Credible Sources for Science

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2729620/

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Sample:

“In the past two years alone, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued alerts concerning suicidal ideation linked to the drug varenicline (Chantix®) as well as to numerous antiepileptic drugs. Meanwhile, the antiobesity drug rimonabant (Accomplia®)—not yet available in the US—was given a vote of no confidence by an FDA advisory panel, owing in part to the drug’s association with suicidality. All this occurs against the backdrop of intense controversy surrounding newer antidepressants and their possible association with increased suicidal ideation in a small percentage of younger patients.

The notion of a “depressogenic” drug is hardly new to medical practitioners. More than a half century ago, Freis first reported on “mental depression” in association with the antihypertensive drug, reserpine. And in his classic, Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), the English scholar Robert Burton identified alcohol as one cause of melancholy. Indeed, if alcohol is considered a drug, the concept of drug-induced depression (DID) may be traced to antiquity: In the Old Testament, for example, we read: “Who has woe? Who has sorrow? …Those who tarry long over wine…” (Proverbs 23:29–30).

In our own time, numerous medications and classes of medications have been implicated in DID, sometimes called substance-induced depression or drug-related depression. DID has important medical, medicolegal, and commercial implications. Any physician who has observed steroid-related mood swings—either mania or depression—knows that DID can drastically affect a patient’s clinical course. For example, one of us (R.P.) reported a case in which a young woman appeared to develop persistent bipolar mood swings after a single course of corticosteroids for treatment of ulcerative colitis.”

Description:

Peer-reviewed journal article discussing drug-induced depression, what drugs are typically associated with DID, and how difficult it is to establish DID.

Author(s):

  • Donald Rogers and Ronald Pies

Title:

  • General Medical Drugs Associated with Depression

Publisher:

  • Psychiatry

Date:

  • December 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1446422/pdf/11111261.pdf

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Sample:

“OBJECTIVES: This study examined incidence rates of medically identified suicide acts (self-inflicted injuries, either fatal or nonfatal) and case fatality rates by age, sex, race, and method used. METHODS: The authors analyzed data on 10,892 suicides and 57,439 attempted suicides among hospital-admitted individuals in 8 states, along with 6219 attempted suicides among individuals released from emergency departments in 2 states. RESULTS: The 8 states experienced a mean of 11 suicides and 119 attempted suicides per 100,000 residents each year. Groups with high suicide rates were men, the elderly, and Whites; groups with high attempted suicide rates were teenagers, young adults, women, and Blacks and Whites aged 25 to 44 years. Blacks aged 15 to 44 years evidenced high attempted suicide rates undocumented in previous studies. Poisoning and firearm were the most common methods used among those attempting suicide and those completing suicide acts, respectively. The most lethal method was firearm. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of suicides and attempted suicides differ dramatically. Method used is important in the lethality of the act.”

Description:

Study done on available suicide data from 8 states and broken down by race, sex, age and method of attempt to add to existing data on suicidal behavior.

Author(s):

  • Rebecca S. Spicer and Ted R. Miller

Title:

  • Suicide Acts in 8 States: Incidence and Case Fatality Rates by Demographics and Method

Publisher:

  • American Journal of Public Health

Date:

  • December 2000

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/african-american-mental-health

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Sample:

“According to the US HHS Office of Minority Health [3]:

  • Adult Black/African Americans are 20 percent more likely to report serious psychological distress than adult whites.
  • Adult Black/African Americans living below poverty are three times more likely to report serious psychological distress than those living above poverty.
  • Adult Black/African Americans are more likely to have feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness than are adult whites.
  • And while Black/African Americans are less likely than white people to die from suicide as teenagers, Black/African Americans teenagers are more likely to attempt suicide than are white teenagers (8.3 percent v. 6.2 percent).”

Description:

Article from Mental Health America covering in detail the increased prevalence of depression in African American communities and what the causes are.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Black & African American Communities and Mental Health

Publisher:

  • Mental Health America

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2395346/

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Sample:

“In this article we discuss the traditional behavioral models of depression and some of the challenges analyzing a phenomenon with such complex and varied features. We present the traditional model and suggest that it does not capture the complexity of the phenomenon, nor do syndromal models of depression that dominate the mainstream conceptualization of depression. Instead, we emphasize ideographic analysis and present depression as a maladaptive dysregulation of an ultimately adaptive elicited emotional response. We emphasize environmental factors, specifically aversive control and private verbal events, in terms of relational frame theory, that may transform an adaptive response into a maladaptive disorder. We consider the role of negative thought processes and rumination, common and debilitating aspects of depression that have traditionally been neglected by behavior analysts.”

Description:

Research article discussing the analysis of depression using traditional behavioral models and the difficulty of it due to the complexity of the disorder.

Author(s):

  • Jonathan W Kanter, Andrew M Busch, Cristal E Weeks, and Sara J Landes

Title:

  • The Nature of Clinical Depression: Symptoms, Syndromes, and Behavior Analysis

Publisher:

  • Association for Behavior Analysis International

Date:

  • 2008

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml

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Sample:

“Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the U.S. Current research suggests that depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.

Depression can happen at any age, but often begins in adulthood. Depression is now recognized as occurring in children and adolescents, although it sometimes presents with more prominent irritability than low mood. Many chronic mood and anxiety disorders in adults begin as high levels of anxiety in children.

Depression, especially in midlife or older adults, can co-occur with other serious medical illnesses, such as diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and Parkinson’s disease. These conditions are often worse when depression is present. Sometimes medications taken for these physical illnesses may cause side effects that contribute to depression. A doctor experienced in treating these complicated illnesses can help work out the best treatment strategy.”

Description:

Overview of depression from the National Institutes of Health with information on the effects of depression, what causes it, and how it is treated.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Depression

Publisher:

  • National Institutes of Mental Health

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC474733/

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Sample:

“Millions of Americans suffer from clinical depression each year. Most depressed patients first seek treatment from their primary care providers. Generally, depressed patients treated in primary care settings receive pharmacologic therapy alone. There is evidence to suggest that the addition of cognitive-behavioral therapies, specifically exercise, can improve treatment outcomes for many patients. Exercise is a behavioral intervention that has shown great promise in alleviating symptoms of depression. The current review discusses the growing body of research examining the exercise-depression relationship that supports the efficacy of exercise as an adjunct treatment. Databases searched were Medline, PsycLit, PubMed, and SportsDiscus from the years 1996 through 2003. Terms used in the search were clinical depression, depression, exercise, and physical activity. Further, because primary care physicians deliver important mental health services to the majority of depressed patients, several specific recommendations are made regarding counseling these patients on the adoption and maintenance of exercise programs.

Depression affects roughly 9.5% of the U.S. adult population each year, and it is estimated that approximately 17% of the U.S. population will suffer from a major depressive episode at some point in their lifetime. Depression has been ranked as the leading cause of disability in the United States, with over $40 billion being spent each year on lost work productivity and medical treatment related to this illness. Recent research suggests that between the years of 1987 and 1997, the rate of outpatient treatment for depression in the United States tripled and that health care costs related to this disorder continue to rise.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of studies done on exercise as a treatment for depression showing that, while more research is needed, there is evidence exercise can help.

Author(s):

  • Lynette L. Craft and Frank M. Perna

Title:

  • The Benefits of Exercise for the Clinically Depressed

Publisher:

  • The Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

Date:

  • 2004

Citations:

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Credible Sources

There is no shortage of research and scientific data on the web showing the effect of human activity on the Earth’s climate, but with so much information available, and from so many different sources, it can be hard for a student to sort through everything to find the sources needed for your research assignments. CRS has compiled a large collection of credible sources around this topic, and in this post we have placed them all in one spot and organized them by the information you can find in each. If you need more research on this topic or another, use the Study Hall to get help from us and other students. (Note: some of the sources below will appear under more than one category, keep that in mind.)

 

The Basics

The following sources cover all the basics of climate change, including the causes and indicators, as well as a great Q&A format post covering the effects of global warming, the Paris Agreement, and whether or not it’s too late save our planet. There are much more in depth sources in this guide, but all of these are great starting points for research. Furthermore, the websites linked to (NASA, National Climatic Data Center) have much more information about global warming, greenhouse gasses, and the science of climate change.

 

Human Activity and Greenhouse Gases

One of the main points of the climate change debate is not whether or not it is really happening (which is now very well-documented), but whether or not it is caused by human activity or simply a naturally occurring process. There is an abundance of evidence below to show how human activity is impacting the Earth’s climate, complete with scientific data, physical evidence in our air and oceans, and how our industries are contributing to the problem (and have been for a long time).

 

Renewable Resources

Renewable energy is one of the most important parts of combating climate change and preventing further damage to the Earth. The sources below provide information on the various types of renewable energy, how they help fight against climate change, and common misunderstandings about renewable energies.

 

Extreme Weather

It would be pretty hard for anyone living in the U.S. to ignore the odd and sometimes extreme weather that has occurred in recent years. With the scientific community frequently stating that global warming and climate change will have negative impacts on our planet, it is quite natural to wonder if we are already seeing these negative impacts in the form of extreme weather events, mild winters, and early springs. Here is all the research you need to determine that for yourself.

 

Benefits of Preventing Climate Change

There is at least one obvious benefit to preventing climate change: saving our planet. There are more, however, which are just as important and beneficial to society. Embracing renewable energy will not only protect our atmosphere but also create an enormous economic sector and an abundance of jobs, while the efficiency of renewable energies will also serve to bring down costs, like those of production and transportation, over time.

 

On Climate Change Denial…

Unfortunately, there are some who disagree with the entire scientific community on the topic of climate change. Whatever the reasons for this, it is a very dangerous misconception and should be addressed. With all of this research, it seems difficult to deny the impact of human activity on our climate and the impact of global warming on our planet, but here are some more sources to specifically address the denial.

Climate Change and the Integrity of ScienceThe above link leads to an article published in the scholarly journal Science published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which argues the questioning of climate change research is equal to doubting the entire scientific community. It is signed by dozens of scientists and researchers, and it may in fact be the most concisely written argument against climate change denial that exists today.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cnn.com/2015/08/25/health/us-canada-obesity-rates/

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Sample:

“Rates of obesity among children and teenagers in the U.S. have increased substantially more than in Canada since the late 1970s, according to a new report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Although the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. is well known, this report shines a light on how we compare to our neighbors to the north, said Cynthia L. Ogden, an epidemiologist at the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics and lead author of the new study.

The report found that, whereas the obesity rate among children between 3 and 19 was about 5% in both the U.S. and Canada in the late 1970s, it rose to 17.5% in the U.S. by 2012 and only 13% in Canada by 2013. However in both countries, the rates have leveled off in the last 10 years.”

Description:

CNN report of a study done on obesity rates in children in the U.S. and Canada, showing rates climbed faster in the U.S. since 1980.

Author(s):

  • Carina Storrs

Title:

  • U.S. kids outweigh Canadian kids, says study

Publisher:

  • CNN

Date:

  • August 25, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-trends/global-obesity-trends-in-children/

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Sample:

“Obesity rates are higher in adults than in children. But in relative terms, the U.S., Brazil, China, and other countries have seen the problem escalate more rapidly in children than in adults. (5)

Of course, some regions still struggle mightily with child hunger, such as Southeastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. (6) But globalization has made the world wealthier, and wealth and weight are linked.

As poor countries move up the income scale and switch from traditional diets to Western food ways, obesity rates rise. (7) One result of this so-called “nutrition transition” is that low- and middle-income countries often face a dual burden: the infectious diseases that accompany malnutrition, especially in childhood, and, increasingly, the debilitating chronic diseases linked to obesity and Western lifestyles.”

Description:

Report from Harvard with Childhood Obesity data from various countries in every continent and discussing the different effects obesity has in each region.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Child Obesity

Publisher:

  • Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-foodlobby-idUSBRE83Q0ED20120427

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Sample:

“After aggressive lobbying, Congress declared pizza a vegetable to protect it from a nutritional overhaul of the school lunch program this year. The White House kept silent last year as Congress killed a plan by four federal agencies to reduce sugar, salt and fat in food marketed to children.

And during the past two years, each of the 24 states and five cities that considered “soda taxes” to discourage consumption of sugary drinks has seen the efforts dropped or defeated.

At every level of government, the food and beverage industries won fight after fight during the last decade. They have never lost a significant political battle in the United States despite mounting scientific evidence of the role of unhealthy food and children’s marketing in obesity.”

Description:

Special report from Reuters highlighting how the food industry’s lobbying has prevented regulations aimed at improving public health, especially in kids.

Author(s):

  • Duff Wilson and Janet Roberts

Title:

  • Special Report: How Washington went soft on childhood obesity

Publisher:

  • Reuters

Date:

  • April 27, 2012

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/childhood-obesity/symptoms-causes/dxc-20268891

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Sample:

  • Family factors. If your child comes from a family of overweight people, he or she may be more likely to put on weight. This is especially true in an environment where high-calorie foods are always available and physical activity isn’t encouraged.
  • Psychological factors. Personal, parental and family stress can increase a child’s risk of obesity. Some children overeat to cope with problems or to deal with emotions, such as stress, or to fight boredom. Their parents may have similar tendencies.
  • Socioeconomic factors. People in some communities have limited resources and limited access to supermarkets. As a result, they may opt for convenience foods that don’t spoil quickly, such as frozen meals, crackers and cookies. In addition, people who live in lower income neighborhoods might not have access to a safe place to exercise.

Description:

Informational page on Childhood Obesity from the Mayo Clinic with details about causes and symptoms, and links to info on diagnosis and treatment.

Author(s):

  • Mayo Clinic Staff

Title:

  • Childhood obesity

Publisher:

  • Mayo Clinic

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123518/

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Sample:

“Those against, contend that the benefit to humans does not justify the harm to animals. Many people also believe that animals are inferior to humans and very different from them, hence results from animals cannot be applied to humans. Those in favor of animal testing argue that experiments on animals are necessary to advance medical and biological knowledge. Claude Bernard, known as the father of physiology, stated that “experiments on animals are entirely conclusive for the toxicology and hygiene of man. The effects of these substances are the same on man as on animals, save for differences in degree”. Bernard established animal experimentation as part of the standard scientific method.

Drug testing using animals became important in the twentieth century. In 1937, a pharmaceutical company in the USA created a preparation of sulfanilamide, using diethylene glycol (DEG) as a solvent, and called the preparation ‘Elixir Sulfanilamide’. DEG was poisonous to humans, but the company’s chief pharmacist and chemist was not aware of this. He simply added raspberry flavoring to the sulfa drug, which he had dissolved in DEG, and the company marketed the product. The preparation led to mass poisoning causing the deaths of more than a hundred people. No animal testing was done. The public outcry caused by this incident and other similar disasters led to the passing of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requiring safety testing of drugs on animals before they could be marketed.”

Description:

Article discussing the importance of animal test subjects to medicinal research and current efforts to limit such tests and make them safer.

Author(s):

  • Rachel Hajar

Title:

  • Animal Testing and Medicine

Publisher:

  • Heart Views

Date:

  • 2011

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/experiments_1.shtml

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Sample:

“Animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products.

Many of these experiments cause pain to the animals involved or reduce their quality of life in other ways.

If it is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer then experimenting on animals produces serious moral problems.

Animal experimenters are very aware of this ethical problem and acknowledge that experiments should be made as humane as possible.

They also agree that it’s wrong to use animals if alternative testing methods would produce equally valid results.”

Description:

BBC article exploring the ethics of animal experimenting to determine if it is actually humane or effective to conduct experiments on animals.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Experimenting on animals

Publisher:

  • BBC

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

Need the full citations? Request them in the Study Hall and we will respond with them as quickly as possible. You can also request more research, or get help with other parts of your paper.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594046/

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Sample:

“Nonhuman animal (“animal”) experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.”

Description:

Scholarly article discussing what merit there is to using animal testing for healthcare treatment, concluding it can be dangerous due to misleading results.

Author(s):

  • Aysha Akhtar

Title:

  • The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation

Publisher:

  • Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics

Date:

  • October 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3830171/

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Sample:

“Individuals who perceive their bodies negatively with regard to culturally valued features may have low self-esteem, low satisfaction in life and feeling of inferiority and pose themselves at higher risk for depression, anxiety or eating disorders. At the highest level of dissatisfaction, this may result in significant impairment of social, educational and/or occupational functioning. Currently, beautiful is considered good and thinness is synonymous with beauty, which makes it valued by society while its opposite, obesity, is strongly rejected. Although the ideals of female beauty vary as a function of esthetical standards adopted at each time, studies show that women have tried to change their bodies to follow these standards.[5]

Obesity has been identified as one of the rising epidemic across globe with consequential rise of non-communicable diseases including disproportionate health care cost on individuals, family and society. According to latest WHO estimates, 14.4% (male) and 15% (female) adult aged 15 years and above are obese in the world.[6] More than half a billion adults (205 million men and 297 million women over the age of 20 years) world-wide were obese in 2008. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was highest in WHO regions of America and lowest in South-East Asia.[7]

Overweight children, adolescents, and adults generally have lower body esteem than do their normal-weight peers and this is especially true for females.[8] It is generally believed that body image distortion and related consequences is a western societal phenomenon however, it has made its presence felt into diverse culture including developing countries also. With the change in epidemiological shift, India is witnessing simultaneous manifestation of double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease with a challenging and daunting task for stakeholders to identify issues, resolve conflict, mobilize resources and overcome situation with innovative solution and strategies. Considering this background, a cross-sectional descriptive study sought to determine body image satisfaction, a hitherto underexplored arena in our setting. Using body satisfaction described in words, this study also investigated relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables.”

Description:

Study published in the Industrial Psychiatry Journal aiming to measure the body-image satisfaction among female students entering college.

Author(s):

  • Shweta Goswami, Sandeep Sachdeva, and Ruchi Sachdeva

Title:

  • Body image satisfaction among female college students

Publisher:

  • Industrial Psychiatry Journal

Date:

  • 2012

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139177

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Sample:

“Body image is the subjective “picture” that people have of their own body, regardless of how their body actually looks. Body image is a multifaceted construct, consisting of cognitive and affective components (i.e., how people think and feel about their body), perceptual components (i.e., how people perceive the size and shape of their body and body parts), and behavioural components (i.e., the actions that people perform for the purpose of checking on, tending to, altering, or concealing their body). Negative body image is expressed in one or more of the components of body image and is often characterised by a dissatisfaction with appearance and engaging in behaviours such as frequent self-weighing or mirror checking, or avoidance of public situations.

Studies have shown that negative body image can emerge in childhood. Approximately 50% of preadolescent girls and 30% of preadolescent boys dislike their body. In adults, approximately 60% of women and 40% of men have a negative body image, and these rates remain stable across the lifespan. Negative body image contributes to the development and maintenance of body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, and is associated with low self-esteem, depression, social anxiety, and impaired sexual functioning. In addition, negative body image has serious consequences for health behaviours. For instance, negative body image predicts physical inactivity, unhealthy eating, and weight gain, and is associated with unsafe sex, smoking, and skin cancer risk behaviours.”

Description:

Meta-analysis of various interventions meant to improve body image, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, fitness training, media literacy, and others.

Author(s):

  • Jessica M. Alleva, Paschal Sheeran, Thomas L. Webb, Carolien Martijn, Eleanor Miles

Title:

  • A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image

Publisher:

  • PLoS ONE

Date:

  • September 29, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.aedweb.org/index.php/23-get-involved/position-statements/89-aed-statement-on-body-shaming-and-weight-prejudice-in-public-endeavors-to-reduce-obesity-3

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Sample:

“In summary, eating disorders are biologically-based, serious mental illnesses because:

• There is medical and scientific evidence that anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are as heritable as other psychiatric conditions (e.g. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression) that are considered biologically based. • The behaviors of restricting food intake, bingeing and purging have been shown to alter brain structure, metabolism and neurochemistry in ways that make it difficult for individuals to discontinue the behaviors. • Eating disorders are associated with impairment in emotional and cognitive functioning that greatly limits life activities. • Eating disorders are life-threatening illnesses and are associated with numerous medical complications. Mortality rates for anorexia nervosa are the highest of any psychiatric disorder.”

Description:

Position statement from the Academy of Eating Disorders that describes why it eating disorders are considered a “serious” mental illness, as well as the impact of insurers and others in the healthcare industry not classifying it as such.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Position Statement: Eating Disorders are Serious Mental Illnesses

Publisher:

  • Academy for Eating Disorders

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nature.com/articles/nrdp201626

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Sample:

Note: BID is Body Image Distortion and AN is Anorexia Nervosa.

“Findings from an increasing number of functional MRI (fMRI) studies . . . provide valuable insights into the neural basis of BID in AN. Unfortunately, we felt that these issues were not entirely addressed by the Primer, making it difficult to understand the ‘reasonably consistent’ (Ref. 7) evidence produced by this research. The review summarized that the ‘affective’ component of BID in AN is related to alterations of the prefrontal cortex, the insula and the amygdala and that the ‘perceptive’ component of BID is related to alterations of the parietal lobes (which have roles in spatial and body representations, body ownership and other features requiring multisensory integration) or, more accurately, the posterior parietal regions (which are involved in visuospatial processing). A deficit in parietal cortex-mediated functions in AN is also underscored by findings from neurocognitive studies. Although both extant neuroimaging and behavioural data suggest that two components of body image (the estimation of one’s own body size and the attitude towards one’s own body in terms of an emotional evaluation) are disturbed in individuals with AN, these aspects might have been described in more detail in the Primer. In fact, although two (widely accepted) body-image components can be distinguished, this does not imply that they are independent. Indeed, experimental evidence supports a direct (unidirectional) link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body. The aforementioned specific neural bases of the affective component of BID in AN also support an altered emotional response to unpleasant (for example, self-distorted fat image) stimuli. Furthermore, in the few available fMRI studies based on a word paradigm (that is, tasks using ‘fat’, ‘thin’ and ‘neutral’ words), a variation in amygdala response was absent — making the involvement of this brain region less clear but suggesting the greater relevance of self-perception and the mechanism of body-image construction (see below). There is the need to take into account these (and other convergent) clues and the considerable room for improvement that remains from the first-line prevention and psychotherapeutic interventions, currently described in the Primer (for example, the Body Project and enhanced cognitive–behavioural therapy), and targeting the ‘affective’ body-image component. Thus, we would suggest that it is now time to consider the development of intervention strategies that target the perceptive component.”

Description:

Article discussing recent reviews of research into Anorexia Nervosa and related body-image issues through brain scans and other available data.

Author(s):

  • Antonios Dakanalis, Santino Gaudio, Silvia Serino, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà & Giuseppe Riva

Title:

  • Body-image distortion in anorexia nervosa

Publisher:

  • Nature Reviews Disease Primers (Journal)

Date:

  • April 21, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/mental-downtime/

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Sample:

“In making an argument for the necessity of mental downtime, we can now add an overwhelming amount of empirical evidence to intuition and anecdote. Why giving our brains a break now and then is so important has become increasingly clear in a diverse collection of new studies investigating: the habits of office workers and the daily routines of extraordinary musicians and athletes; the benefits of vacation, meditation and time spent in parks, gardens and other peaceful outdoor spaces; and how napping, unwinding while awake and perhaps the mere act of blinking can sharpen the mind. What research to date also clarifies, however, is that even when we are relaxing or daydreaming, the brain does not really slow down or stop working. Rather—just as a dazzling array of molecular, genetic and physiological processes occur primarily or even exclusively when we sleep at night—many important mental processes seem to require what we call downtime and other forms of rest during the day. Downtime replenishes the brain’s stores of attention and motivation, encourages productivity and creativity, and is essential to both achieve our highest levels of performance and simply form stable memories in everyday life. A wandering mind unsticks us in time so that we can learn from the past and plan for the future. Moments of respite may even be necessary to keep one’s moral compass in working order and maintain a sense of self.

The rest is history

For much of the 20th century many scientists regarded the idea that the brain might be productive during downtime as ludicrous. German neurologist Hans Berger disagreed. In 1929, after extensive studies using an electroencephalogram—a device he invented to record electrical impulses in the brain by placing a net of electrodes on the scalp—he proposed that the brain is always in “a state of considerable activity,” even when people were sleeping or relaxing. Although his peers acknowledged that some parts of the the brain and spinal cord must work nonstop to regulate the lungs and heart, they assumed that when someone was not focusing on a specific mental task, the brain was largely offline; any activity picked up by an electroencephalogram or other device during rest was mostly random noise. At first, the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the early 1990s only strengthened this view of the brain as an exquisitely frugal organ switching on and off its many parts as needed. By tracing blood flow through the brain, fMRI clearly showed that different neural circuits became especially active during different mental tasks, summoning extra blood full of oxygen and glucose to use as energy.

By the mid 1990s, however, Marcus Raichle of Washington University in Saint Louis and his colleagues had demonstrated that the human brain is in fact a glutton, constantly demanding 20 percent of all the energy the body produces and requiring only 5 to 10 percent more energy than usual when someone solves calculus problems or reads a book. Raichle also noticed that a particular set of scattered brain regions consistently became less active when someone concentrated on a mental challenge, but began to fire in synchrony when someone was simply lying supine in an fMRI scanner, letting their thoughts wander. Likewise, Bharat Biswal, now at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, documented the same kind of coordinated communication between disparate brain regions in people who were resting. Many researchers were dubious, but further studies by other scientists confirmed that the findings were not a fluke. Eventually this mysterious and complex circuit that stirred to life when people were daydreaming became known as the default mode network (DMN). In the last five years researchers discovered that the DMN is but one of at least five different resting-state networks—circuits for vision, hearing, movement, attention and memory. But the DMN remains the best studied and perhaps the most important among them.”

Description:

Article from Scientific American examining the effect of mental downtime in the form of meditation, napping, and the like on productivity and our brains.

Author(s):

  • Ferris Jabr

Title:

  • Why Your Brain Needs More Downtime

Publisher:

  • Scientific American

Date:

  • October 15, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/03/08/climate/early-spring.html?_r=1

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Sample:

“By the 2017 calendar, the first day of spring is March 20. But spring leaves arrived in mid-January in some parts of the South, and spread northward like a wave. The map above plots the date of “first leaf,” a temperature-based calculation of when vegetation that has been dormant starts to show signs of life. This year, with the exception of a few small areas, the wave has arrived much earlier than the 30-year average.

An early spring means more than just earlier blooms of fruit trees and decorative shrubs like azaleas. It can wreak havoc on schedules that farmers follow for planting and that tourism officials follow for events that are tied to a natural activity like trees blooming. Some plant species that bud early may be susceptible to a snap frost later, and early growth of grasses and other vegetation can disrupt some animals’ usual cycles of spring feeding and growth.”

Description:

Article covering a report from scientists at World Weather Attribution that states the one likely cause for a warm Feb. in 2017 is climate change.

Author(s):

  • Jeremy White and Henry Fountain

Title:

  • Spring Came Early. Scientists Say Climate Change Is a Culprit.

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • March 8, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/an-overview-of-yoga-research-for-health-and-wellbeing-2157-7595-1000210.php?aid=63791

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Sample:

“With the emergence of higher quality yoga research, there is evidence that yoga has sizable and replicable effects for many health conditions. Although health is viewed as holistic in yogic traditions and aspects of health are clearly intertwined, research often targets specific areas such as physical health, mental health, and/or spiritual well-being. Some conditions that have been well studied include depression, stress and anxiety, irritable bowel syndrome, HIV, heart conditions, cancer, and chronic low back pain (CLBP) [40-43]. With CLBP, for example, a recent review documented consistent findings that yoga can improve function and decrease pain in people with CLBP [44,45]. Additionally yoga practice among people with CLBP reduces depression and pain medication use and improves quality of life [46-48].

There have been studies examining the potential benefits of yoga for cancer survivors, with the majority of research focusing on alleviating symptoms of radiation or chemotherapy, such as fatigue. A recent review concluded that yoga improves quality of life and psychosocial outcomes including depression in cancer survivors, but evidence is limited for supporting improvements in fatigue or sleep [49,50].

Considerable research has also been conducted examining the effects of yoga on cardiovascular risk factors, including a recent review concluding that yoga is a promising method for reducing high blood pressure (hypertension). Other reviews too report a variety of beneficial effects of yoga for cardiovascular diseases more broadly [51]. For asthma, the breathing component of yoga has been linked to improvements in lung function, but has not proven to be better than standard breathing exercises for those specific outcomes [52-54].”

Description:

Article published in the Journal of Yoga and Physical Therapy covering the available scholarly research on how yoga can impact one’s health.

Author(s):

  • Erik J Groessil, Deepak Chopra, Paul J Mills

Title:

  • An Overview of Yoga Research for Health and Well-Being

Publisher:

  • Journal of Yoga and Physical Therapy

Date:

  • October 27, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/yoga-for-anxiety-and-depression

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Sample:

“Since the 1970s, meditation and other stress-reduction techniques have been studied as possible treatments for depression and anxiety. One such practice, yoga, has received less attention in the medical literature, though it has become increasingly popular in recent decades. One national survey estimated, for example, that about 7.5% of U.S. adults had tried yoga at least once, and that nearly 4% practiced yoga in the previous year.

Yoga classes can vary from gentle and accommodating to strenuous and challenging; the choice of style tends to be based on physical ability and personal preference. Hatha yoga, the most common type of yoga practiced in the United States, combines three elements: physical poses, called asanas; controlled breathing practiced in conjunction with asanas; and a short period of deep relaxation or meditation.

Many of the studies evaluating yoga’s therapeutic benefits have been small and poorly designed. However, a 2004 analysis found that, in recent decades, an increasing number have been randomized controlled trials — the most rigorous standard for proving efficacy.”

Description:

Harvard Medical School publication outlining the effects yoga can have in relation to anxiety and depression, with an overview of research in this field.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Yoga for anxiety and depression

Publisher:

  • Harvard Medical School

Date:

  • April, 2009

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.elsevier.com/connect/the-science-of-yoga-what-new-research-reveals

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Sample:

“In her review, Dr. Tiffany Field, Director of the Touch Research Institute at the University of Miami, provides a fascinating overview of the effect of yoga on anxiety and depression, pain, cardiovascular, autoimmune and immune conditions and on pregnancy.

In research looking more closely at the effect of yoga on anxiety, Dr. M. Javnbakht and colleagues from the Psychiatry Department of Islamic Azad University in Iran showed that participating in a two-month yoga class can significantly reduce anxiety in women with anxiety disorders. In their paper published in Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, the researchers say this “suggests that yoga can be considered as a complementary therapy or an alternative method for medical therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders.”

Another study, published in Complementary Therapies in Medicine, examined the effect of yoga on lower back pain. Dr. Padmini Tekur and colleagues from the Division of Yoga & Life Sciences at the Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation (SVYASA) in India carried out a seven-day randomized control trial at a holistic health center in Bangalore, India, with 80 patients who have chronic lower back pain. They assigned patients to one of two groups – yoga therapy and physical therapy. Their results showed that practicing yoga is more effective than physical therapy at reducing pain, anxiety and depression, and improving spinal mobility.”

Description:

Article covering various research studies done on the health benefits of Yoga and exactly what we know about how it can help deal with stress. Includes links to research studies and more information.

Author(s):

  • Denise Rankin-Box

Title:

  • The science of yoga — what research reveals

Publisher:

  • Elsevier

Date:

  • June 18, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://phys.org/news/2017-02-scientists-categorize-earth-toxic-planet.html

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Sample:

“Humans emit more than 250 billion tonnes of chemical substances a year, in a toxic avalanche that is harming people and life everywhere on the planet.

“Earth, and all life on it, are being saturated with man-made chemicals in an event unlike anything in the planet’s entire history,” says Julian Cribb, author of ‘Surviving the 21st Century’ (Springer International 2017).

“Every moment of our lives we are exposed to thousands of these substances. They enter our bodies with each breath, meal or drink we take, the clothes and cosmetics we wear, the things we encounter every day in our homes, workplaces and travel.

Mr Cribb says that the poisoning of the planet through man-made chemical emissions is probably the largest human impact – and the one that is least understood or regulated. It is one of ten major existential risks now confronting humanity, he describes in Surviving the 21st Century.”

Description:

Article covering scientists comments about pollution and climate damage due to human activity like plastic pollution and manufactured chemicals.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Scientists categorize Earth as a ‘toxic planet’

Publisher:

  • Phys.org

Date:

  • February 7, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sports/league-of-denial/timeline-the-nfls-concussion-crisis/

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Sample:

“October 1999

NFL RETIREMENT BOARD RULES MIKE WEBSTER PERMANENTLY DISABLED

The NFL Retirement Board rules that Mike Webster’s head injuries from his years playing for the Pittsburgh Steelers and Kansas City Chiefs left him “totally and permanently” disabled as “the result of head injuries he suffered as a football player.” The ruling isn’t made public until it’s uncovered by FRONTLINE/ESPN reporters Steve Fainaru and Mark Fainaru-Wada.

Webster’s attorney, Bob Fitzsimmons, says the ruling shows that the league should’ve known there was a link between football and brain damage.

“It’s pretty devastating evidence,” he said. “If the NFL takes the position that they didn’t know or weren’t armed with evidence that concussions can cause total disability — permanent disability, permanent brain injury — in 1999, that evidence trumps anything they say.””

Description:

Detailed timeline from PBS on the issue of concussions in the NFL, chronicling their pubilc stances, contributions to research, and injured players.

Author(s):

  • Lauren Ezell

Title:

  • Timeline: The NFL’s Concussion Crisis

Publisher:

  • PBS

Date:

  • October 8, 2013

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/concussion/symptoms-causes/dxc-20273155

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Sample:

The signs and symptoms of a concussion can be subtle and may not show up immediately. Symptoms can last for days, weeks or even longer.

Common symptoms after a concussive traumatic brain injury are headache, loss of memory (amnesia) and confusion. The amnesia usually involves forgetting the event that caused the concussion.

Signs and symptoms of a concussion may include:

  • Headache or a feeling of pressure in the head
  • Temporary loss of consciousness
  • Confusion or feeling as if in a fog
  • Amnesia surrounding the traumatic event
  • Dizziness or “seeing stars”
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Slurred speech
  • Delayed response to questions
  • Appearing dazed
  • Fatigue

Description:

List of symptoms and causes of concussions from the Mayo Clinic, with details for concussions in children, athletes, and links to more information.

Author(s):

  • Mayo Clinic Staff

Title:

  • Symptoms and causes

Publisher:

  • Mayo Clinic

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GlobalWarming/page4.php

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Sample:

“In Earth’s history before the Industrial Revolution, Earth’s climate changed due to natural causes not related to human activity. Most often, global climate has changed because of variations in sunlight. Tiny wobbles in Earth’s orbit altered when and where sunlight falls on Earth’s surface. Variations in the Sun itself have alternately increased and decreased the amount of solar energy reaching Earth. Volcanic eruptions have generated particles that reflect sunlight, brightening the planet and cooling the climate. Volcanic activity has also, in the deep past, increased greenhouse gases over millions of years, contributing to episodes of global warming.

These natural causes are still in play today, but their influence is too small or they occur too slowly to explain the rapid warming seen in recent decades. We know this because scientists closely monitor the natural and human activities that influence climate with a fleet of satellites and surface instruments.”

Description:

Article from NASA discussing the science behind the idea that climate change is strongly influenced by human activity even though it is partly natural.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Is Current Warming Natural?

Publisher:

  • NASA

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.fastcoexist.com/3068125/solar-now-provides-twice-as-many-jobs-as-the-coal-industry

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Sample:

“As solar power keeps getting cheaper—and more and more of it is built as a result—the industry is also an increasingly important source of new jobs, adding workers at a rate nearly 17 times faster than the overall economy. Twice as many people now work in solar than in the coal industry, according to a new survey from the nonprofit Solar Foundation.

While 40 coal plants were retired in the U.S. in 2016, and no new coal plants were built, the solar industry broke records for new installations, with 14,000 megawatts of new installed power. Many of the jobs came from constructing massive solar plants like the Springbok Solar Farm, which is being built on a site that sprawls over 12 miles in the Mojave Desert.

“It’s very labor-intensive,” Andrea Luecke, president and executive director of the Solar Foundation, tells Co.Exist. “It takes hundreds of people to work on some of these large-scale systems, and it takes about 18 months for the systems to go from start to finish.” In some cases, a traveling crew moves from site to site. Other companies focus on hiring local workers, and while large solar farms may be located only in the sunniest places, rooftop solar is creating more construction jobs everywhere.”

Description:

Data shows that solar employs twice as many people as the coal industry does as of 2016, with coal shutting down 40 plants and not adding any in 2016.

Author(s):

  • Adele Peters

Title:

  • Solar Now Provides Twice As Many Jobs As The Coal Industry

Publisher:

  • Fast Company

Date:

  • February 14, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/12/14/most-americans-favor-stricter-environmental-laws-and-regulations/

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Sample:

“More Americans say environmental regulations are “worth the cost” than say such regulations come at too steep a price, according to a new Pew Research Center survey. These views come amid speculation about what President-elect Donald Trump’s Cabinet nominees may mean for future regulatory policy.

A majority of U.S. adults (59%) say stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost, compared with roughly a third (34%) who say such regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy, according to the survey, conducted Nov. 30 to Dec. 5.

Education level and age are both associated with perceptions of environmental regulations. Younger adults and those with more education are more likely than older adults and those with less education to say stricter environmental laws are worth the cost.

Opinion also differs across party lines. Nearly eight-in-ten Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents (78%) see stricter environmental laws as worth the cost, while a majority of Republicans and Republican leaners (58%) say stricter environmental regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy.”

Description:

Poll from Pew Research Center showing most Americans favor stricter environmental regulations, broken down by demographics and political affiliations.

Author(s):

  • Kristen Bialik

Title:

  • Most Americans favor stricter environmental laws and regulations

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • December 14, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/science/scientific-consensus-on.html#.WK3WIjsrJAg

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Sample:

National Science Academies

  • U.S. National Academy of Sciences: Understanding and Responding to Climate Change

    “The scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify taking steps to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.” (2005)

  • International academies: Joint science academies’ statement: Global response to climate change

    “Climate change is real. There will always be uncertainty in understanding a system as complex as the world’s climate. However there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring.” (2005, 11 national academies of science)

  • International academies The Science of Climate Change

    “Despite increasing consensus on the science underpinning predictions of global climate change, doubts have been expressed recently about the need to mitigate the risks posed by global climate change. We do not consider such doubts justified.” (2001, 16 national academies of science)”

Description:

List of quotes and sources from scientific publications and organizations showing a consensus that climate change is caused by humans.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Scientific Consensus on Global Warming

Publisher:

  • Union of Concerned Scientists

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/10/05/americans-strongly-favor-expanding-solar-power-to-help-address-costs-and-environmental-concerns/

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Sample:

“As the solar energy industry gears up to add more electricity-generating capacity than any other source this year, a new Pew Research Center survey finds that almost nine-in-ten U.S. adults (89%) favor expanding use of solar power, while only 9% oppose it. That sentiment bridges the partisan divide, with large majorities from across the political spectrum favoring more use of this alternative source.

Planned large-scale solar farms are expected to add 9.5 gigawatts of electricity-generating capacity, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), a government agency that collects and analyzes information about the energy industry. Natural gas is expected to add 8 gigawatts and wind 6.8 gigawatts. And that figure for solar doesn’t count electricity-generating capacity from distributed solar, such as rooftop panels. (In 2015, distributed solar added nearly 2 gigawatts of capacity.)”

Description:

Data from Pew Research Center showing a majority of Americans favor solar energy as a method of saving money as well as to help the environment.

Author(s):

  • Brian Kennedy

Title:

  • Americans strongly favor expanding solar power to help address costs and environmental concerns

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • October 5, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewinternet.org/2017/02/02/vast-majority-of-americans-say-benefits-of-childhood-vaccines-outweigh-risks/

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Sample:

“Yet, public concerns about childhood vaccines linger in the public discourse, often linked to a now discredited and retracted research study published nearly two decades ago that raised questions about a possible link between the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and autism. Despite assurances of vaccine safety from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics and a host of other scientific bodies that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine does not cause autism, a number of prominent figures have expressed concerns about the safety of childhood vaccines. President Donald Trump raised questions about the safety of childhood vaccines on the campaign trail and during the transition period met with Robert Kennedy Jr. reportedly about the possibility of leading a commission on vaccine safety and scientific integrity. Kennedy edited a book that argues that a preservative used in some vaccines causes neurological disorders, including autism.

A new Pew Research Center survey conducted prior to the election finds the “vaccine hesitant” views expressed by Trump and other public figures to be at odds with most Americans’ views. An overwhelming majority of Americans (82%) support requiring all healthy schoolchildren to be vaccinated for measles, mumps and rubella. Some 73% of Americans see high preventive health benefits from use of the MMR vaccine, and 66% believe there is a low risk of side effects from the vaccine. Overall, 88% believe that the benefits of these inoculations outweigh the risks.”

Description:

Report from Pew Research Center published in 2017 stating most Americans support required vaccination of schoolchildren and believe they are beneficial.

Author(s):

  • Cary Funk, Brian Kennedy, and Meg Hefferon

Title:

  • Vast Majority of Americans Say Benefits of Childhood Vaccines Outweigh Risks

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • February 2, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/10/04/public-views-on-climate-change-and-climate-scientists/

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Sample:

“Roughly four-in-ten Americans expect harmful effects from climate change on wildlife, shorelines and weather patterns. At the same time, many are optimistic that both policy and individual efforts to address climate change can have an impact. A narrow majority of Americans anticipate new technological solutions to problems connected with climate change, and some 61% believe people will make major changes to their way of life within the next half century.

On all of these matters there are wide differences along political lines with conservative Republicans much less inclined to anticipate negative effects from climate change or to judge proposed solutions as making much difference in mitigating any effects. Half or more liberal Democrats, by contrast, see negative effects from climate change as very likely and believe an array of policy solutions can make a big difference.

Americans who are more deeply concerned about climate issues, regardless of their partisan orientation, are particularly likely to see negative effects ahead from climate change, and strong majorities among this group think policy solutions can be effective at addressing climate change.”

Description:

Report on data collected by Pew Research Center on the American public’s views on climate change and the science supporting it, issued in 2016.

Author(s):

  • Cary Funk and Brian Kennedy

Title:

  • The Politics of Climate

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • October 4, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/earth/climate-change-acceptance/

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Sample:

“In the 1990s, Michael Ranney started informally asking people what they perceived to be the world’s biggest problem. He hadn’t set out to tackle environmental issues—he was first trained in applied physics and materials science before turning to cognitive psychology. But time and again, he heard “climate change” as an answer.

Ranney had also noticed that while the scientific community had converged on a consensus, the general public had not, at least not in the U.S. The Climategate controversy in late 2009 over leaked e-mails between climate scientists and Oklahoma Senator James Inhofe’s insistence that anthropogenic global warming is a hoax are just two examples of the widespread conflict among the American public over what is causing the planet to warm.

Ranney and his team say that a “wisdom deficit” is driving the wedge. Specifically, it’s a lack of understanding of the mechanism of global warming that’s been retarding progress on the issue. “For many Americans, they’re caught between a radio talk show host—of the sort that Rush Limbaugh is—and maybe a professor who just gave them a lecture on global warming. And if you don’t understand the mechanism, then you just have competing authorities, kind of like the Pope and Galileo,” he says. “Mechanism turns out to be a tie-breaker when there’s a contentious issue.””

Description:

PBS article investigating why many Americans do not believe global warming is caused by humans – despite data showing Americans trust scientists.

Author(s):

  • Brad Balukjian

Title:

  • Why Doesn’t Everyone Believe Humans Are Causing Climate Change?

Publisher:

  • PBS

Date:

  • November 19, 2014

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-atmospheric-concentrations-greenhouse-gases

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Sample:

  • “Global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and certain manufactured greenhouse gases have all risen significantly over the last few hundred years (see Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4).
  • Historical measurements show that the current global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are unprecedented compared with the past 800,000 years (see Figures 1, 2, and 3).
  • Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased substantially since the beginning of the industrial era, rising from an annual average of 280 ppm in the late 1700s to 401 ppm as measured at Mauna Loa in 2015—a 43 percent increase (see Figure 1). Almost all of this increase is due to human activities.1
  • The concentration of methane in the atmosphere has more than doubled since preindustrial times, reaching approximately 1,800 ppb in recent years (see the range of measurements for 2014 and 2015 in Figure 2). This increase is predominantly due to agriculture and fossil fuel use.2

Description:

Charts and data from the EPA on the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the increases since the early 20th century and prior.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Climate Change Indicators: Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • Environmental Protection Agency

Date:

  • April 2016 (Check source for updates to date)

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2141868/

doi:  10.1073/pnas.0702737104

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Sample:

“The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the largest human contributor to human-induced climate change, is increasing rapidly. Three processes contribute to this rapid increase. Two of these processes concern emissions. Recent growth of the world economy combined with an increase in its carbon intensity have led to rapid growth in fossil fuel CO2 emissions since 2000: comparing the 1990s with 2000–2006, the emissions growth rate increased from 1.3% to 3.3% y−1. The third process is indicated by increasing evidence (P = 0.89) for a long-term (50-year) increase in the airborne fraction (AF) of CO2 emissions, implying a decline in the efficiency of CO2 sinks on land and oceans in absorbing anthropogenic emissions. Since 2000, the contributions of these three factors to the increase in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate have been ≈65 ± 16% from increasing global economic activity, 17 ± 6% from the increasing carbon intensity of the global economy, and 18 ± 15% from the increase in AF. An increasing AF is consistent with results of climate–carbon cycle models, but the magnitude of the observed signal appears larger than that estimated by models. All of these changes characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected and sooner-than-expected climate forcing.”

Description:

Journal article investigating how economic activity is increasing carbon dioxide emissions and the rapid increases in the amount of these emissions.

Author(s):

  • Josep G. Canadell, Corinne Le Quéré, Michael R. Raupach, Christopher B. Field, Erik T. Buitenhuis, Philippe Ciais, Thomas J. Conway, Nathan P. Gillett, R. A. Houghton, and Gregg Marlandi

Title:

  • Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks

Publisher:

  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Date:

  • October 25, 2007

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/earth-will-cross-the-climate-danger-threshold-by-2036/

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Sample:

““Temperatures have been flat for 15 years—nobody can properly explain it,” the Wall Street Journal says. “Global warming ‘pause’ may last for 20 more years, and Arctic sea ice has already started to recover,” the Daily Mail says. Such reassuring claims about climate abound in the popular media, but they are misleading at best. Global warming continues unabated, and it remains an urgent problem.

The misunderstanding stems from data showing that during the past decade there was a slowing in the rate at which the earth’s average surface temperature had been increasing. The event is commonly referred to as “the pause,” but that is a misnomer: temperatures still rose, just not as fast as during the prior decade. The important question is, What does the short-term slowdown portend for how the world may warm in the future?

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is charged with answering such questions. In response to the data, the IPCC in its September 2013 report lowered one aspect of its prediction for future warming. Its forecasts, released every five to seven years, drive climate policy worldwide, so even the small change raised debate over how fast the planet is warming and how much time we have to stop it. The IPCC has not yet weighed in on the impacts of the warming or how to mitigate it, which it will do in reports that were due this March and April. Yet I have done some calculations that I think can answer those questions now: If the world keeps burning fossil fuels at the current rate, it will cross a threshold into environmental ruin by 2036. The “faux pause” could buy the planet a few extra years beyond that date to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the crossover—but only a few.”

Description:

Article exploring how the current rate of rise in global temperature will become dangerous for the planet around year 2036 if not slowed before then.

Author(s):

  • Michael E Mann

Title:

  • Earth Will Cross the Climate Danger Threshold by 2036

Publisher:

  • Scientific American

Date:

  • April 1, 2014

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nature.com/news/one-third-of-our-greenhouse-gas-emissions-come-from-agriculture-1.11708

doi: 10.1038/nature.2012.11708

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Sample:

“The global food system, from fertilizer manufacture to food storage and packaging, is responsible for up to one-third of all human-caused greenhouse-gas emissions, according to the latest figures from the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), a partnership of 15 research centres around the world.

In two reports published today1, 2, the CGIAR says that reducing agriculture’s carbon footprint is central to limiting climate change. And to help to ensure food security, farmers across the globe will probably have to switch to cultivating more climate-hardy crops and farming practices.

“The food-related emissions and the impacts of climate change on agriculture and the food system will profoundly alter the way we grow and produce food,” says Sonja Vermeulen, a plant scientist at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and a co-author of one of the studies, which estimates the emissions footprint of food.”

Description:

Report from scholarly journal Nature stating agriculture is responsible for roughly one-third of “all human-caused greenhouse-gas emissions.”

Author(s):

  • Natasha Gilbert

Title:

  • One-third of our greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture

Publisher:

  • Nature

Date:

  • October 31 2012

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring-references/faq/greenhouse-gases.php

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Sample:

“Many chemical compounds present in Earth’s atmosphere behave as ‘greenhouse gases’. These are gases which allow direct sunlight (relative shortwave energy) to reach the Earth’s surface unimpeded. As the shortwave energy (that in the visible and ultraviolet portion of the spectra) heats the surface, longer-wave (infrared) energy (heat) is reradiated to the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases absorb this energy, thereby allowing less heat to escape back to space, and ‘trapping’ it in the lower atmosphere. Many greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide, while others are synthetic. Those that are man-made include the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), as well as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Atmospheric concentrations of both the natural and man-made gases have been rising over the last few centuries due to the industrial revolution. As the global population has increased and our reliance on fossil fuels (such as coal, oil and natural gas) has been firmly solidified, so emissions of these gases have risen. While gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere, through our interference with the carbon cycle (through burning forest lands, or mining and burning coal), we artificially move carbon from solid storage to its gaseous state, thereby increasing atmospheric concentrations.”

Description:

Detailed information on greenhouse gases with a list of specific chemical compounds and how they affect Earth’s atmosphere to create a warmer climate. Click through the different compounds at the top of the page to browse the content.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • National Centers for Environmental Information, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/01/150122-food-waste-climate-change-hunger/

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Sample:

“More than a third of all of the food that’s produced on our planet never reaches a table. It’s either spoiled in transit or thrown out by consumers in wealthier countries, who typically buy too much and toss the excess. This works out to roughly 1.3 billion tons of food, worth nearly $1 trillion at retail prices.

Aside from the social, economic, and moral implications of that waste—in a world where an estimated 805 million people go to bed hungry each night—the environmental cost of producing all that food, for nothing, is staggering.

The water wastage alone would be the equivalent of the entire annual flow of the Volga—Europe’s largest river—according to a UN report. The energy that goes into the production, harvesting, transporting, and packaging of that wasted food, meanwhile, generates more than 3.3 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide. If food waste were a country, it would be the world’s third largest emitter of greenhouse gases, behind the U.S. and China.”

Description:

National Geographic article about how food production generates more greenhouse gases than many countries and how limiting food waste can help.

Author(s):

  • Roff Smith

Title:

  • How Reducing Food Waste Could Ease Climate Change

Publisher:

  • National Geographic

Date:

  • Jan. 22, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/348/6234/571.full

DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa4984

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Sample:

“Current predictions of extinction risks from climate change vary widely depending on the specific assumptions and geographic and taxonomic focus of each study. I synthesized published studies in order to estimate a global mean extinction rate and determine which factors contribute the greatest uncertainty to climate change–induced extinction risks. Results suggest that extinction risks will accelerate with future global temperatures, threatening up to one in six species under current policies. Extinction risks were highest in South America, Australia, and New Zealand, and risks did not vary by taxonomic group. Realistic assumptions about extinction debt and dispersal capacity substantially increased extinction risks. We urgently need to adopt strategies that limit further climate change if we are to avoid an acceleration of global extinctions.”

Description:

Article exploring how climate change and global warming may be increasing the chances of extinction, and accelerating the process for many species.

Author(s):

  • Mark C. Urban

Title:

  • Accelerating extinction risk from climate change

Publisher:

  • Journal: Science, Vol. 348, Issue 6234, pages 571-573

Date:

  • May 1, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nap.edu/read/21852/chapter/2#7

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Sample:

Confidence in attribution findings of anthropogenic influence is greatest for those extreme events that are related to an aspect of temperature, such as the observed long-term warming of the regional or global climate, where there is little doubt that human activities have caused an observed change. For extreme heat and cold events in particular, changes in long-term mean conditions provide a basis for expecting that there also should be related changes in extreme conditions. Heavy rainfall is influenced by a moister atmosphere, which is a relatively direct consequence of human-induced warming, though not as direct as the increase in temperature itself. The frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones and severe convective storms are related to large-scale climate parameters whose relationships to climate are understood to varying degrees but, in general, are more complex and less direct than are changes in either temperature or water vapor alone. Nevertheless, atmospheric circulation and dynamics play some role in the development of an extreme event, which is different for different event types. Changes in atmospheric circulation and dynamics are generally less directly controlled by temperature, less robustly simulated by climate models, and less well understood.”

Description:

This book is available online for free from the National Academies Press and examines the link between various kinds of extreme weather and climate change. This is a link to the beginning of the book, but the entire publication can be browsed online from that page.

Author(s):

  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Title:

  • Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change

Publisher:

  • The National Academies Press

Date:

  • 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nap.edu/read/12782/chapter/2#3

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Sample:

Conclusion 1: Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for—and in many cases is already affecting—a broad range of human and natural systems.

This conclusion is based on a substantial array of scientific evidence, including recent work, and is consistent with the conclusions of recent assessments by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (e.g., USGCRP, 2009a), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007a-d), and other assessments of the state of scientific knowledge on climate change. Both our assessment—the details of which can be found in Chapter 2 and Part II (Chapters 6-17) of this report—and these previous assessments place high or very high confidence1 in the following findings:

  • Earth is warming. Detailed observations of surface temperature assembled and analyzed by several different research groups show that the planet’s average surface temperature was 1.4°F (0.8°C) warmer during the first decade of the 21st century than during the first decade of the 20th century, with the most pronounced warming over the past three decades. These data are corroborated by a variety of independent observations that indicate warming in other parts of the Earth system, including the cryosphere (snow- and ice-covered regions), the lower atmosphere, and the oceans.

  • Most of the warming over the last several decades can be attributed to human activities that release carbon dioxide (CO2) and other heat-trapping greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas—for energy is the single largest human driver of climate change, but agriculture, forest clearing, and certain industrial activities also make significant contributions.

  • Natural climate variability leads to year-to-year and decade-to-decade fluctuations in temperature and other climate variables, as well as substantial regional differences, but cannot explain or offset the long-term warming trend.

  • Global warming is closely associated with a broad spectrum of other changes, such as increases in the frequency of intense rainfall, decreases in Northern Hemisphere snow cover and Arctic sea ice, warmer and more frequent hot days and nights, rising sea levels, and widespread ocean acidification.”

Description:

Advancing the Science of Climate Change one part of a 4-book series on the science of climate change made available online by the National Academies Press. This is a link to the beginning of the book, but the entire book can be browsed online from that page.

Author(s):

  • National Research Council

Title:

  • Advancing the Science of Climate Change

Publisher:

  • The National Academics Press

Date:

  • 2010

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2014/06/23/study-adds-up-benefits-climate-smart-development-lives-jobs-gdp

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Sample:

“By 2030, the benefits of these three sets of sector policies would include 94,000 premature deaths avoided annually and GDP growth of $1.8 trillion-$2.6 trillion per year. The policies would avoid 8.5 gigatons of CO2-equivalent and almost 16 billion kilowatt-hours of energy saved, roughly equivalent to taking 2 billion cars off the road. Together, these implementing these policies could represent about 30 percent of the total reduction needed in 2030 to limit global warming to 2 degrees Celsius.

The four simulated project case studies analyzed local development interventions scaled up to a national level in one country.

For example, in the Brazil landfill scenario, the report uses results from existing World Bank-supported projects in Brazil that are implementing a variety of integrated solid waste management options, including biodigesters, composting, and landfill technology that captures methane to produce electricity. If the same technologies were scaled up nationwide, over 20 years, the study estimates the changes could create more than 44,000 jobs, increase GDP by more than $13 billion, and reduce emissions by 158 million tons of CO2-equivalent.”

Description:

Article summarizing report published by the World Bank analyzing the impact of measures to combat climate change in terms of GDP, jobs, and economic growth.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • New Study Adds Up the Benefits of Climate-Smart Development in Lives, Jobs, and GDP

Publisher:

  • World Bank Group

Date:

  • June 23, 2014

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2458/why-a-half-degree-temperature-rise-is-a-big-deal/

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Sample:

“The Paris Agreement, which delegates from 196 countries hammered out in December 2015, calls for holding the ongoing rise in global average temperature to “well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels,” while “pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C.” How much difference could that half-degree of wiggle room (or 0.9 degree on the Fahrenheit scale) possibly make in the real world? Quite a bit, it appears.

The European Geosciences Union published a study in April 2016 that examined the impact of a 1.5 degree Celsius vs. a 2.0 C temperature increase by the end of the century, given what we know so far about how climate works. It found that the jump from 1.5 to 2 degrees—a third more of an increase—raises the impact by about that same fraction, very roughly, on most of the phenomena the study covered. Heat waves would last around a third longer, rain storms would be about a third more intense, the increase in sea level would be approximately that much higher and the percentage of tropical coral reefs at risk of severe degradation would be roughly that much greater.

But in some cases, that extra increase in temperature makes things much more dire. At 1.5 C, the study found that tropical coral reefs stand a chance of adapting and reversing a portion of their die-off in the last half of the century. But at 2 C, the chance of recovery vanishes. Tropical corals are virtually wiped out by the year 2100.”

Description:

Article published by NASA on the Paris Agreement and the impact even just half a degree change in global temperature can have on our climate.

Author(s):

  • Bob Silberg

Title:

  • Why a half-degree temperature rise is a big deal

Publisher:

  • NASA’s Jet Propulsion Labratory

Date:

  • June 30, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/greenhouse-gases

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Sample:

“In the United States, greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activities increased by 7 percent from 1990 to 2014. Since 2005, however, total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions have decreased by 7 percent. Carbon dioxide accounts for most of the nation’s emissions and most of the increase since 1990. Electricity generation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, followed by transportation. Emissions per person have decreased slightly in the last few years.”

Description:

EPA’s page on greenhouse gases with information about the impact of greenhouse gases, how they are created, and a chart on specific pollutants. This page also leads to more scientific resources on greenhouse gases and climate change.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Climate Change Indicators: Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • Environmental Protection Agency

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2537/nasa-noaa-data-show-2016-warmest-year-on-record-globally/

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Sample:

“Earth’s 2016 surface temperatures were the warmest since modern recordkeeping began in 1880, according to independent analyses by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Globally-averaged temperatures in 2016 were 1.78 degrees Fahrenheit (0.99 degrees Celsius) warmer than the mid-20th century mean. This makes 2016 the third year in a row to set a new record for global average surface temperatures.

The 2016 temperatures continue a long-term warming trend, according to analyses by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York. NOAA scientists concur with the finding that 2016 was the warmest year on record based on separate, independent analyses of the data.”

Description:

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • NASA, NOAA data show 2016 warmest year on record globally

Publisher:

  • Nasa’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies

Date:

  • January 18, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/10/10/believe-it-or-not-the-bees-are-doing-just-fine/

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Sample:

“You’ve probably heard the bad news by now that bees were recently added to the endangered species list for the first time. But if you’re part of the 60 percent of people who share stories without actually reading them, you might have missed an important detail: namely, that the newly endangered bees are a handful of relatively obscure species who live only in Hawaii. The bees you’re more familiar with — the ones that buzz around your yard dipping into flowers, making honey, pollinating crops and generally keeping the world’s food supply from collapsing? Those bees are doing just fine, according to data released by the USDA this year.”

MLA Citation:

Ingraham, Christopher. “Believe it or not, the bees are doing just fine.” Washington Post, 10 Oct. 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/10/10/believe-it-or-not-the-bees-are-doing-just-fine/. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Ingraham)

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APA Citation:

Ingraham, C. (2016, Oct 10). Believe it or not, the bees are doing just fine. Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/10/10/believe-it-or-not-the-bees-are-doing-just-fine/

In-Text: (Ingraham, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12528:region-americas-declared-free-measles&Itemid=1926&lang=en

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“Measles transmission had been considered interrupted in the Region since 2002, when the last endemic case was reported in the Americas. However, as the disease had continued to circulate in other parts the world, some countries in the Americas experienced imported cases. The International Expert Committee reviewed evidence on measles elimination presented by all the countries of the Region between 2015 and August 2016 and decided that it met the established criteria for elimination. The process included six years of work with countries to document evidence of the elimination.

Measles is one of the most contagious diseases and affects primarily children. It is transmitted by airborne droplets or via direct contact with secretions from the nose, mouth, and throat of infected individuals. Symptoms include high fever, generalized rash all over the body, stuffy nose, and reddened eyes. It can cause serious complications including blindness, encephalitis, severe diarrhea, ear infections and pneumonia, particularly in children with nutritional problems and in immunocompromised patients.”

MLA Citation:

“Region of the Americas is declared free of measles.” Pan American Health Organization, 29 Sep. 2016, http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12528:region-americas-declared-free-measles&Itemid=1926&lang=en. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Region of the Americas is declared free of measles.”)

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APA Citation:

Region of the Americas is declared free of measles. (2016, Sep. 29). Pan American Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12528:region-americas-declared-free-measles&Itemid=1926&lang=en

In-Text: (“Region of the Americas is declared free of measles,” 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/on-the-brink-of-breakthroughs-in-diagnosing-and-treating-autism/

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“There’s a popular saying in the autism community: “If you’ve met one person with autism, you’ve met one person with autism.” Although this phrase is meant to convey the remarkable variation in abilities and disabilities among people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we’re learning that it also applies to the extraordinary variability in how ASD develops. When I first began doing research on autism decades ago, we thought of it as one condition and aimed to discover its “cause.” Now we know ASD is actually a group of lifelong conditions that can arise from a complex combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors. In the same way that each person with ASD has a unique personality and profile of talents and disabilities, each also has a distinct developmental history shaped by a specific combination of genetic and environmental factors.”

MLA Citation:

Dawson, Geraldine. “On the Brink of Breakthroughs in Diagnosing and Treating Autism.” Scientific American, 9 May 2016. http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/on-the-brink-of-breakthroughs-in-diagnosing-and-treating-autism. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Dawson)

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APA Citation:

Dawson, G. (2016, May 9). On the brink of breakthroughs in diagnosing and treating Autism. Scientific American. Retrieved from http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/on-the-brink-of-breakthroughs-in-diagnosing-and-treating-autism

In-Text: (Dawson, 2016)

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