Credible Sources for Global Warming


Credible Sources

There is no shortage of research and scientific data on the web showing the effect of human activity on the Earth’s climate, but with so much information available, and from so many different sources, it can be hard for a student to sort through everything to find the sources needed for your research assignments. CRS has compiled a large collection of credible sources around this topic, and in this post we have placed them all in one spot and organized them by the information you can find in each. If you need more research on this topic or another, use the Study Hall to get help from us and other students. (Note: some of the sources below will appear under more than one category, keep that in mind.)

 

The Basics

The following sources cover all the basics of climate change, including the causes and indicators, as well as a great Q&A format post covering the effects of global warming, the Paris Agreement, and whether or not it’s too late save our planet. There are much more in depth sources in this guide, but all of these are great starting points for research. Furthermore, the websites linked to (NASA, National Climatic Data Center) have much more information about global warming, greenhouse gasses, and the science of climate change.

 

Human Activity and Greenhouse Gases

One of the main points of the climate change debate is not whether or not it is really happening (which is now very well-documented), but whether or not it is caused by human activity or simply a naturally occurring process. There is an abundance of evidence below to show how human activity is impacting the Earth’s climate, complete with scientific data, physical evidence in our air and oceans, and how our industries are contributing to the problem (and have been for a long time).

 

Renewable Resources

Renewable energy is one of the most important parts of combating climate change and preventing further damage to the Earth. The sources below provide information on the various types of renewable energy, how they help fight against climate change, and common misunderstandings about renewable energies.

 

Extreme Weather

It would be pretty hard for anyone living in the U.S. to ignore the odd and sometimes extreme weather that has occurred in recent years. With the scientific community frequently stating that global warming and climate change will have negative impacts on our planet, it is quite natural to wonder if we are already seeing these negative impacts in the form of extreme weather events, mild winters, and early springs. Here is all the research you need to determine that for yourself.

 

Benefits of Preventing Climate Change

There is at least one obvious benefit to preventing climate change: saving our planet. There are more, however, which are just as important and beneficial to society. Embracing renewable energy will not only protect our atmosphere but also create an enormous economic sector and an abundance of jobs, while the efficiency of renewable energies will also serve to bring down costs, like those of production and transportation, over time.

 

On Climate Change Denial…

Unfortunately, there are some who disagree with the entire scientific community on the topic of climate change. Whatever the reasons for this, it is a very dangerous misconception and should be addressed. With all of this research, it seems difficult to deny the impact of human activity on our climate and the impact of global warming on our planet, but here are some more sources to specifically address the denial.

Climate Change and the Integrity of ScienceThe above link leads to an article published in the scholarly journal Science published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which argues the questioning of climate change research is equal to doubting the entire scientific community. It is signed by dozens of scientists and researchers, and it may in fact be the most concisely written argument against climate change denial that exists today.

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/03/08/climate/early-spring.html?_r=1

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Sample:

“By the 2017 calendar, the first day of spring is March 20. But spring leaves arrived in mid-January in some parts of the South, and spread northward like a wave. The map above plots the date of “first leaf,” a temperature-based calculation of when vegetation that has been dormant starts to show signs of life. This year, with the exception of a few small areas, the wave has arrived much earlier than the 30-year average.

An early spring means more than just earlier blooms of fruit trees and decorative shrubs like azaleas. It can wreak havoc on schedules that farmers follow for planting and that tourism officials follow for events that are tied to a natural activity like trees blooming. Some plant species that bud early may be susceptible to a snap frost later, and early growth of grasses and other vegetation can disrupt some animals’ usual cycles of spring feeding and growth.”

Description:

Article covering a report from scientists at World Weather Attribution that states the one likely cause for a warm Feb. in 2017 is climate change.

Author(s):

  • Jeremy White and Henry Fountain

Title:

  • Spring Came Early. Scientists Say Climate Change Is a Culprit.

Publisher:

  • The New York Times

Date:

  • March 8, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://phys.org/news/2017-02-scientists-categorize-earth-toxic-planet.html

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Sample:

“Humans emit more than 250 billion tonnes of chemical substances a year, in a toxic avalanche that is harming people and life everywhere on the planet.

“Earth, and all life on it, are being saturated with man-made chemicals in an event unlike anything in the planet’s entire history,” says Julian Cribb, author of ‘Surviving the 21st Century’ (Springer International 2017).

“Every moment of our lives we are exposed to thousands of these substances. They enter our bodies with each breath, meal or drink we take, the clothes and cosmetics we wear, the things we encounter every day in our homes, workplaces and travel.

Mr Cribb says that the poisoning of the planet through man-made chemical emissions is probably the largest human impact – and the one that is least understood or regulated. It is one of ten major existential risks now confronting humanity, he describes in Surviving the 21st Century.”

Description:

Article covering scientists comments about pollution and climate damage due to human activity like plastic pollution and manufactured chemicals.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Scientists categorize Earth as a ‘toxic planet’

Publisher:

  • Phys.org

Date:

  • February 7, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GlobalWarming/page4.php

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Sample:

“In Earth’s history before the Industrial Revolution, Earth’s climate changed due to natural causes not related to human activity. Most often, global climate has changed because of variations in sunlight. Tiny wobbles in Earth’s orbit altered when and where sunlight falls on Earth’s surface. Variations in the Sun itself have alternately increased and decreased the amount of solar energy reaching Earth. Volcanic eruptions have generated particles that reflect sunlight, brightening the planet and cooling the climate. Volcanic activity has also, in the deep past, increased greenhouse gases over millions of years, contributing to episodes of global warming.

These natural causes are still in play today, but their influence is too small or they occur too slowly to explain the rapid warming seen in recent decades. We know this because scientists closely monitor the natural and human activities that influence climate with a fleet of satellites and surface instruments.”

Description:

Article from NASA discussing the science behind the idea that climate change is strongly influenced by human activity even though it is partly natural.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Is Current Warming Natural?

Publisher:

  • NASA

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.fastcoexist.com/3068125/solar-now-provides-twice-as-many-jobs-as-the-coal-industry

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Sample:

“As solar power keeps getting cheaper—and more and more of it is built as a result—the industry is also an increasingly important source of new jobs, adding workers at a rate nearly 17 times faster than the overall economy. Twice as many people now work in solar than in the coal industry, according to a new survey from the nonprofit Solar Foundation.

While 40 coal plants were retired in the U.S. in 2016, and no new coal plants were built, the solar industry broke records for new installations, with 14,000 megawatts of new installed power. Many of the jobs came from constructing massive solar plants like the Springbok Solar Farm, which is being built on a site that sprawls over 12 miles in the Mojave Desert.

“It’s very labor-intensive,” Andrea Luecke, president and executive director of the Solar Foundation, tells Co.Exist. “It takes hundreds of people to work on some of these large-scale systems, and it takes about 18 months for the systems to go from start to finish.” In some cases, a traveling crew moves from site to site. Other companies focus on hiring local workers, and while large solar farms may be located only in the sunniest places, rooftop solar is creating more construction jobs everywhere.”

Description:

Data shows that solar employs twice as many people as the coal industry does as of 2016, with coal shutting down 40 plants and not adding any in 2016.

Author(s):

  • Adele Peters

Title:

  • Solar Now Provides Twice As Many Jobs As The Coal Industry

Publisher:

  • Fast Company

Date:

  • February 14, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/12/14/most-americans-favor-stricter-environmental-laws-and-regulations/

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Sample:

“More Americans say environmental regulations are “worth the cost” than say such regulations come at too steep a price, according to a new Pew Research Center survey. These views come amid speculation about what President-elect Donald Trump’s Cabinet nominees may mean for future regulatory policy.

A majority of U.S. adults (59%) say stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost, compared with roughly a third (34%) who say such regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy, according to the survey, conducted Nov. 30 to Dec. 5.

Education level and age are both associated with perceptions of environmental regulations. Younger adults and those with more education are more likely than older adults and those with less education to say stricter environmental laws are worth the cost.

Opinion also differs across party lines. Nearly eight-in-ten Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents (78%) see stricter environmental laws as worth the cost, while a majority of Republicans and Republican leaners (58%) say stricter environmental regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy.”

Description:

Poll from Pew Research Center showing most Americans favor stricter environmental regulations, broken down by demographics and political affiliations.

Author(s):

  • Kristen Bialik

Title:

  • Most Americans favor stricter environmental laws and regulations

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • December 14, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/science/scientific-consensus-on.html#.WK3WIjsrJAg

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Sample:

National Science Academies

  • U.S. National Academy of Sciences: Understanding and Responding to Climate Change

    “The scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify taking steps to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.” (2005)

  • International academies: Joint science academies’ statement: Global response to climate change

    “Climate change is real. There will always be uncertainty in understanding a system as complex as the world’s climate. However there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring.” (2005, 11 national academies of science)

  • International academies The Science of Climate Change

    “Despite increasing consensus on the science underpinning predictions of global climate change, doubts have been expressed recently about the need to mitigate the risks posed by global climate change. We do not consider such doubts justified.” (2001, 16 national academies of science)”

Description:

List of quotes and sources from scientific publications and organizations showing a consensus that climate change is caused by humans.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Scientific Consensus on Global Warming

Publisher:

  • Union of Concerned Scientists

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/10/05/americans-strongly-favor-expanding-solar-power-to-help-address-costs-and-environmental-concerns/

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Sample:

“As the solar energy industry gears up to add more electricity-generating capacity than any other source this year, a new Pew Research Center survey finds that almost nine-in-ten U.S. adults (89%) favor expanding use of solar power, while only 9% oppose it. That sentiment bridges the partisan divide, with large majorities from across the political spectrum favoring more use of this alternative source.

Planned large-scale solar farms are expected to add 9.5 gigawatts of electricity-generating capacity, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), a government agency that collects and analyzes information about the energy industry. Natural gas is expected to add 8 gigawatts and wind 6.8 gigawatts. And that figure for solar doesn’t count electricity-generating capacity from distributed solar, such as rooftop panels. (In 2015, distributed solar added nearly 2 gigawatts of capacity.)”

Description:

Data from Pew Research Center showing a majority of Americans favor solar energy as a method of saving money as well as to help the environment.

Author(s):

  • Brian Kennedy

Title:

  • Americans strongly favor expanding solar power to help address costs and environmental concerns

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • October 5, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/10/04/public-views-on-climate-change-and-climate-scientists/

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Sample:

“Roughly four-in-ten Americans expect harmful effects from climate change on wildlife, shorelines and weather patterns. At the same time, many are optimistic that both policy and individual efforts to address climate change can have an impact. A narrow majority of Americans anticipate new technological solutions to problems connected with climate change, and some 61% believe people will make major changes to their way of life within the next half century.

On all of these matters there are wide differences along political lines with conservative Republicans much less inclined to anticipate negative effects from climate change or to judge proposed solutions as making much difference in mitigating any effects. Half or more liberal Democrats, by contrast, see negative effects from climate change as very likely and believe an array of policy solutions can make a big difference.

Americans who are more deeply concerned about climate issues, regardless of their partisan orientation, are particularly likely to see negative effects ahead from climate change, and strong majorities among this group think policy solutions can be effective at addressing climate change.”

Description:

Report on data collected by Pew Research Center on the American public’s views on climate change and the science supporting it, issued in 2016.

Author(s):

  • Cary Funk and Brian Kennedy

Title:

  • The Politics of Climate

Publisher:

  • Pew Research Center

Date:

  • October 4, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/earth/climate-change-acceptance/

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Sample:

“In the 1990s, Michael Ranney started informally asking people what they perceived to be the world’s biggest problem. He hadn’t set out to tackle environmental issues—he was first trained in applied physics and materials science before turning to cognitive psychology. But time and again, he heard “climate change” as an answer.

Ranney had also noticed that while the scientific community had converged on a consensus, the general public had not, at least not in the U.S. The Climategate controversy in late 2009 over leaked e-mails between climate scientists and Oklahoma Senator James Inhofe’s insistence that anthropogenic global warming is a hoax are just two examples of the widespread conflict among the American public over what is causing the planet to warm.

Ranney and his team say that a “wisdom deficit” is driving the wedge. Specifically, it’s a lack of understanding of the mechanism of global warming that’s been retarding progress on the issue. “For many Americans, they’re caught between a radio talk show host—of the sort that Rush Limbaugh is—and maybe a professor who just gave them a lecture on global warming. And if you don’t understand the mechanism, then you just have competing authorities, kind of like the Pope and Galileo,” he says. “Mechanism turns out to be a tie-breaker when there’s a contentious issue.””

Description:

PBS article investigating why many Americans do not believe global warming is caused by humans – despite data showing Americans trust scientists.

Author(s):

  • Brad Balukjian

Title:

  • Why Doesn’t Everyone Believe Humans Are Causing Climate Change?

Publisher:

  • PBS

Date:

  • November 19, 2014

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-atmospheric-concentrations-greenhouse-gases

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Sample:

  • “Global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and certain manufactured greenhouse gases have all risen significantly over the last few hundred years (see Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4).
  • Historical measurements show that the current global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are unprecedented compared with the past 800,000 years (see Figures 1, 2, and 3).
  • Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased substantially since the beginning of the industrial era, rising from an annual average of 280 ppm in the late 1700s to 401 ppm as measured at Mauna Loa in 2015—a 43 percent increase (see Figure 1). Almost all of this increase is due to human activities.1
  • The concentration of methane in the atmosphere has more than doubled since preindustrial times, reaching approximately 1,800 ppb in recent years (see the range of measurements for 2014 and 2015 in Figure 2). This increase is predominantly due to agriculture and fossil fuel use.2

Description:

Charts and data from the EPA on the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the increases since the early 20th century and prior.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Climate Change Indicators: Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • Environmental Protection Agency

Date:

  • April 2016 (Check source for updates to date)

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2141868/

doi:  10.1073/pnas.0702737104

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Sample:

“The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the largest human contributor to human-induced climate change, is increasing rapidly. Three processes contribute to this rapid increase. Two of these processes concern emissions. Recent growth of the world economy combined with an increase in its carbon intensity have led to rapid growth in fossil fuel CO2 emissions since 2000: comparing the 1990s with 2000–2006, the emissions growth rate increased from 1.3% to 3.3% y−1. The third process is indicated by increasing evidence (P = 0.89) for a long-term (50-year) increase in the airborne fraction (AF) of CO2 emissions, implying a decline in the efficiency of CO2 sinks on land and oceans in absorbing anthropogenic emissions. Since 2000, the contributions of these three factors to the increase in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate have been ≈65 ± 16% from increasing global economic activity, 17 ± 6% from the increasing carbon intensity of the global economy, and 18 ± 15% from the increase in AF. An increasing AF is consistent with results of climate–carbon cycle models, but the magnitude of the observed signal appears larger than that estimated by models. All of these changes characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected and sooner-than-expected climate forcing.”

Description:

Journal article investigating how economic activity is increasing carbon dioxide emissions and the rapid increases in the amount of these emissions.

Author(s):

  • Josep G. Canadell, Corinne Le Quéré, Michael R. Raupach, Christopher B. Field, Erik T. Buitenhuis, Philippe Ciais, Thomas J. Conway, Nathan P. Gillett, R. A. Houghton, and Gregg Marlandi

Title:

  • Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks

Publisher:

  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Date:

  • October 25, 2007

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/earth-will-cross-the-climate-danger-threshold-by-2036/

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Sample:

““Temperatures have been flat for 15 years—nobody can properly explain it,” the Wall Street Journal says. “Global warming ‘pause’ may last for 20 more years, and Arctic sea ice has already started to recover,” the Daily Mail says. Such reassuring claims about climate abound in the popular media, but they are misleading at best. Global warming continues unabated, and it remains an urgent problem.

The misunderstanding stems from data showing that during the past decade there was a slowing in the rate at which the earth’s average surface temperature had been increasing. The event is commonly referred to as “the pause,” but that is a misnomer: temperatures still rose, just not as fast as during the prior decade. The important question is, What does the short-term slowdown portend for how the world may warm in the future?

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is charged with answering such questions. In response to the data, the IPCC in its September 2013 report lowered one aspect of its prediction for future warming. Its forecasts, released every five to seven years, drive climate policy worldwide, so even the small change raised debate over how fast the planet is warming and how much time we have to stop it. The IPCC has not yet weighed in on the impacts of the warming or how to mitigate it, which it will do in reports that were due this March and April. Yet I have done some calculations that I think can answer those questions now: If the world keeps burning fossil fuels at the current rate, it will cross a threshold into environmental ruin by 2036. The “faux pause” could buy the planet a few extra years beyond that date to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the crossover—but only a few.”

Description:

Article exploring how the current rate of rise in global temperature will become dangerous for the planet around year 2036 if not slowed before then.

Author(s):

  • Michael E Mann

Title:

  • Earth Will Cross the Climate Danger Threshold by 2036

Publisher:

  • Scientific American

Date:

  • April 1, 2014

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nature.com/news/one-third-of-our-greenhouse-gas-emissions-come-from-agriculture-1.11708

doi: 10.1038/nature.2012.11708

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Sample:

“The global food system, from fertilizer manufacture to food storage and packaging, is responsible for up to one-third of all human-caused greenhouse-gas emissions, according to the latest figures from the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), a partnership of 15 research centres around the world.

In two reports published today1, 2, the CGIAR says that reducing agriculture’s carbon footprint is central to limiting climate change. And to help to ensure food security, farmers across the globe will probably have to switch to cultivating more climate-hardy crops and farming practices.

“The food-related emissions and the impacts of climate change on agriculture and the food system will profoundly alter the way we grow and produce food,” says Sonja Vermeulen, a plant scientist at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and a co-author of one of the studies, which estimates the emissions footprint of food.”

Description:

Report from scholarly journal Nature stating agriculture is responsible for roughly one-third of “all human-caused greenhouse-gas emissions.”

Author(s):

  • Natasha Gilbert

Title:

  • One-third of our greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture

Publisher:

  • Nature

Date:

  • October 31 2012

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring-references/faq/greenhouse-gases.php

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Sample:

“Many chemical compounds present in Earth’s atmosphere behave as ‘greenhouse gases’. These are gases which allow direct sunlight (relative shortwave energy) to reach the Earth’s surface unimpeded. As the shortwave energy (that in the visible and ultraviolet portion of the spectra) heats the surface, longer-wave (infrared) energy (heat) is reradiated to the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases absorb this energy, thereby allowing less heat to escape back to space, and ‘trapping’ it in the lower atmosphere. Many greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide, while others are synthetic. Those that are man-made include the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), as well as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Atmospheric concentrations of both the natural and man-made gases have been rising over the last few centuries due to the industrial revolution. As the global population has increased and our reliance on fossil fuels (such as coal, oil and natural gas) has been firmly solidified, so emissions of these gases have risen. While gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere, through our interference with the carbon cycle (through burning forest lands, or mining and burning coal), we artificially move carbon from solid storage to its gaseous state, thereby increasing atmospheric concentrations.”

Description:

Detailed information on greenhouse gases with a list of specific chemical compounds and how they affect Earth’s atmosphere to create a warmer climate. Click through the different compounds at the top of the page to browse the content.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • National Centers for Environmental Information, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/01/150122-food-waste-climate-change-hunger/

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Sample:

“More than a third of all of the food that’s produced on our planet never reaches a table. It’s either spoiled in transit or thrown out by consumers in wealthier countries, who typically buy too much and toss the excess. This works out to roughly 1.3 billion tons of food, worth nearly $1 trillion at retail prices.

Aside from the social, economic, and moral implications of that waste—in a world where an estimated 805 million people go to bed hungry each night—the environmental cost of producing all that food, for nothing, is staggering.

The water wastage alone would be the equivalent of the entire annual flow of the Volga—Europe’s largest river—according to a UN report. The energy that goes into the production, harvesting, transporting, and packaging of that wasted food, meanwhile, generates more than 3.3 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide. If food waste were a country, it would be the world’s third largest emitter of greenhouse gases, behind the U.S. and China.”

Description:

National Geographic article about how food production generates more greenhouse gases than many countries and how limiting food waste can help.

Author(s):

  • Roff Smith

Title:

  • How Reducing Food Waste Could Ease Climate Change

Publisher:

  • National Geographic

Date:

  • Jan. 22, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/348/6234/571.full

DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa4984

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“Current predictions of extinction risks from climate change vary widely depending on the specific assumptions and geographic and taxonomic focus of each study. I synthesized published studies in order to estimate a global mean extinction rate and determine which factors contribute the greatest uncertainty to climate change–induced extinction risks. Results suggest that extinction risks will accelerate with future global temperatures, threatening up to one in six species under current policies. Extinction risks were highest in South America, Australia, and New Zealand, and risks did not vary by taxonomic group. Realistic assumptions about extinction debt and dispersal capacity substantially increased extinction risks. We urgently need to adopt strategies that limit further climate change if we are to avoid an acceleration of global extinctions.”

Description:

Article exploring how climate change and global warming may be increasing the chances of extinction, and accelerating the process for many species.

Author(s):

  • Mark C. Urban

Title:

  • Accelerating extinction risk from climate change

Publisher:

  • Journal: Science, Vol. 348, Issue 6234, pages 571-573

Date:

  • May 1, 2015

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nap.edu/read/21852/chapter/2#7

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Confidence in attribution findings of anthropogenic influence is greatest for those extreme events that are related to an aspect of temperature, such as the observed long-term warming of the regional or global climate, where there is little doubt that human activities have caused an observed change. For extreme heat and cold events in particular, changes in long-term mean conditions provide a basis for expecting that there also should be related changes in extreme conditions. Heavy rainfall is influenced by a moister atmosphere, which is a relatively direct consequence of human-induced warming, though not as direct as the increase in temperature itself. The frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones and severe convective storms are related to large-scale climate parameters whose relationships to climate are understood to varying degrees but, in general, are more complex and less direct than are changes in either temperature or water vapor alone. Nevertheless, atmospheric circulation and dynamics play some role in the development of an extreme event, which is different for different event types. Changes in atmospheric circulation and dynamics are generally less directly controlled by temperature, less robustly simulated by climate models, and less well understood.”

Description:

This book is available online for free from the National Academies Press and examines the link between various kinds of extreme weather and climate change. This is a link to the beginning of the book, but the entire publication can be browsed online from that page.

Author(s):

  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Title:

  • Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change

Publisher:

  • The National Academies Press

Date:

  • 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.nap.edu/read/12782/chapter/2#3

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Sample:

Conclusion 1: Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for—and in many cases is already affecting—a broad range of human and natural systems.

This conclusion is based on a substantial array of scientific evidence, including recent work, and is consistent with the conclusions of recent assessments by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (e.g., USGCRP, 2009a), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007a-d), and other assessments of the state of scientific knowledge on climate change. Both our assessment—the details of which can be found in Chapter 2 and Part II (Chapters 6-17) of this report—and these previous assessments place high or very high confidence1 in the following findings:

  • Earth is warming. Detailed observations of surface temperature assembled and analyzed by several different research groups show that the planet’s average surface temperature was 1.4°F (0.8°C) warmer during the first decade of the 21st century than during the first decade of the 20th century, with the most pronounced warming over the past three decades. These data are corroborated by a variety of independent observations that indicate warming in other parts of the Earth system, including the cryosphere (snow- and ice-covered regions), the lower atmosphere, and the oceans.

  • Most of the warming over the last several decades can be attributed to human activities that release carbon dioxide (CO2) and other heat-trapping greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas—for energy is the single largest human driver of climate change, but agriculture, forest clearing, and certain industrial activities also make significant contributions.

  • Natural climate variability leads to year-to-year and decade-to-decade fluctuations in temperature and other climate variables, as well as substantial regional differences, but cannot explain or offset the long-term warming trend.

  • Global warming is closely associated with a broad spectrum of other changes, such as increases in the frequency of intense rainfall, decreases in Northern Hemisphere snow cover and Arctic sea ice, warmer and more frequent hot days and nights, rising sea levels, and widespread ocean acidification.”

Description:

Advancing the Science of Climate Change one part of a 4-book series on the science of climate change made available online by the National Academies Press. This is a link to the beginning of the book, but the entire book can be browsed online from that page.

Author(s):

  • National Research Council

Title:

  • Advancing the Science of Climate Change

Publisher:

  • The National Academics Press

Date:

  • 2010

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2014/06/23/study-adds-up-benefits-climate-smart-development-lives-jobs-gdp

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Sample:

“By 2030, the benefits of these three sets of sector policies would include 94,000 premature deaths avoided annually and GDP growth of $1.8 trillion-$2.6 trillion per year. The policies would avoid 8.5 gigatons of CO2-equivalent and almost 16 billion kilowatt-hours of energy saved, roughly equivalent to taking 2 billion cars off the road. Together, these implementing these policies could represent about 30 percent of the total reduction needed in 2030 to limit global warming to 2 degrees Celsius.

The four simulated project case studies analyzed local development interventions scaled up to a national level in one country.

For example, in the Brazil landfill scenario, the report uses results from existing World Bank-supported projects in Brazil that are implementing a variety of integrated solid waste management options, including biodigesters, composting, and landfill technology that captures methane to produce electricity. If the same technologies were scaled up nationwide, over 20 years, the study estimates the changes could create more than 44,000 jobs, increase GDP by more than $13 billion, and reduce emissions by 158 million tons of CO2-equivalent.”

Description:

Article summarizing report published by the World Bank analyzing the impact of measures to combat climate change in terms of GDP, jobs, and economic growth.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • New Study Adds Up the Benefits of Climate-Smart Development in Lives, Jobs, and GDP

Publisher:

  • World Bank Group

Date:

  • June 23, 2014

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2458/why-a-half-degree-temperature-rise-is-a-big-deal/

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Sample:

“The Paris Agreement, which delegates from 196 countries hammered out in December 2015, calls for holding the ongoing rise in global average temperature to “well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels,” while “pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C.” How much difference could that half-degree of wiggle room (or 0.9 degree on the Fahrenheit scale) possibly make in the real world? Quite a bit, it appears.

The European Geosciences Union published a study in April 2016 that examined the impact of a 1.5 degree Celsius vs. a 2.0 C temperature increase by the end of the century, given what we know so far about how climate works. It found that the jump from 1.5 to 2 degrees—a third more of an increase—raises the impact by about that same fraction, very roughly, on most of the phenomena the study covered. Heat waves would last around a third longer, rain storms would be about a third more intense, the increase in sea level would be approximately that much higher and the percentage of tropical coral reefs at risk of severe degradation would be roughly that much greater.

But in some cases, that extra increase in temperature makes things much more dire. At 1.5 C, the study found that tropical coral reefs stand a chance of adapting and reversing a portion of their die-off in the last half of the century. But at 2 C, the chance of recovery vanishes. Tropical corals are virtually wiped out by the year 2100.”

Description:

Article published by NASA on the Paris Agreement and the impact even just half a degree change in global temperature can have on our climate.

Author(s):

  • Bob Silberg

Title:

  • Why a half-degree temperature rise is a big deal

Publisher:

  • NASA’s Jet Propulsion Labratory

Date:

  • June 30, 2016

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/greenhouse-gases

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Sample:

“In the United States, greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activities increased by 7 percent from 1990 to 2014. Since 2005, however, total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions have decreased by 7 percent. Carbon dioxide accounts for most of the nation’s emissions and most of the increase since 1990. Electricity generation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, followed by transportation. Emissions per person have decreased slightly in the last few years.”

Description:

EPA’s page on greenhouse gases with information about the impact of greenhouse gases, how they are created, and a chart on specific pollutants. This page also leads to more scientific resources on greenhouse gases and climate change.

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • Climate Change Indicators: Greenhouse Gases

Publisher:

  • Environmental Protection Agency

Date:

  • No date.

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2537/nasa-noaa-data-show-2016-warmest-year-on-record-globally/

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Sample:

“Earth’s 2016 surface temperatures were the warmest since modern recordkeeping began in 1880, according to independent analyses by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Globally-averaged temperatures in 2016 were 1.78 degrees Fahrenheit (0.99 degrees Celsius) warmer than the mid-20th century mean. This makes 2016 the third year in a row to set a new record for global average surface temperatures.

The 2016 temperatures continue a long-term warming trend, according to analyses by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York. NOAA scientists concur with the finding that 2016 was the warmest year on record based on separate, independent analyses of the data.”

Description:

Author(s):

  • None.

Title:

  • NASA, NOAA data show 2016 warmest year on record globally

Publisher:

  • Nasa’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies

Date:

  • January 18, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2016/10/03/u-s-bees-were-just-added-to-the-endangered-species-list-for-the-first-time/

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Sample:

“For the first time in the United States, bees have been placed on the endangered-species list. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Friday determined that seven species of yellow-faced bees, all native to Hawaii, should be protected under the Endangered Species Act.

All seven species belong to the Hylaeus genus of bees. Together, the wasp-looking bees are more commonly known as “yellow-faced” or “masked” for their yellow-to-white facial markings.”

MLA Citation:

Wang, Amy. “Bees were just added to the U.S. endangered-species list for the first time.” Washington Post, 3 Oct. 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2016/10/03/u-s-bees-were-just-added-to-the-endangered-species-list-for-the-first-time/. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Wang)

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APA Citation:

Wang, A. (2016. Oct. 3). Bees were just added to the U.S. endangered-species list for the first time. Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2016/10/03/u-s-bees-were-just-added-to-the-endangered-species-list-for-the-first-time/

In-Text: (Wang, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://afsic.nal.usda.gov/sustainable-agriculture-definitions-and-terms-1

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Sample:

“Both positive and negative consequences have come with the bounty associated with industrial farming. Some concerns about contemporary agriculture are presented below. They are drawn from the resources compiled at the end of this chapter. While considering these concerns, keep the following in mind: a) interactions between farming systems and soil, water, biota, and atmosphere are complex—we have much to learn about their dynamics and long term impacts; b) most environmental problems are intertwined with economic, social, and political forces external to agriculture; c) some problems are global in scope while others are experienced only locally; d) many of these problems are being addressed through conventional, as well as alternative, agricultural channels; e) the list is not complete; and f) no order of importance is intended.”

MLA Citation:

Gold, Mary. “Sustainable Agriculture: Definitions and Terms.” afsic.nal.usda.gov. United States Department of Agriculture, Aug. 2007.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://afsic.nal.usda.gov/sustainable-agriculture-definitions-and-terms-1>.

In-Text: (Gold)

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APA Citation:

Gold, M. (2007, Aug.). Sustainable agriculture: Definitions and terms. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from http://afsic.nal.usda.gov/sustainable-agriculture-definitions-and-terms-1

In-Text: (Gold, 2007)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://thebulletin.org/myth-renewable-energy

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Sample:

“Somehow, people across the entire enviro-political spectrum seem to have reached a tacit, near-unanimous agreement about what renewable means: It’s an energy category that includes solar, wind, water, biomass, and geothermal power. As the US Energy Department explains it to kids: “Renewable energy comes from things that won’t run out — wind, water, sunlight, plants, and more. These are things we can reuse over and over again. … Non-renewable energy comes from things that will run out one day — oil, coal, natural gas, and uranium.”

Renewable energy sounds so much more natural and believable than a perpetual-motion machine, but there’s one big problem: Unless you’re planning to live without electricity and motorized transportation, you need more than just wind, water, sunlight, and plants for energy. You need raw materials, real estate, and other things that will run out one day. You need stuff that has to be mined, drilled, transported, and bulldozed — not simply harvested or farmed. You need non-renewable resources:”

MLA Citation:

Stover, Dawn. “The myth of renewable energy.” thebulletin.org. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 22 Nov. 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://thebulletin.org/myth-renewable-energy>.

In-Text: (Stover)

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APA Citation:

Stover, D. (2011, Nov. 22). The myth of renewable energy. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved from http://thebulletin.org/myth-renewable-energy

In-Text: (Stover, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.oas.org/dsd/publications/Unit/oea79e/ch05.htm

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Sample:

“Renewable resources include solar energy, wind, falling water, the heat of the earth (geothermal), plant materials (biomass), waves, ocean currents, temperature differences in the oceans and the energy of the tides. Renewable energy technologies produce power, heat or mechanical energy by converting those resources either to electricity or to motive power. The policy maker concerned with development of the national grid system will focus on those resources that have established themselves commercially and are cost effective for on-grid applications. Such commercial technologies include hydroelectric power, solar energy, fuels derived from biomass, wind energy and geothermal energy. Wave, ocean current, ocean thermal and other technologies that are in the research or early commercial stage, as well as non-electric renewable energy technologies, such as solar water heaters and geothermal heat pumps, are also based on renewable resources, but outside the scope of this Manual.”

MLA Citation:

Armstrong, John, and Jan Hamrin. “Chapter 1. Renewable Energy Overview.” oas.org. U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.oas.org/dsd/publications/Unit/oea79e/ch05.htm>.

In-Text: (Armstrong and Hamrin)

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APA Citation:

Armstrong, J. & Hamrin, J. (n.d.). Chapter 1. Renewable energy overview. U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy. Retrieved from http://www.oas.org/dsd/publications/Unit/oea79e/ch05.htm

In-Text: (Armstrong & Hamrin)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/summary-info/global/201512

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Sample:

“During 2015, the average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces was 1.62°F (0.90°C) above the 20th century average. This was the highest among all 136 years in the 1880–2015 record, surpassing the previous record set last year by 0.29°F (0.16°C) and marking the fourth time a global temperature record has been set this century. This is also the largest margin by which the annual global temperature record has been broken. Ten months had record high temperatures for their respective months during the year. The five highest monthly departures from average for any month on record all occurred during 2015.”

MLA Citation:

“State of the Climate: Global Analysis for December 2015.” ncdc.noaa.gov. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Jan. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/summary-info/global/201512>.

In-Text: (“State of the Climate”)

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APA Citation:

State of the climate: Global analysis for December 2015. (2016, Jan.). NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/summary-info/global/201512

In-Text: (State of the climate)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://climate.nasa.gov/causes/

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Sample:

“Most climate scientists agree the main cause of the current global warming trend is human expansion of the “greenhouse effect”1 — warming that results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earth toward space.”

MLA Citation:

“A blanket around the Earth.” climate.nasa.gov. Earth Science Communications Team at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://climate.nasa.gov/causes/>.

In-Text: (“A blanket around the Earth”)

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APA Citation:

A blanket around the Earth. (n.d.). Earth Science Communications Team at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/causes/

In-Text: (A blanket around the Earth)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/indicators/

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Sample:

“Thousands of land and ocean temperature measurements are recorded each day around the globe. This includes measurements from climate reference stations, weather stations, ships, buoys and autonomous gliders in the oceans. These surface measurements are also supplemented with satellite measurements. These measurements are processed, examined for random and systematic errors, and then finally combined to produce a time series of global average temperature change. A number of agencies around the world have produced datasets of global-scale changes in surface temperature using different techniques to process the data and remove measurement errors that could lead to false interpretations of temperature trends. The warming trend that is apparent in all of the independent methods of calculating global temperature change is also confirmed by other independent observations, such as the melting of mountain glaciers on every continent, reductions in the extent of snow cover, earlier blooming of plants in spring, a shorter ice season on lakes and rivers, ocean heat content, reduced arctic sea ice, and rising sea levels.”

MLA Citation:

“Global Climate Change Indicators.” ncdc.noaa.gov. National Centers for Environmental Information, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/indicators/>.

In-Text: (“Global Climate Change Indicators”)

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APA Citation:

Global climate change indicators. (n.d.). National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/indicators/

In-Text: (Global Climate Change Indicators)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/

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Sample:

“The Earth’s climate has changed throughout history. Just in the last 650,000 years there have been seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat, with the abrupt end of the last ice age about 7,000 years ago marking the beginning of the modern climate era — and of human civilization. Most of these climate changes are attributed to very small variations in Earth’s orbit that change the amount of solar energy our planet receives.”

MLA Citation:

“Climate Change: How do we know?” climate.nasa.gov. Earth Science Communications Team at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/>.

In-Text: (“Climate Change: How do we know?”)

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APA Citation:

Climate change: How do we know? (n.d.). Earth Science Communications Team at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/

In-Text: (Climate change: How do we know?)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/f101.asp

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Sample:

“Q: What causes global warming?

A: Carbon dioxide and other air pollution that is collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun’s heat and causing the planet to warm up. Coal-burning power plants are the largest U.S. source of carbon dioxide pollution — they produce 2.5 billion tons every year. Automobiles, the second largest source, create nearly 1.5 billion tons of CO2 annually.

Here’s the good news: technologies exist today to make cars that run cleaner and burn less gas, modernize power plants and generate electricity from nonpolluting sources, and cut our electricity use through energy efficiency. The challenge is to be sure these solutions are put to use.”

 

MLA Citation:

“Global Warming Basics.” nrdc.org. National Resources Defense Council, Oct 18. 2005.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/f101.asp>.

In-Text: (“Global Watming Basics”)

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APA Citation:

Global warming basics. (2005, Oct 18). National Resources Defense Council. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/f101.asp

In-Text: (Global warming basics, 2005)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.nbcnews.com/id/6870856/print/1/displaymode/1098/

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Sample:

“The Amazon forest was burning, and it was more than a sign of human encroachment. It was also the sight and scent of a dangerous chemistry, of tons of carbon dioxide — transformed from wood and leaf — rising into an atmosphere already loaded with it.”

MLA Citation:

Hanley, Charles. “Amazon deforestation adds to warming trend”. nbcnews.com. The Associated Press, 16 Feb. 2005.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nbcnews.com/id/6870856/print/1/displaymode/1098/>.

In-Text: (Hanley)

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APA Citation:

Hanley, C. (16 Feb, 2005). Amazon deforestation adds to warming trend. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/6870856/print/1/displaymode/1098/

In-Text: (Hanley, 2005)

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Read More Comments Off on Amazon Deforestation and Climate Change – NBC News

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/15/business/insurers-stray-from-the-conservative-line-on-climate-change.html?smid=tw-share&_r=1&

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

Samples:

“From Hurricane Sandy’s devastating blow to the Northeast to the protracted drought that hit the Midwest Corn Belt, natural catastrophes across the United States pounded insurers last year, generating$35 billion in privately insured property losses, $11 billion more than the average over the last decade.”

“Yet when I asked Mr. Nutter what the American insurance industry was doing to combat global warming, his answer was surprising: nothing much. “The industry has really not been engaged in advocacy related to carbon taxes or proposals addressing carbon,” he said. While some big European reinsurers like Munich Re and Swiss Re support efforts to reduce CO2 emissions, “in the United States the household names really have not engaged at all.” Instead, the focus of insurers’ advocacy efforts is zoning rules and disaster mitigation.”

“Mr. Lehrer points out that a carbon tax fits conservative orthodoxy. It is a broad and flat tax, whose revenue can be used to do away with the corporate income tax — a favorite target of the right. It provides a market-friendly signal, forcing polluters to bear the cost imposed on the rest of us and encouraging them to pollute less. And it is much preferable to a parade of new regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency.”

MLA Citation:

Porter, Eduardo. “For Insurers, No Doubts on Climate Change”. nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 14 May. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/15/business/insurers-stray-from-the-conservative-line-on-climate-change.html?smid=tw-share&_r=1&>.

In-Text: (Porter)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Porter, E. (14 May, 2013). For Insurers, No Doubts on Climate Change. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/15/business/insurers-stray-from-the-conservative-line-on-climate-change.html?smid=tw-share&_r=1&

In-Text: (Porter, 2013)

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Read More Comments Off on Insurance, Climate Change, Natural Disasters, Carbon Tax – NY Times

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.theatlanticwire.com/global/2013/05/climate-change-insurance/65259/

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

Samples:

“The company has been sounding alarm bells about the economic threat of climate change for some time now. Last October, it released a report finding that North America was seeing more intense weather than other parts of the world, and that 2011’s strong storms made it the most second-most-expensive year for insurers in history.”

“One challenge is getting insurers to prepare properly. Of the 184 companies surveyed, only 23 had comprehensive plans to address climate change. (Included in that 23: Munich Re.) While the threat of effects on revenue was cited by more than half of the companies as a reason to consider developing a climate change policy, well less than half thought climate change posed much of a risk. Forty-seven percent of the insurers “viewed climate change as a potential future loss driver, even though scientific assessments such as the recent IPCC Extreme Events report and draft National Climate Assessment emphasize that climate change is already amplifying extreme events that lead to insured losses.””

MLA Citation:

Bump, Philip. “Insurers Aren’t So Worried About Climate Change That They’re Preparing for It”. theatlanticwire.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 15 May. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.theatlanticwire.com/global/2013/05/climate-change-insurance/65259/>.

In-Text: (Bump)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

Bump, P. (15 May, 2013). Insurers Aren’t So Worried About Climate Change That They’re Preparing for It. Retrieved from http://www.theatlanticwire.com/global/2013/05/climate-change-insurance/65259/

In-Text: (Bump, 2013)

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Read More Comments Off on Climate Change, Insurance Companies, Global Warming, Natural Disasters

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

Description:

Great source with detailed information on the green house effect, green house gasses, global temperatures, ocean heat content, sea level rise, hydrological cycle, and more.

URL:

https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring-references/faq/global-warming.php

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Sample:

“The greenhouse effect is unquestionably real and helps to regulate the temperature of our planet. It is essential for life on Earth and is one of Earth’s natural processes. It is the result of heat absorption by certain gases in the atmosphere (called greenhouse gases because they effectively ‘trap’ heat in the lower atmosphere) and re-radiation downward of some of that heat.”

MLA Citation:

“Global Warming.” National Climatic Data Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, n.d. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cmb-faq/globalwarming.html>.

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Read More Comments Off on Global Warming – National Climatic Data Center

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