Credible Sources for Nature vs Nurture

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.pdf.org/en/fall04_Nature

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“Environmental factors that can affect one’s health include any influence exerted on the body after conception. These can include any events during fetal development and after birth – such as physical trauma, exposure to chemicals and infections, and nutrition. Some studies, but not all, indicate that pesticide use, rural living and the drinking of well water – all factors that increase exposure to pesticides – contribute to the development of PD. Pesticides are thought to adversely affect the brain by inhibiting energy production resulting in brain cell death. Studies have also shown that smoking and caffeine use appear to protect against the development of PD. However, it is universally agreed that the health risks associated with smoking are worse than any incidental benefits that might be gained by this habit.”

MLA Citation:

Harris, Juliette. “Nature Versus Nurture: What Causes PD?” pdf.org. Parkinson’s Disease Foundation, 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pdf.org/en/fall04_Nature>.

In-Text: (Harris)

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APA Citation:

Harris, J. (2004). Nature versus nurture: What causes PD? Parkinson’s Disease Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.pdf.org/en/fall04_Nature

In-Text: (Harris, 2004)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2015/12/28/jech-2015-206274.full

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“Substantial evidence supports the notion that adult chronic diseases are not determined solely by exposures and events in adult life. Beyond genetic susceptibility, exposures and the social circumstances of early life begin a process that extends throughout the lifespan to influence adult disease. Epidemiologists take a life-course approach to the study of physical and social hazards during gestation, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood and midlife that can affect adult chronic disease risk and health outcomes. This well-established approach aims to identify the underlying biological, behavioural and psychosocial processes that operate across the lifespan. Aetiological factors may act during critical periods of development, with or without additional later life influences, or they may act through the accumulation of risk through various pathways. This approach focuses our attention on the importance of the early environment on human biological and psychological development and on the timing of a range of exposures during this critical period, including those associated with adverse socioeconomic circumstances.”

MLA Citation:

Vohra, Jyotsna,  Michael G Marmot, Linda Bauld, and Robert A Hiatt. “Socioeconomic position in childhood and cancer in adulthood: a rapid-review.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (29 Dec. 2015): n.p.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2015/12/28/jech-2015-206274.full>.

In-Text: (Vohra et al.)

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APA Citation:

Vohra, J., Marmot, M. G., Bauld, L., & Hiatt, Robert A. (2015, Dec 29). Socioeconomic position in childhood and cancer in adulthood: a rapid-review. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, n.p. doi:10.1136/jech-2015-206274

In-Text: (Vohra, Marmot, Bauld, Hiatt, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/twins/

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“To illustrate, for twins with schizophrenia, 50% identical twins share the disease, while only about 10-15% of fraternal twins do. This difference is evidence for a strong genetic component in susceptibility to schizophrenia. However, the fact that both identical twins in a pair don’t develop the disease 100% of the time indicates that other factors are involved.”

MLA Citation:

“Insights From Identical Twins.” learn.genetics.utah.edu. University of Utah, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/twins/>.

In-Text: (“Insights From Identical Twins”)

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APA Citation:

Insights from identical twins. (n.d.). University of Utah. Retrieved from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/twins/

In-Text: (Insights from identical twins)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.msu.edu/~jsherry/Site/NatureNurture.pdf

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“Nearly 30 years ago, Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess (1977) offered a version of human development that consisted of a compromise between the nature and nurture perspectives. In the time since, great advances have been made in understanding human psychology. It is past time for media effects researchers to embrace the interactionist perspective offered by Thomas and Chess and embraced by legions of human behavior researchers. There is no longer any question among most developmental psychologists, cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, and biologists that nature interacts with nurture to determine human behavior.”

MLA Citation:

Sherry, John L. “Media Effects Theory and the Nature/Nurture Debate: A Historical Overview and Directions for Future Research.” msu.edu. Michigan State University, 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.msu.edu/~jsherry/Site/NatureNurture.pdf>.

In-Text: (Sherry)

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APA Citation:

Sherry, J. L. (2004). Media Effects Theory and the Nature/Nurture debate: A historical overview and directions for future research. Michigan State University. Retrieved from https://www.msu.edu/~jsherry/Site/NatureNurture.pdf

In-Text: (Sherry, 2004)

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Note on citations: We used the format for citing a website page for the MLA citation. The research paper itself lists Purdue University, where the author had done the research; However, the credible source is found on Michigan State University’s website, where the author now seems to be employed. The OWL guide states one should list the website name and organization affiliated with the website (msu.edu and Michigan State University, respectively) in the citation. Since the source is being accessed through the web this is appropriate, though the original publisher does not appear to be MSU. Please consider your specific requirements and guidelines when preparing your bibliography.

 

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/8/588.full

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Sample:

“In its brief history, epigenetics research has concentrated mostly on the early development of organisms. One strain of these investigations is development of behavior, and this line of research now has its own name: Behavioral epigenetics refers to the study of how signals from the environment trigger molecular biological changes that modify what goes on in brain cells. Here, the term environment encompasses pretty much everything that happens in every stage of life: social experience; nutrition; hormones; and toxicological exposures that occur prenatally, postnatally, and in adulthood. If research on epigenetics is in its infancy, research on behavioral epigenetics is in embryo.”

MLA Citation:

Powledge, Tabitha. “Behavioral Epigenetics: How Nurture Shapes Nature.” Bioscience 61.8 (2011): 588-592.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/8/588.full>.

In-Text: (Powledge)

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APA Citation:

Powledge, T. (2011). Behavioral Epigenetics: How nurture shapes nature. Bioscience, 68(8), 588-592. doi: 10.1525/bio.2011.61.8.4

In-Text: (Powledge, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/

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Sample:

“Nature and nurture are not simply additive interactions that result in a particular behavior, but rather a complex interplay of many factors. Nature includes not only the usual factors—parents, homes, what people learn—but also many other factors that individuals are exposed to routinely in their daily environments. As Marder emphasized, we cannot simply assume that gene X produces behavior Y. Instead as Bialek described, there are often many additional factors that directly and indirectly interact with gene X and ultimately influence variants in behavior. These variants define individuality.”

MLA Citation:

“Grand Challenge: Nature Versus Nurture: How Does the Interplay of Biology and Experience Shape Our Brains and Make Us Who We Are?” ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Centers for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2008.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/>.

In-Text: (“Grand Challenge: Nature Versus Nurture”)

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APA Citation:

Grand challenge: Nature versus nurture: How does the interplay of biology and experience shape our brains and make us who we are? (2008). National Centers for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50991/

In-Text: (Grand challenge: Nature versus nurture)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.k-state.edu/counseling/student/aodes_news/sp11vol54.pdf

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Sample:

“Personality traits are part inherited and part learned. Scientists have not been able to identifu a specific personality type that is more prone to alcohol dependency, although certain traits may be associatedwith high alcohol use. Low self-esteem is sometimes correlated with alcohol dependency, as is risk-taking or poor impulse control. Individuals who experience depression, anxiety, or phobias are also often at higher risk for developing alcohol dependence. Debate continues, however, over which comes first! Is a depressed or anxious person more likely to use alcohol to relieve their symptoms? Or, is a person who abuses alcohol more likely to become depressed and anxious? These are questions that researchers haven’t definitively answered.”

MLA Citation:

“Alcoholism: Nature vs. Nurture”. k-state.edu. KSU Alcohol and Other Drug Education Service, 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.k-state.edu/counseling/student/aodes_news/sp11vol54.pdf>.

In-Text: (“Alcoholism: Nature vs Nurture”)

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APA Citation:

Alcoholism: Nature vs. nurture. (2011). KSU Alcohol and Other Drug Education Service. Retrieved from https://www.k-state.edu/counseling/student/aodes_news/sp11vol54.pdf

In-Text: (Alcoholism: Nature vs. nurture, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.amnh.org/learn/genetics/Resource1

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“But height is also determined by nurture; during the last century the overall height within populations increased in almost all countries that industrialized and improved both hygiene and nutrition. This trend is not related to changing genes. The genotype is all the specific gene versions an organism possesses. The phenotype is the detectable outward manifestation of a genotype and is also influenced by the environment (e.g., hair color). The genotypic composition of these populations did not change drastically during that time. This shows that organisms have great phenotypic plasticity (an observable change of a genetically controlled trait) for certain traits, i.e., genes produce a wide range of phenotypes across a range of environments.”

MLA Citation:

Englbrecht, Claudia. “Nature v. Nurture.” amnh.org. American Museum of Natural History, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.amnh.org/learn/genetics/Resource1>.

In-Text: (Englbrecht)

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APA Citation:

Englbrecht, C. (n.d.). Nature v. nurture. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved from http://www.amnh.org/learn/genetics/Resource1

In-Text: (Englbrecht)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://rdcu.be/cSde

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“Despite a century of research on complex traits in humans, the relative importance and specific nature of the influences of genes and environment on human traits remain controversial. We report a meta-analysis of twin correlations and reported variance components for 17,804 traits from 2,748 publications including 14,558,903 partly dependent twin pairs, virtually all published twin studies of complex traits. Estimates of heritability cluster strongly within functional domains, and across all traits the reported heritability is 49%. For a majority (69%) of traits, the observed twin correlations are consistent with a simple and parsimonious model where twin resemblance is solely due to additive genetic variation. The data are inconsistent with substantial influences from shared environment or non-additive genetic variation. This study provides the most comprehensive analysis of the causes of individual differences in human traits thus far and will guide future gene-mapping efforts.”

MLA Citation:

Polderman, Tinca C.J.,  Beben Benyamin, Christiaan de Leeuw, Patrick F Sullivan, Arjen van Bochoven, Peter M Visscher, and Danielle Posthuma. “Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies”.  Nature Genetics, 47.7 ( 18 May 2015): 702-709.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://rdcu.be/cSde>.

In-Text: (Polderman et al. INSERT PAGE NO.)

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APA Citation:

Polderman T.J.C., Benyamin B., de Leeuw C.A., Sullivan P.F., van Bochoven A., Visscher P.M., & Posthuma D (2015, May 18). Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nature Genetics, 47(7), 702-709. doi:10.1038/ng.3285

In-Text: (Polderman et al., 2015, p. INSERT NO.)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(10)00826-3

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Sample:

“Gene-environment interaction is a broad term encompassing the synergistic effect of genes and the environment on a disease or trait. In this instance, the term environment can be broadly interpreted to include lifestyle factors in addition to the more traditional physical, chemical, and biological exposures that individuals are subjected to in their occupational and domestic surroundings. In many ways, the term gene-environment interaction represents a new dimension of the long-standing “nature versus nurture” debate. In part this reflects a growing realization that the notion of nature or nurture is a false dichotomy and that understanding how these two powerful forces interact is key to unraveling disease pathogenesis (Levin, 2009, Rutter, 2002, Wermter et al., 2010). In our opinion, a complete understanding of the role of environment in disease cannot be achieved in isolation, but rather must be viewed in the context of the genome and its variety.”

MLA Citation:

Traynor, Bryan and Andrew Singleton. “Nature versus Nurture: Death of a Dogma, and the Road Ahead.” Neuron Volume 68 Issue 2: p. 196-200.  21 Oct. 2010. <http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(10)00826-3>.

In-Text: (Traynor and Singleton)

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APA Citation:

Traynor, B., & Singleton, A. (2010, Oct. 21). Nature versus nurture: Death of a dogma, and the road ahead. Neuron, Volume 68, Issue 2, 196-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2010.10.002

In-Text: (Traynor & Singleton, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/05/songbirdculture/

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Sample:

“Knowledge is passed down directly from generation to generation in the animal kingdom as parents teach their children the things they will need to survive. But a new study has found that, even when the chain is broken, nature sometimes finds a way.”

&

“Birds transmit their songs through social interactions, as humans do for languages, dances, cuisine and other cultural elements. Though birds and humans have clearly followed different evolutionary paths, birdsong culture can still inform theories of human culture.”

MLA Citation:

Buchen, Lizzie. wired.com. Wired.com, 3 May. 2009.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/05/songbirdculture/>.

In-Text: (Buchen)

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APA Citation:

Buchen, L. (3 May, 2009). Culture May Be Encoded in DNA. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/05/songbirdculture/

In-Text: (Buchen, 2009)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.03/start.html?pg=2

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Sample:

“Ever since Hobbes and Rousseau started riffing on the state of nature and the noble savage a few centuries back, the nature versus nurture debate has been as much about politics as empirical research. Sure, scientists have their genome projects and their twin studies, and they talk a nice game about how extroversion or smoking is “20 percent heritable.” But most people don’t choose sides because the data convinced them; they lean one way or the other because their political views led them there – the patina of science just makes the biases easier to hide.”

MLA Citation:

Johnson, Steven. wired.com. Wired.com, Mar. 2003.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.03/start.html?pg=2>.

In-Text: (Johnson)

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APA Citation:

Johnson, S. (Mar, 2003). The New Nature vs. Nurture. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.03/start.html?pg=2

In-Text: (Johnson, 2003)

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Read More Comments Off on Nature vs Nurture Debate, Effect of Political Orientation, Liberal, Conservative

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/scott-barry-kaufman/nature-vs-nurture_b_837915.html 

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Sample:

“In 1990, Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr. and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota published a striking finding: About 70 percent of the variance in IQ found in their particular sample of identical twins was found to be associated with genetic variation. Furthermore, identical twins reared apart were eerily similar to identical twins reared together on various measures of personality, occupational and leisure-time interests, and social attitudes.”

“In reality, all biological and psychological characteristics are constructed during development, when genes interact with local environmental factors that can be influenced by the broader environment. Therefore, gene-environment interactions are understood to drive the development of all of our characteristics. Naked DNA (or RNA) is simply not sufficient to produce psychological or biological traits.”

“Take the most essential element: a child needs to be raised in a family, almost any kind of family, to develop the ability to speak a language. Since every single person in twin studies checks that box — that is, they are raised in a family of some sort — this factor never varies and thus does not predict differences in ability to speak a language. But does this mean that the variable “has a family” doesn’t matter in determining whether or not a person develops the ability to speak a language? Of course not! That’s like saying that water has no influence on a fish’s development because all fish live in water. Just because a variable doesn’t vary doesn’t mean it has no causal impact on a particular outcome.”

MLA Citation:

Kaufman, Scott Barry. Huffington Post. Huffington Post, 27 March. 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/scott-barry-kaufman/nature-vs-nurture_b_837915.html>.

In-Text: (Kaufman)

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APA Citation:

Read More Comments Off on Nature vs Nurture, Parenting, Development

CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

Description:

Source discussing differences in the brains of men and women, and whether or not these differences or social practices or prejudices are responsible for differences in things like careers among each gender.

URL:

http://boston.com/news/nation/articles/2005/02/28/nature_vs_nurture_divides_academia/

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Sample:

“Academia has been bitterly divided by the nature vs. nurture debate, and the Harvard president’s comments last month at a National Bureau of Economic Research symposium touched on aspects that are so controversial that the opposing sides almost never discuss them”

“On one side are those who believe the sexes are equal enough in their intellectual abilities that any biological difference is vastly outweighed by social pressures and discrimination that discourage girls and women from pursuing science and engineering.”

MLA Citation:

Crenson, Matt. boston.com. The Boston Globe, 28 February. 2005.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://boston.com/news/nation/articles/2005/02/28/nature_vs_nurture_divides_academia/>.

In-Text: (Crenson)

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Description:

Amazing credible source detailing what sequencing the human genome has told us about nature vs nurture.

URL:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/nature-versus-nurture-revisited.html

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Sample:

“After a decade of hype surrounding the Human Genome Project, punctuated at regular intervals by gaudy headlines proclaiming the discovery of genes for killer diseases and complex traits, this unexpected result led some journalists to a stunning conclusion. The seesaw struggle between our genes (nature) and the environment (nurture) had swung sharply in favor of nurture.”

“The key to ultimately defining the respective roles of genes and environment lies with “snips”—genespeak for the sites littered throughout our DNA that frequently vary between unrelated people. About three million differences exist in the genomes of any two unrelated people, but of these only about 10,000 or so are likely to have any functional consequences.”

MLA Citation:

Davies, Kevin. Nova. PBS, 17 April. 2001.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/nature-versus-nurture-revisited.html>.

In-Text: (Davies)

APA Citation:

Davies, K. (17 April, 2001). Nature vs. Nurture Revisited. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/nature-versus-nurture-revisited.html

In-Text: (Davies, 2001)

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Description:

Super-interesting source about secretive study done on identical twins to discover the impacts of “nature” and “nurture” on our personalities and characteristics.

URL:

http://www.npr.org/2007/10/25/15629096/identical-strangers-explore-nature-vs-nurture

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Sample:

“What is it that makes us who we really are: our life experiences or our DNA? Paula Bernstein and Elyse Schein were both born in New York City. Both women were adopted as infants and raised by loving families. They met for the first time when they were 35 years old and found they were “identical strangers.”

Unknowingly, Bernstein and Schein had been part of a secret research project in the 1960s and ’70s that separated identical twins as infants and followed their development in a one-of-a-kind experiment to assess the influence of nature vs. nurture in child development.”

MLA Citation:

Richman, Joe. NPR. National Public Radio, 25 October. 2007.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.npr.org/2007/10/25/15629096/identical-strangers-explore-nature-vs-nurture>.

In-Text: (Richman)

APA Citation:

Richman, J. (2008, 25 October.) ‘Identical Strangers’ Explore Nature Vs. Nurture. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2007/10/25/15629096/identical-strangers-explore-nature-vs-nurture

In-Text: (Richman, 2007)

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Read More Comments Off on Nature vs Nurture Separated Twins Study – NPR

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