager. As the decision sank in, Garza logged onto Facebook and wrote, “Black people. I love you. I love us. Our lives matter.” Garza’s friend Patrisse Cullors wrote back, closing her post with the hashtag “#blacklivesmatter.”

Though it began on Facebook, the phrase exploded on Twitter, electrifying digital avenues where black users were already congregating to discuss the issues and narratives that are often absent from the national conversation. A year later Black Lives Matter had become a series of organized activist movements, with Twitter its lifeblood. Since that first utterance, the phrase “Black Lives Matter” has been tweeted 30 million times on Twitter, the company says. Twitter, it can be said, completely changed the way activism is done, who can participate and even how we define it.”

Description:

Article from Smithsonian Magazine about the origin of the term “Black Lives Matter” and how Twitter has been an important tool for the movement.

Author(s):

  • Jenna Wortham

Title:

  • Black Tweets Matter

Publisher:

  • Smithsonian Magazine

Date:

  • September 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/10/22/black-lives-matter-should-also-take-on-black-on-black-crime/?utm_term=.761aeb006c44

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Sample:

“Black Lives Matter has done the nation a service by forcing Americans to reckon with a horrifying spate of police killings of unarmed African Americans. Without the movement, the names Eric Garner and Walter Scott wouldn’t resonate. Nor would Sandra Bland, who died in police custody and whose name was invoked during the most recent presidential debate. Despite this, Black Lives Matter has been severely taken to task, if not outright scorned, for its focus on police killings when, as its critics readily note, people in black neighborhoods are often at much more danger of being killed by other black people.

Why, they ask, hasn’t the Black Lives Matter movement been more concerned with — in wording sometimes fraught with condescension — “black-on-black crime?”

It’s a criticism typically associated with the political right, frequently thought (and frankly, frequently meant) to suggest that what black people need is to simply comport themselves differently, rather than endlessly complain about the depredations of (presumably) white police. However, even without such acrid, tribalistic intent, it’s possible to think BLM’s mission is currently incomplete.”

Description:

Article from the Washington Post about the Black Lives Matter movement and whether or not it should address the issue of ‘black-on-black’ violence.

Author(s):

  • John McWhorter

Title:

  • Black Lives Matter should also take on ‘black-on-black crime’

Publisher:

  • The Washington Post

Date:

  • October 22, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2016/06/27/on-views-of-race-and-inequality-blacks-and-whites-are-worlds-apart/

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Sample:

“Almost eight years after Barack Obama’s election as the nation’s first black president –an event that engendered a sense of optimism among many Americans about the future of race relations1 – a series of flashpoints around the U.S. has exposed deep racial divides and reignited a national conversation about race. A new Pew Research Center survey finds profound differences between black and white adults in their views on racial discrimination, barriers to black progress and the prospects for change. Blacks, far more than whites, say black people are treated unfairly across different realms of life, from dealing with the police to applying for a loan or mortgage. And, for many blacks, racial equality remains an elusive goal.

An overwhelming majority of blacks (88%) say the country needs to continue making changes for blacks to have equal rights with whites, but 43% are skeptical that such changes will ever occur. An additional 42% of blacks believe that the country will eventually make the changes needed for blacks to have equal rights with whites, and just 8% say the country has already made the necessary changes.

A much lower share of whites (53%) say the country still has work to do for blacks to achieve equal rights with whites, and only 11% express doubt that these changes will come. Four-in-ten whites believe the country will eventually make the changes needed for blacks to have equal rights, and about the same share (38%) say enough changes have already been made.”

Description:

Data from Pew Research Center showing great disparity between blacks and whites on racial equality and race relations broken down by demographics.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • On Views of Race and Inequality, Blacks and Whites Are Worlds Apart

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • June 27, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/

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Sample:

“Roughly four-in-ten Americans support the Black Lives Matter movement. All told, 43% support the movement, including 18% who strongly support it. About one-in-five Americans (22%) oppose the movement, and a sizable share (30%) said they have not heard anything about the Black Lives Matter movement or did not offer an opinion.”

MLA Citation:

Horowitz, Juliana Menasce and Gretchen Livingston. “How Americans view the Black Lives Matter movement.” pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center, 8 July 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/>.

In-Text: (Horowitz and Livingston)

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APA Citation:

Horowitz, J.M. & Livingston, G. (2016, July 8). How Americans view the Black Lives Matter movement. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/08/how-americans-view-the-black-lives-matter-movement/

In-Text: (Horowitz & Livingston, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pbtss11.pdf

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Sample:

“In 2011, over 62.9 million U.S. residents age 16 or older, or 26% of the population, had one or more contacts with police during the prior 12 months (figure 1). For about half (49%) of persons experiencing contact with police, the most recent contact was involuntary or police-initiated. In 2011, 86% of persons involved in traffic stops during their most recent contact with police and 66% of persons involved in street stops (i.e., stopped in public but not in a moving vehicle) believed that the police both behaved properly and treated them with respect during the contact. A greater percentage of persons involved in street stops (25%) than those pulled over in traffic stops (10%) believed the police had not behaved properly. Regardless of the reason for thestop, less than 5% of persons who believed the police had not behaved properly filed a complaint. “

MLA Citation:

Langton, Lynn and Matthew Durose. “Police Behavior during Traffic and Street Stops, 2011.” bjs.gov. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, Sep. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pbtss11.pdf>.

In-Text: (Langton and Durose)

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APA Citation:

Langton, L. & Durose, M. (2013, Sep.). Police behavior during traffic and street stops, 2011. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pbtss11.pdf

In-Text: (Langton & Durose, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800748/

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Sample:

“This paper provides historical context for considering the connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the US; reviews erosions to the 4th Amendment to the US Constitution (which protects against unreasonable search and seizure) and the Posse Comitatus Act (which prohibits the Armed Forces from performing law enforcement functions) that helped set the groundwork for two vital War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams; and describes how stop and frisk and SWAT teams create conditions conducive to police brutality, particularly brutality that targets Black communities. While many laws and policies have created the foundations for police brutality, I have chosen to focus exclusively on the 4th Amendment and the Posse Comitatus Act in order to delve into detail on both, rather than present brief summaries of several policies. Additionally, the rich literature on the intertwined nature of racism, social control, and decisions about which substances should be classified as “illegal” is beyond the purview of this paper. Readers interested in these topics could review David Musto’s “The American Disease: The Origins of Narcotic Control” and David Courtwright’s “Dark Paradise: The History of Opiate Addiction in America” to learn more about this important topic.”

MLA Citation:

Cooper, Hannah LF. “War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.” Substance Use and Misuse 50.8 (2015): 1188-1194.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800748/>.

In-Text: (Cooper)

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APA Citation:

Cooper, H. L.F. (2015). War on Drugs policing and police brutality. Substance Use and Misuse, 50(8), 1188-1194. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2015.1007669

In-Text: (Cooper, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx

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Sample:

“The deaths of five police officers in Dallas, along with the recent deaths of two black men in Louisiana and Minnesota at the hands of police, highlighted — again — the importance of understanding attitudes of the American public, including blacks and whites, toward the police and criminal justice system.

A review of Gallup data, all collected prior to these most recent incidents, provides a social and cultural context for these issues.”

MLA Citation:

Newport, Frank. “Public Opinion Context: Americans, Race and Police.” gallup.com. Gallup, Inc. 8 Jul. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx>.

In-Text: (Newport)

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APA Citation:

Newport, F. (2016, Jul. 8). Public opinion context: Americans, race and police. Gallup, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/193586/public-opinion-context-americans-race-police.aspx

In-Text: (Newport, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/

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Sample:

“In a year-long study, The Washington Post found that the kind of incidents that have ignited protests in many U.S. communities — most often, white police officers killing unarmed black men — represent less than 4 percent of fatal police shootings. Meanwhile, The Post found that the great majority of people who died at the hands of the police fit at least one of three categories: they were wielding weapons, they were suicidal or mentally troubled, or they ran when officers told them to halt.”

MLA Citation:

Kindy, Kimberly, Marc Fisher, Julie Tate, and Jennifer Jenkins. “A year of reckoning: Police fatally shoot nearly 1,000.” washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post, 26 Dec. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/>.

In-Text: (Kindy, FIsher, Tate, and Jenkins)

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APA Citation:

Kindy, K., Fisher, M., Tate, J., Jenkins, J. (2015, Dec. 26). A year of reckoning: Police fatally shoot nearly 1,000. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/wp/2015/12/26/2015/12/26/a-year-of-reckoning-police-fatally-shoot-nearly-1000/

In-Text: (Kindy, Fisher, Tate, and Jenkins, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.wsj.com/articles/hundreds-of-police-killings-are-uncounted-in-federal-statistics-1417577504

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Sample:

“WASHINGTON—When 24-year-old Albert Jermaine Payton wielded a knife in front of the police in this city’s southeast corner, officers opened fire and killed him.

Yet according to national statistics intended to track police killings, Mr. Payton’s death in August 2012 never happened. It is one of hundreds of homicides by law-enforcement agencies between 2007 and 2012 that aren’t included in records kept by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.”

MLA Citation:

Barry, Rob and Coulter Jones. “Hundreds of Police Killings Are Uncounted in Federal Stats.” wsj.com. Dow Jones & Company Inc., 3 Dec. 2014.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.wsj.com/articles/hundreds-of-police-killings-are-uncounted-in-federal-statistics-1417577504>.

In-Text: (Barry and Jones)

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APA Citation:

Barry, R. & Jones, C. (2014, Dec. 3). Hundreds of police killings are uncounted in federal stats. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/hundreds-of-police-killings-are-uncounted-in-federal-statistics-1417577504

In-Text: (Barry and Jones, 2014)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/21/gun-homicides-steady-after-decline-in-90s-suicide-rate-edges-up/

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Sample:

“The nation’s overall gun death rate has declined 31% since 1993. This total includes homicides and suicides, in addition to a smaller number of fatal police shootings, accidental shooting deaths and those of undetermined intent. For example, in 2014 there were 464 fatal police shootings, up from 333 in 2009. (Government data on fatal police shootings are also collected and reported by the FBI, though the agency acknowledges there are discrepancies between federal and local law enforcement counts.)”

MLA Citation:

Krongstad, Jens Manuel. “Gun homicides steady after decline in ’90s; suicide rate edges up.” pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center, 21 Oct. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/21/gun-homicides-steady-after-decline-in-90s-suicide-rate-edges-up/>.

In-Text: (Krongstad)

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APA Citation:

Krongstad, J.M. (2015, Oct. 21). Gun homicides steady after decline in ’90s; suicide rate edges up. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/21/gun-homicides-steady-after-decline-in-90s-suicide-rate-edges-up/

In-Text: (Krongstad, 2015)

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