Credible Sources for Bullying

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2017/04/27/peds.2016-2615

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Sample:

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bullying is a significant public health concern, and it has received considerable attention from the media and policymakers over the past decade, which has led some to believe that it is increasing. However, there are limited surveillance data on bullying to inform our understanding of such trends over the course of multiple years. The current study examined the prevalence of bullying and related behaviors between 2005 and 2014 and explored whether any such changes varied across schools or as a function of school-level covariates.”

CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of bullying and related behaviors generally decreased over this 10-year period with the most recent years showing the greatest improvements in school climate and reductions in bullying. Additional research is needed to identify factors that contributed to this declining trend.”

Description:

Results from a 10-year study conducted in Maryland schools shows a decrease in bullying behaviors and increase in school environment for grades 4-12.

Author(s):

  • Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Elise T. Pas, Benjamin Zablotsky, Catherine P. Bradshaw

Title:

  • Ten-Year Trends in Bullying and Related Attitudes Among 4th- to 12th-Graders

Publisher:

  • Pediatrics

Date:

  • May, 2017

Citations:

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm

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Sample:

“Only 7% of U.S. parents are worried about cyberbullying, even though 33% of teenagers have been victims of cyberbullying ”

“95% of social media-using teens who have witnessed cruel behavior on social networking sites say they have seen others ignoring the mean behavior; 55% witness this frequently”

MLA Citation:

“Cyberbullying Statistics.” internetsafety101.org. Enough is Enough, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm>.

In-Text: (“Cyberbullying Statistics”)

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APA Citation:

Cyberbullying statistics. (n.d.). Enough is Enough. Retrieved from http://www.internetsafety101.org/cyberbullyingstatistics.htm

In-Text: (Cyberbullying statistics)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf

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Sample:

“This document reports data from the 2011 School Crime Supplement (SCS) of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The Web Tables show the extent to which students with different personal characteristics report bullying and cyberbullying. Estimates include responses by student characteristics: student sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and household income. The U.S. Census Bureau (Census) appended additional data from the 2009–10 Common Core of Data (CCD) and the 2009–10 Private School Universe Survey (PSS) to generate tables showing the extent to which bullying and cyber-bullying are reported by students in schools with different characteristics. School characteristics examined are region; sector (public or private); locale; level; enrollment size; student-to-full-time-equivalent (FTE) teacher ratio; percentage of combined American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/ Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and students of two or more races; and percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-priced lunch.”

MLA Citation:

“Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results From the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey.” nces.ed.gov. U.S. Department of Education, Aug. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf>.

In-Text: (“Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying”)

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APA Citation:

Student reports of bullying and cyber-bullying: Results from the 2011 school crime supplement to the national crime victimization survey. (2013, Aug.). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013329.pdf

In-Text: (Student reports of bullying and cyber-bullying)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/vio-a0039317.pdf

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Sample:

“Although research is consistent that traditional bullying andharassment is more prevalent, experts note that technology-based bullying and harassment may be more distressing to victims because online harassers have the ability to post pictures or videos, anonymously to widespread audiences; the aggression can reach targets at any time of the day and night, including in their homes; more people may see and join in the harassment; and youth may have difficulty removing negative content or stopping the harassment once it is online (Dempsey et al., 2009; Fredstrom et al., 2011; Kowalski & Limber, 2007; Mishna et al., 2009; Sticca & Perren, 2013). Although these are testable hypotheses, so far they have not been the focus of much empirical study. One comparative study found that after controlling for traditional or school-based victimization, electronic victimization was still predictive of problems with self-esteem, anxiety, and depression (Fredstrom et al., 2011), and others have found some differences in the relationship patterns between perpetration and victimization and psychosocial outcomes, depending on whether the harassment was traditional or used new technology (Kowalski & Limber, 2013; Wang, Nansel, & Iannotti, 2011). There is also evidence that youth who are victims of multiple types of peer harassment, including technology-based harassment, report depression, injury and medical concerns at higher rates than traditional victims (Wang et al., 2010).”

MLA Citation:

Mitchell, Kimberly J., Lisa M. Jones, Heather A. Turner, Anne Shattuck, and Janis Wolak. “The Role of Technology in Peer Harassment: Does It Amplify Harm for Youth?” apa.org. American Psychological Association, 1 Jun. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/vio-a0039317.pdf>.

In-Text: (Mitchell et al.)

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APA Citation:

Mitchell, K. J., Jones, L. M., Turner, H. A., Shattuck, A., & Wolak, J. (2015, June 1). The Role of Technology in Peer Harassment: Does It Amplify Harm for Youth?. Psychology of Violence. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039317

In-Text: (Mitchell, Jones, Turner, Shattuck, & Wolak, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://cyberbullying.org/summary-of-our-cyberbullying-research/ (Copy and paste if link doesn’t work)

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Sample:

“At the Cyberbullying Research Center we have been collecting data from middle and high school students since 2002. We have surveyed more than 15,000 students from middle and high schools from across the United States in eleven unique projects. The following two charts show the percent of respondents who have experienced cyberbullying at some point in their lifetime across our nine most recent studies. Our two earliest studies (from 2004 and 2005) are excluded from this because they were online convenience samples and therefore cannot be easily compared to the other studies. The nine most recent studies have all been random samples of known populations in schools which allows for improved reliability and validity. Please see our Research in Review addendum for more details about each of the samples.”

MLA Citation:

Patchin, Justin W. “Summary of Our Cyberbullying Research (2004-2015).” cyberbullying.org. Cyberbullying Research Center, 1 May 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://cyberbullying.org/summary-of-our-cyberbullying-research/>.

In-Text: (Patchin)

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APA Citation:

Patchin, J. W. (2015, May 1). Summary of Our cyberbullying research (2004-2015). Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved from http://cyberbullying.org/summary-of-our-cyberbullying-research/

In-Text: (Patchin, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160202110714.htm (Copy and paste if link doesn’t work)

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Sample:

“Many K-12 school efforts to reduce bullying have proven not very effective, leading educators to wonder what bullying prevention approach works best. A new study finds one anti-bullying program works extremely well. The study of more than 7,000 students in 77 elementary schools in Finland found that one program greatly benefited the mental health of sixth graders who were bullied the most, significantly improving their self-esteem and reducing their depression.”

MLA Citation:

“Anti-bullying program focused on bystanders helps the students who need it the most.” sciencedaily.com. Science Daily, 2 Feb. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160202110714.htm>.

In-Text: (“Anti-bullying program focused on bystanders helps the students who need it the most”)

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APA Citation:

Anti-bullying program focused on bystanders helps the students who need it the most. (2016, Feb. 2). Science Daily. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160202110714.htm

In-Text: (Anti-bullying program focused on bystanders helps the students who need it the most)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf

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Sample:

“The Indicators of School Crime and Safety provides the most recent national indicators on school crime and safety. These indicators demonstrate that improvements have occurred in the safety of students: between 1992 and 2002, the violent crime victimization rate at school declined from 48 violent victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 24 such victimizations in 2002. Even so, violence, theft, bullying, drugs, and firearms are still prevalent: students ages 12–18 were victims of about 659,000 violent crimes and 1.1 million crimes of theft at school in 2002.”

MLA Citation:

DeVoe, Jill, Katharin Peter, Phillip Kaufman, Amanda Miller, Margaret Noonan, Thomas Snyder, and Katrina Baum. “Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2004.” nces.ed.gov.  U.S. Departments of Education and Justice. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Nov. 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf>.

In-Text: (DeVoe et al. INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

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APA Citation:

DeVoe, J., Peter, K., Kaufman, P., Miller, A., Noonan, M., Snyder, T., & Katrina Baum. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf

In-Text: (DeVoe et al., 2004, p. INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43254.pdf

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Sample:

“There are several federal initiatives that are specifically focused on student bullying, including interagency initiatives. In addition, there are a variety of federal initiatives that are not solely or primarily focused on student bullying, but permit some funds to be used for this purpose. Representatives from the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Education, Health and Human Services, the Interior, and Justice, as well as the Federal Trade Commission and the White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, have formed a Federal Partners in Bullying Prevention Steering Committee. The Federal Partners work to coordinate policy, research, and communications on bullying topics. The Federal Partners have created a website, http://www.stopbullying.gov, which provides extensive resources on bullying, including information on how schools can address bullying.”

MLA Citation:

McCallion, Gail and Jody Feder. “Student Bullying: Overview of Research, Federal Initiatives, and Legal Issues.” fas.org. Congressional Research Service, 18 Oct. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43254.pdf>.

In-Text: (McCallion and Feder INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

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APA Citation:

McCallion, G. & J. Feder (2013, Oct. 18). Student bullying: Overview of research, federal initiatives, and legal issues. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43254.pdf

In-Text: (McCallion & Feder, 2013, p. INSERT PAGE NO.)

You must include the page number for any in-text citations for this source.

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/bullying-jaana-juvonen-233108

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Sample:

“Everyone knows that school bullies torment their peers to compensate for low self-esteem, and that they are scorned as much as they are feared.

But “everyone” got it wrong, according to Jaana Juvonen, a professor of developmental psychology whose decade of groundbreaking research on mean kids and their hapless victims is changing the way parents and schools think about bullying.”

MLA Citation:

Lin, Judy. “Psychologist’s studies make sense of bullying.” newsroom.ucla.edu. UCLA Office of Media Relations, 03 May 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/bullying-jaana-juvonen-233108>.

In-Text: (Lin)

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APA Citation:

Lin, J. (2012, May 03). Psychologist’s studies make sense of bullying. UCLA Office of Media Relations. Retrieved from http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/bullying-jaana-juvonen-233108

In-Text: (Lin, 2012)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://cyberbullying.org/facts/

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

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Sample:

“There are only three studies that we are aware of that have explored cyberbullying experiences of students across the United States over time. The first analysis have been conducted by our friends at the Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire. Examining the three waves of the Youth Internet Safety Survey (2000, 2005, 2010), they find a slight increase in cyberbullying behaviors over that time period (from 6% to 9% to 11%).”

MLA Citation:

“Cyberbullying Facts.” cyberbullying.org. Cyberbullying Research Center,  n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://cyberbullying.org/facts/>.

In-Text: (“Cyberbullying Facts”)

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APA Citation:

Cyberbullying facts. (n.d.). Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved from http://cyberbullying.org/facts/

In-Text: (Cyberbullying facts)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.apa.org/research/action/bullying.aspx

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Sample:

“Psychological research has debunked several myths associated with bullying, including one that states bullies are usually the most unpopular students in school. A 2000 study by psychologist Philip Rodkin, PhD, and colleagues involving fourth-through-sixth-grade boys found that highly aggressive boys may be among the most popular and socially connected children in elementary classrooms, as viewed by their fellow students and even their teachers. Another myth is that the tough and aggressive bullies are basically anxious and insecure individuals who use bullying as a means of compensating for poor self-esteem. Using a number of different methods including projective tests and stress hormones, Olweus concludes that there is no support for such a view. Most bullies had average or better than average self-esteem.”

MLA Citation:

“School Bullying is Nothing New, But Psychologists Identify New Ways to Prevent It.” apa.org. American Psychological Association, 29 Oct. 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.apa.org/research/action/bullying.aspx>.

In-Text: (“School Bullying is Nothing New, But Psychologists Identify New Ways to Prevent It”)

***REMEMBER all lines of the citation after the first get indented once***

APA Citation:

School bullying is nothing new, but psychologists identify new ways to prevent it. (2004, Oct. 29). American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/research/action/bullying.aspx

In-Text: (School bullying is nothing new, but psychologists identify new ways to prevent it)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2016/01/end-bullying-get-the-cool-kids-to-help.html#

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Sample:

“For all of the efforts schools put into reducing bullying, there’s actually a dearth of rigorous evidence about what makes for effective anti-bullying intervention. The classic approach — pile kids into an auditorium and lecture them on the dangers of bullying, perhaps including a sad story about its effects along the way — doesn’t appear to really work. Some researchers believe that the reason it doesn’t work is that students, like people in general, don’t really take their cues for how to behave from authority figures — they take them from their peers. If students think their peers enjoy bullying, or at least aren’t opposed to it, they’ll be more likely to not just engage in bullying themselves, but also to fail to intervene when they see other people doing it.”

MLA Citation:

Singal, Jesse. “Want to End Bullying? Get the Popular Students to Help.” nymag.com. New York Media LLC, 6 Jan. 2016.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2016/01/end-bullying-get-the-cool-kids-to-help.html#>.

In-Text: (Singal)

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APA Citation:

Singal, J. (2016, Jan. 6). Want to end bullying? Get the popular students to help. New York Media LLC. Retrieved from http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2016/01/end-bullying-get-the-cool-kids-to-help.html#

In-Text: (Singal, 2016)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/13/us/13bully.html

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Sample:

“Adding an extra incendiary element, the school district has suffered eight student suicides in the last two years, leading state officials to declare a “suicide contagion.” Whether antigay bullying contributed to any of these deaths is sharply disputed; some friends and teachers say four of the students were struggling with issues of sexual identity.”

MLA Citation:

Eckholm, Erik. “In Suburb, Battle Goes Public on Bullying of Gay Students.” nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 13 Sept. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/13/us/13bully.html>.

In-Text: (Eckholm)

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APA Citation:

Eckholm, E. (2013, Sept. 13). In suburb, battle goes public on bullying of gay students. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/13/us/13bully.html

In-Text: (Eckholm, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mind-change/201512/the-internet-has-changed-bullying-the-worse

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Sample:

“Some aspects of cyberbullying are nothing new for today’s teenagers. One study found that the content of cyberbullying incidents in 91% of cases related to relationship issues, such as break-ups, envy, intolerance, and ganging up.3 These are all just typical adolescent tensions- the difference lies in that they are playing out in a far more dangerous environment. Compared to the traditional bullying of the playground or the times of Flashman, the online environment is a place where bullying has instant, widespread, and permanent effects- and a place where a bully can attack their victim 24 hours a day. Because there is the possibility for the abuse to be spread by others and to continue online and because bullies may be able to maintain a higher degree of anonymity than in face-to-face encounters, there is concern that the intensity of cyberbullying is greater than that of traditional bullying.”

MLA Citation:

Greenfield, Susan. “The Internet Has Changed Bullying- For The Worse.” Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers, LLC, 1 Dec. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mind-change/201512/the-internet-has-changed-bullying-the-worse>.

In-Text: (Greenfield)

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APA Citation:

Greenfield, S. (2015, Dec 1). The internet has changed bullying- for the worse. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mind-change/201512/the-internet-has-changed-bullying-the-worse

In-Text: (Greenfield, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/roles-kids-play/index.html

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Sample:

“The roles kids play in bullying are not limited to those who bully others and those who are bullied. Some researchers talk about the “circle of bullying” to define both those directly involved in bullying and those who actively or passively assist the behavior or defend against it.”

MLA Citation:

“The Roles Kids Play.” stopbullying.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/roles-kids-play/index.html>.

In-Text: (“The Roles Kids Play”)

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APA Citation:

The roles kids play. (n.d.). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/roles-kids-play/index.html

In-Text: (The roles kids play)

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