Credible Sources for Literature

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/daughters-in-shakespeare-dreams-duty-and-defiance

Sample:

“A number of Shakespeare’s plays show daughters negotiating the demands of their fathers, often trying to reconcile duty with a desire for independence. Kim Ballard considers five of Shakespeare’s most memorable literary daughters: Juliet, Desdemona, Portia, Katherina and Cordelia.

When we consider that Shakespeare lived in an age when all actors were male and the subject matter of serious drama focused heavily on the exploits of men, it’s hardly surprising that female characters are in a minority in his plays. And yet Shakespeare created many complex and engaging female roles for his young male actors to perform. Parent-child relationships feature heavily, and a significant number of these involve fathers and daughters. Interestingly, mothers are often absent from the drama, throwing the daughter/father relationship into sharp relief. A father of two daughters himself, Shakespeare’s dramatic daughters make a formidable line-up of young women, most of them at a transitional stage between the protection of their childhood home and an adult life beyond it. The transition is rarely a smooth one: in both comedies and tragedies, tension rises as daughters go in search of love, adventure and independence. “

MLA Citation:

Ballard, Kim. “Daughters in Shakespeare: dreams, duty and defiance.” British Library, n.d., https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/daughters-in-shakespeare-dreams-duty-and-defiance. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Ballard)

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APA Citation:

Ballard, K. (n.d.). Daughters in Shakespeare: dreams, duty and defiance. British Library. Retrieved from https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/daughters-in-shakespeare-dreams-duty-and-defiance

In-Text: (Ballard)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/juliets-eloquence

Sample:

“That most famous Shakespearean scene, the balcony scene (Act 2, Scene 1), must have been an extraordinary surprise to the play’s first audience – not only because of its dramatic daring but because Juliet speaks again, and now with even richer eloquence. At first she seems to be talking only to herself – but we ‘overhear’ her (as Romeo does) actually arguing a complex philosophical case:

’Tis but thy name that is my enemy. Thou art thyself, though not a Montague. … What’s in a name? That which we call a rose By any other word would smell as sweet. (2.1.80–81, 85–86)

Juliet displays the greater emotional realism in this famous scene of young love. Not for her Romeo’s reaching for poetical clichés, swearing by ‘yonder blessed moon’; rather, she says,

do not swear. Although I joy in thee, I have no joy in this contract tonight. It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden … (2.1.158–60)”

MLA Citation:

Gay, Penny. “Juliet’s eloquence.” British Library, n.d., https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/juliets-eloquence. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Gay)

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APA Citation:

Gay, P. (n.d.). Juliet’s eloquence. British Library. Retrieved from https://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/juliets-eloquence

In-Text: (Gay)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/new-mutiny-the-violence-of-romeo-and-juliet

Sample:

“And while Romeo and Juliet has barely been off stage or screen since – it may well be Shakespeare’s most performed and adapted play – it takes on a particular intensity in places and periods where violence is more than a mere literary device. In communist Czechoslovakia in 1963, Czech director Otomar Krejča directed it at the Prague National Theatre in a famous version that, drawing heavily upon its Cold War context, made it into a parable of disaffected youth versus negligent age (seeing it in Paris the following year, Peter Brook declared this ‘the best production of the tragedy he had ever seen’). Indeed, according to some theatre historians Romeo and Juliet was one of the most popular plays behind the Iron Curtain; at Moscow’s Vakhtangov Theatre in 1956, Josef Rapoport offered an image of the lovers crushed by violent social forces, an approach echoed by Tamás Major’s Hungarian production of 1971, which played the feud as an outright civil war, put down by an overbearing military regime.”

MLA Citation:

Dickson, Andrew. “The violence of Romeo and Juliet.” British Library, n.d., http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/new-mutiny-the-violence-of-romeo-and-juliet. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Dickson)

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APA Citation:

Dickson, A. (n.d.). The violence of Romeo and Juliet. British Library. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/new-mutiny-the-violence-of-romeo-and-juliet

In-Text: (Dickson)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0305/hamlet.html

Sample:

“Bloom dismissed the notion that Hamlet, goaded by his father’s ghost, was motivated by revenge to kill his uncle Claudius, who had ascended the throne and married the queen, Gertrude, Hamlet’s mother. He also said Freud’s attempt “to fasten the Oedipus complex on Hamlet … will not stick.”

“Something in Hamlet dies before the play opens, and I set aside the prevalent judgment that the deepest cause of his melancholia is his mourning for the dead father and his outrage at his mother’s sexuality,” Bloom said. “The only vital relationship Hamlet has ever had was with Yorick, the King Hamlet’s jester, who died, the Grave-digger tells us, when the prince was seven. … Yorick the jester was Hamlet’s true father and mother.””

MLA Citation:

French, Yvonne. “Harold Bloom Interprets ‘Hamlet’.” Library of Congress, May 2013, https://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0305/hamlet.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (French)

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APA Citation:

French, Y. (2013, May). Harold Bloom interprets ‘Hamlet’. Library of Congress. Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0305/hamlet.html

In-Text: (French, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/robert-penn-warren

Sample:

“A distinguished poet, novelist, critic, and teacher, he won virtually every major award given to writers in the United States and was the only person to receive a Pulitzer Prize in both fiction (once) and poetry (twice). Described by Newsweek reviewer Annalyn Swan as “America’s dean of letters and, in all but name, poet laureate,” Robert Penn Warren was among the last surviving members of a major literary movement that emerged in the South shortly after World War I. He also achieved a measure of commercial success that eludes many other serious artists. In short, as Hilton Kramer once observed in the New York Times Book Review, Warren ‘has enjoyed the best of both worlds. … Few other writers in our history have labored with such consistent distinction and such unflagging energy in so many separate branches of the literary profession. He is a man of letters on the old-fashioned, outsize scale, and everything he writes is stamped with the passion and the embattled intelligence of a man for whom the art of literature is inseparable from the most fundamental imperatives of life.'”

MLA Citation:

“Robert Penn Warren.” Poetry Foundation, n.d., https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/robert-penn-warren. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Robert Penn Warren”)

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APA Citation:

Robert Penn Warren. (n.d.). Poetry Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/robert-penn-warren

In-Text: (“Robert Penn Warren”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/robert-penn-warren

Sample:

“Though regarded as one of the best poets of his generation, Warren was better known as a novelist and received tremendous recognition for All the King’s Men, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1947. As his southern background was exchanged for a later life spent in New England, with homes in Fairfield, Connecticut and Stratton, Vermont, Warren’s youthful conservatism eventually gave way to more liberal views, both aesthetically and socially.”

MLA Citation:

“Robert Penn Warren.” poets.org, Academy of American Poets, n.d., https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/robert-penn-warren. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (“Robert Penn Warren”)

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APA Citation:

Robert Penn Warren. (n.d.). ACademy of American Poets. Retrieved from https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/robert-penn-warren

In-Text: (“Robert Penn Warren”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0104%3Aalphabetic+letter%3DO%3Aentry+group%3D2%3Aentry%3Doedipus-bio-1

Sample:

“From this point traditions again differ,for according to some, Oedipus in his blindness was expelled from Thebes by his sons and brother-in-law, Creon, who undertook the government, and he was guided and accompanied by Antigone in his exile to Attica; but according to others he was imprisoned by his sons at Thebes, in order that his disgrace might remain concealed from the eves of the world. The father now cursed his sons, who agreed to rule over Thebes alternately, but became involved in a dispute, in consequence of which they fought in single combat, and slew each other. Hereupon Creon succeeded to the throne, and expelled Oedipus. After long wanderings Oedipus arrived in the grove of the Eumenides, near Colonus, in Attica; he was there honoured by Theseus in his misfortune, and, according to an oracle, the Eumenides removed him from the earth, and no one was allowed to approach his tomb (Soph. Oed. Col. 1661, &c.; Eurip. Phoen. init.; Apollod. 3.5.9; Diod. 4.64; Hyg. Fab. 67).”

MLA Citation:

Smith, William. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology.  Spottiswoode and Co., n.d., Archived at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0104%3Aalphabetic+letter%3DO%3Aentry+group%3D2%3Aentry%3Doedipus-bio-1. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Smith)

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APA Citation:

Smith, W. (n.d.). A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology. London: Spottiswoode and Co. Retrieved from http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0104%3Aalphabetic+letter%3DO%3Aentry+group%3D2%3Aentry%3Doedipus-bio-1

In-Text: (Smith)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.maicar.com/GML/Oedipus.html

Sample:

“After the burial of Laius 1, performed by King Damasistratus of Plataea (a city between Attica and Boeotia), Jocasta’s brother Creon 2 became regent in Thebes. It is during his rule that a new and heavy calamity befell Thebes: the Sphinx appeared in Boeotia, laying waste the Theban fields and declaring that it would not depart unless someone interpreted the riddle that she proposed, and that, in the meantime, she would destroy whoever failed to give the correct answer. This beast—offspring of either Typhon or Orthus by Echidna—had the face of a woman, the breast, feet and tail of a lion, and the wings of a bird. She had learned her riddle from the MUSES, and sitting on Mount Phicium, propounded it to any Theban willing to solve it:

“What is that which has one voice and yet becomes four-footed and two-footed and three-footed?” (Apollodorus, Library 3.5.7).”

MLA Citation:

Parada, Carlos and Maicar Forlag. “Oedipus.” Greek Mythology Link, n.d., http://www.maicar.com/GML/Oedipus.html. Accessed (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Parada and Forlag)

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APA Citation:

Parada, C. & Forlag, M. Oedipus. Greek Mythology Link. Retrieved from http://www.maicar.com/GML/Oedipus.html

In-Text: (Parada and Forlag)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-and-revenge

Sample:

“For centuries critics have tied themselves in knots trying to solve the baffling problem Hamlet appears to pose. Commanded by his father’s ghost in Act 1 to ‘Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder’ by his brother Claudius, who has robbed him of his wife and throne as well as his life, Hamlet swears that ‘with wings as swift / As meditation, or the thoughts of love,’ he will ‘sweep to [his] revenge’ (1.5.25, 29–31). He then spends almost the entire play spectacularly failing to keep his oath, despite the ghost’s reappearance in Act 3 to remind him: ‘Do not forget! This visitation / Is but to whet thy almost blunted purpose’ (3.4.110–11). Indeed after his departure for England, Hamlet’s obligation to avenge his father seems all but forgotten, and on his return he shows no sign of planning to take his uncle’s life. When he does at last kill Claudius in the dying moments of Act 5, he does so suddenly, without forethought, poisoning the King in revenge for conniving to poison him and for accidentally poisoning Gertrude.”

MLA Citation:

Ryan, Kiernan. “Hamlet and revenge.” www.bl.uk. British Library Board, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-and-revenge>.

In-Text: (Ryan)

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APA Citation:

Ryan, Kiernan. (n.d.). Hamlet and revenge. British Library Board. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-and-revenge

In-Text: (Ryan)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-the-play-within-the-play

Sample:

“Outward displays of emotion are untrustworthy, Hamlet reasons, because a person could ‘play’ or mimic them. Indeed, even his own sincere demonstrations of sadness are compromised because it would be easy to feign them. So while Hamlet’s mourning clothes, sighs and tears ‘seem’ to express his grief, Hamlet insists they are not significant: his inner feelings are his true meaning. This relationship between ‘show’ and ‘authenticity’, ‘performance’ and ‘reality’, preoccupies Hamlet throughout the play. When he discovers that his uncle has murdered his father, Hamlet interprets the news as a lesson in deceitful appearances: ‘meet it is I set it down / That one may smile, and smile, and be a villain!’ (1.5.107–08). However, the tragedy complicates any easy moral distinctions between acting and authenticity. Hamlet himself, despite his petulant outburst against ‘seeming’, cannot escape the human impulse to perform. Not only does he successfully adopt an ‘antic disposition’ (1.5.172) to deflect attention from his revenge plot, but his endless soliloquising makes him all the more theatrical, even as he meditates on ‘that within which passes show’. At the very moment Hamlet insists that his mourning is authentic and internal, he seems deliberately to parade his grief for all to see. In this tragedy, Shakespeare explores the ways in which performance exists in and shapes reality.”

MLA Citation:

Woods, Gillian. “Hamlet: the play within the play.” www.bl.uk. British Library Board, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-the-play-within-the-play>.

In-Text: (Woods)

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APA Citation:

Woods, G. (n.d.). Hamlet: the play within the play. British Library Board. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-the-play-within-the-play

In-Text: (Woods)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-looking-backwards

Sample:

“Hamlet’s personal situation reflects the political concerns of the period. For some reason the play never fully explains, this adult male heir does not inherit the throne from his father. The play is thus obliquely concerned with the great but unspeakable topical preoccupation of the end of the 16th century: the question of who would succeed the unmarried Queen Elizabeth. It was a crime to discuss the succession directly, but the theatre was able to glance at it through parallel, and in this way Hamlet has close affinities with Shakespeare’s plays on English historical subjects which rehearse similar issues.”

MLA Citation:

Smith, Emma. “Hamlet: looking backwards.” www.bl.uk. British Library Board, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-looking-backwards>.

In-Text: (Smith)

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APA Citation:

Smith, E. (n.d.). Hamlet: looking backwards. British Library Board. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/shakespeare/articles/hamlet-looking-backwards

In-Text: (Smith)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/19/tv/cover-story-holmes-loses-the-hat-and-watson-gets-hip.html

Sample:

“Mr. Attwood even advanced a rationale for making the thinking man’s detective less a thinker and more a doer. ”In the novels, it’s said that Holmes was a ‘master of the short stick,’ meaning tht he could handle himself in a fight,” he said, explaining why he replaced the ”pipe-and-carpet-slippers Holmes” with a ”don’t-you-mess-with-me Holmes.” But he maintained that any deviations made from Holmesian tradition were calculated to rescue the novel from earlier ”cozy versions suffused with lovely Victoriana” and to restore Conan Doyle’s original concept of ”The Hound of the Baskervilles” as a dark and terrifying tale of the supernatural. ”We wanted to scare people,” he said of his melodramatic storytelling techniques, which tend to cast the storyteller’s face in candlelight while the rain beats down and the fog rolls in and unearthly creatures stir in the night.”

MLA Citation:

Stasio, Marilyn. “Holmes Loses the Hat, and Watson Gets Hip.” nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 19 Jan. 2003.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/19/tv/cover-story-holmes-loses-the-hat-and-watson-gets-hip.html>.

In-Text: (Stasio)

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APA Citation:

Stasio, M. (2003, Jan. 19). Holmes loses the hat, and Watson gets hip. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/19/tv/cover-story-holmes-loses-the-hat-and-watson-gets-hip.html

In-Text: (Stasio, 2003)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/an-introduction-to-the-hound-of-the-baskervilles

Sample:

“The Hound of the Baskervilles, the third novel by Arthur Conan Doyle to feature Sherlock Holmes, is arguably the most famous detective story in fiction. The tale was a huge success upon its first appearance in The Strand Magazine where it ran from August 1901 to April 1902. Indeed the story’s popularity was such that for the first (and only) time in The Strand’s history a seventh printing of the magazine was required in order to keep up with demand. The story of a seemingly supernatural hound that haunts Dartmoor caught the public imagination, pitting as it did the supremely rational Sherlock Holmes against the unearthly family curse that terrorises the Baskervilles. The novel also merged two popular genres, the detective story and the Gothic tale, using an ingenious double-narrative to do so. In addition, along with its late-Victorian Gothic predecessors Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886); The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891) and Dracula (1897) the book addressed many of the fears that assailed the final years of the 19th century.”

MLA Citation:

Buzwell, Greg. “An introduction to The Hound of the Baskervilles.” bl.uk. British Library Board, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/an-introduction-to-the-hound-of-the-baskervilles>.

In-Text: (Buzwell)

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APA Citation:

Buzwell, G. (n.d.). An introduction to The Hound of the Baskervilles. British Library Board. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/an-introduction-to-the-hound-of-the-baskervilles

In-Text: (Buzwell)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://blog.oup.com/2015/04/six-features-hip-hop-poetry/

Sample:

“Hip hop has influenced print-based poetry’s use of form in at least two main ways. First, some poems imitate the form of hip hop lyrics transcribed onto the page. Second, hip hop has encouraged a new interest in virtuoso rhyming. As Major Jackson notes, “I put a premium on rhymes—how could I / Not living in the times of the Supa / Emcees?” While Americans poets previously generally avoided patterned rhyme, a new generation of poets has experimented with its most conspicuous forms, including multi-syllabic, mosaic, and forced rhymes. When a poet rhymes “Sudafed” with “red” or “Sierra Leone” with “home” (as Michael Robbins and Jackson respectively do), one can hear hip hop’s formal influence.”

MLA Citation:

Caplan, David. “Six features of hip hop poetry.” blog.oup.com. Oxford University Press, 20 Apr. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://blog.oup.com/2015/04/six-features-hip-hop-poetry/>.

In-Text: (Caplan)

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APA Citation:

Caplan, D. (2015, Apr. 20). Six features of hip hop poetry. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://blog.oup.com/2015/04/six-features-hip-hop-poetry/

In-Text: (Caplan, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/12/06/word-kelefa-sanneh

Sample:

“Last year, an English professor named Adam Bradley issued a manifesto to his fellow-scholars. He urged them to expand the poetic canon, and possibly enlarge poetry’s audience, by embracing, or coöpting, the greatest hits of hip-hop. “Thanks to the engines of global commerce, rap is now the most widely disseminated poetry in the history of the world,” he wrote. “The best MCs—like Rakim, Jay-Z, Tupac, and many others—deserve consideration alongside the giants of American poetry. We ignore them at our own expense.””

MLA Citation:

Sanneh, Kelefa. “Word.” newyorker.com. Conde Naste, 6 Dec. 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/12/06/word-kelefa-sanneh>.

In-Text: (Sanneh)

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APA Citation:

Sanneh, K. (2010, Dec. 6). Word. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/12/06/word-kelefa-sanneh

In-Text: (Sanneh, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/08/10/the-courthouse-ring

Sample:

“One of Atticus Finch’s strongest critics has been the legal scholar Steven Lubet, and Lubet’s arguments are a good example of how badly the brand of Southern populism Finch represents has aged over the past fifty years. Lubet’s focus is the main event of “To Kill a Mockingbird”—Finch’s defense of Tom Robinson. In “Reconstructing Atticus Finch,” in the Michigan Law Review, Lubet points out that Finch does not have a strong case. The putative rape victim, Mayella Ewell, has bruises on her face, and the supporting testimony of her father, Robert E. Lee Ewell. Robinson concedes that he was inside the Ewell house, and that some kind of sexual activity took place. The only potentially exculpatory evidence Finch can come up with is that Mayella’s bruises are on the right side of her face while Robinson’s left arm, owing to a childhood injury, is useless. Finch presents this fact with great fanfare. But, as Lubet argues, it’s not exactly clear why a strong right-handed man can’t hit a much smaller woman on the right side of her face. Couldn’t she have turned her head? Couldn’t he have hit her with a backhanded motion? Given the situation, Finch designs his defense, Lubet says, “to exploit a virtual catalog of misconceptions and fallacies about rape, each one calculated to heighten mistrust of the female complainant.””

MLA Citation:

Gladwell, Malcolm. “The Courthouse Ring.” newyorker.com. The New Yorker, 10 Aug. 2009.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/08/10/the-courthouse-ring>.

In-Text: (Gladwell)

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APA Citation:

Gladwell, M. (2009, Aug. 10). The Courthouse Ring. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/08/10/the-courthouse-ring

In-Text: (Gladwell, 2009)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://wayback.archive.org/web/20080910082631/http://www.dunphy.de/ac/pdf/Meena’s_Mockingbird.pdf

Sample:

“Syal’s novel Anita and Me describes the childhood of Meena, a young member of the Asian diaspora in Britain in the late 1960s. The article demonstrates how this book draws on Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird for inspiration, and shows how a post-colonial reading of Lee’s description of the American South provides a way into a similar reading of Syal. The relationship of the two may then be understood as a post-colonial `writing back’.”

“Meera Syal’s 1996 novel Anita and Me is probably the first work by a woman author of the British Asian community to achieve international recognition, and it very quickly became the subject of academic interest.’ It tells the story of Meena Kumar, the daughter of a Punjabi household in the village of Tollington in the English Midlands, who like the author is a second-generation member of the immigrant Indian community. Biographically, the first-person narrator mirrors the author, as the echo in the name (Meera/Meena) suggests: Syal was born in 1963 and brought up in the Staffordshire mining village of Essington, just outside Wolverhampton; although there are no dates for the action of the novel, the references to contemporary children’s television place the nine-year-old Meena at the turn of the sixties and seventies, and the fictional Tollington could easily be Essington. The theme is childhood, but specifically childhood against the backdrop of racial diversity and cultural hybridity.”

MLA Citation:

Dunphy, Graeme. “Meena’s Mockingbird: From Harper Lee to Meera Syal.” Neophilologus 88 (2004): 637-659.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://wayback.archive.org/web/20080910082631/http://www.dunphy.de/ac/pdf/Meena’s_Mockingbird.pdf>.

In-Text: (Dunphy)

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APA Citation:

Dunphy, G. (2004). Meena’s mockingbird: From Harper Lee to Meera Syal. Neophilologus, 88, 637-659. Retrieved from http://wayback.archive.org/web/20080910082631/http://www.dunphy.de/ac/pdf/Meena’s_Mockingbird.pdf

In-Text: (Dunphy, 2004)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/13/books/the-invisible-hand-behind-harper-lees-to-kill-a-mockingbird.html?_r=0

Sample:

“Now, this week’s publication of “Go Set a Watchman” offers a rare glimpse at the before and after of a book widely regarded as a masterpiece. The main characters may be the same, but “Watchman” is an entirely different book in both shape and tone from “Mockingbird.” Scout is not an impressionable child in Maycomb, Ala., looking up to her heroic father, but a young woman from Maycomb living in New York. Her father, the great Atticus Finch, is a bigot.

The release of “Watchman,” which has been only lightly copy-edited, also leads inevitably to the question: Who was the invisible hand guiding Ms. Lee as she transformed this book into “Mockingbird”? Maybe more to the point, how big a role did she play in reconceiving the story from a dark tale of a young woman’s disillusionment with her father’s racist views, to a redemptive one of moral courage and human decency? And, for that matter, how would Ms. Hohoff have felt about the decision, more than a half-century later, to publish a prototype of “Mockingbird”?”

MLA Citation:

Mahler, Jonathan. “The Invisible Hand Behind Harper Lee’s ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’.” nytimes.com. The New York Times Company, 12 July. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/13/books/the-invisible-hand-behind-harper-lees-to-kill-a-mockingbird.html?_r=0>.

In-Text: (Mahler)

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APA Citation:

Mahler, J. (2015, July 12). The invisible hand behind Harper Lee’s ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/13/books/the-invisible-hand-behind-harper-lees-to-kill-a-mockingbird.html?_r=0

In-Text: (Mahler)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/hamlet-a-love-story

Sample:

“The idea of love as something tied to emptiness or nothingness is central to psychoanalysis. Often, Webster and Critchley write, we’re inclined to think of love as the opposite of emptiness—we see it as “a system of mutual favors” that acts as a kind of bonus to life, a surplus. Instead, we love because we lack. Inside each of us there’s an emptiness, and that emptiness can never be filled. None of us can ever be loved enough—by our parents, by our children, by our husbands or wives. The bottomlessness of our need for love means that, even in our most stable, permanent, and healthy relationships, love “can only be renewed and invented anew, again and again. I love you. I love you. I love you.” Each time you declare your love, you admit that there’s a lack in yourself. And when two people are in love with one another, they’re offering up their equivalent emptinesses. When love works, it makes something out of nothing.”

MLA Citation:

Rothman, Joshua. “Hamlet: A Love Story.” newyorker.com. Conde Nast, 14 Aug. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/hamlet-a-love-story>.

In-Text: (Rothman)

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APA Citation:

Rothman, J. (2013, Aug. 14). Hamlet: A love story. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/hamlet-a-love-story

In-Text: (Rothman, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.uwlax.edu/urc/JUR-online/PDF/1999/C_Bailey.pdf

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Sample:

“In the twelfth century, an obscure historian named Saxo Grammaticus recounted the tale of “Amleth.” That Shakespeare later borrowed the idea for his Hamlet from Saxo is not in dispute. What is intriguing to scholars, however, is the origin of Saxo’s noble Dane. Thus the focus of my research is an investigation into whether Amleth is an actual historical figure or simply a literary construct. Histories and legends from various parts of Europe include characters with elements similar to Saxo’s protagonist; however, no one character embodies all the elements that form the essence of Amleth. After critical analysis of primary sources from Scandinavia, England, Ireland and the Mediterranean region, it is my conclusion that Amleth is an amalgamation of both history and legend—that the historical character of Anlaf Cuaran, tenth century Danish conqueror of parts of Britain and Ireland, begins to be associated with legendary figures from the classical world and, through Saxo, is reborn as Amleth, heroic Fool of Denmark. This research is important not only for illuminating the origins of the renowned dramatic figure, but also for its contributions to the historiography of medieval Europe.”

MLA Citation:

Bailey, Christopher. “The Hamlet Mythos.” uwlax.edu. University of Wisconsin La Crosse, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.uwlax.edu/urc/JUR-online/PDF/1999/C_Bailey.pdf>.

In-Text: (Bailey)

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APA Citation:

Bailey, C. (n.d.). The Hamlet mythos. University of Wisconsin La Crosse. Retrieved from https://www.uwlax.edu/urc/JUR-online/PDF/1999/C_Bailey.pdf

In-Text: (Bailey)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.rsc.org.uk/hamlet/about-the-play/dates-and-sources

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Sample:

“The immediate source of Hamlet is an earlier play dramatising the same story of Hamlet, the Danish prince who must avenge his father. No printed text of this play survives and it may well have been seen only in performance and never in print. References from the late 1580s through to the mid 1590s testify to its popularity and to the presence of a ghost crying out for revenge. There is general scholarly agreement that the author of this early version of Hamlet was Thomas Kyd, famous as the writer of the revenge drama, The Spanish Tragedy. This play did survive in print and was a huge theatrical hit in the late 1580s and 90s, delighting the contemporary taste for intrigue, bloodshed and ghostly presences.”

MLA Citation:

“Dates and Sources.” rsc.org. Royal Shakespeare Council, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.rsc.org.uk/hamlet/about-the-play/dates-and-sources>.

In-Text: (“Dates and Sources”)

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APA Citation:

Dates and sources. (n.d.). Royal Shakespeare Council. Retrieved from http://www.rsc.org.uk/hamlet/about-the-play/dates-and-sources

In-Text: (Dates and sources)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/lord-byron

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Sample:

“Shortly thereafter, Byron’s first major poetic work, English Bards, and Scotch Reviewers. A Satire, was published anonymously in an edition of one thousand copies. Inspired by the Dunciad (1728, 1742) of his idol, Pope, and modeled largely on William Gifford’s Baviad (1791) and Maeviad (1795), the poem, in heroic couplets, takes indiscriminate aim at most of the poets and playwrights of the moment, notably Walter Scott, Robert Southey, William Wordsworth, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, sparing only Gifford, Samuel Rogers, and Thomas Campbell, who deferred to Pope, along with dramatists George Colman the Younger, Richard Cumberland, and Richard Brinsley Sheridan. His main target is the critics. From these “harpies that must be fed” he singles out for condemnation “immortal” Francis Jeffrey, whom he mistakenly assumed had written the offending comments on Hours of Idleness in the Edinburgh Review.”

MLA Citation:

“Lord Byron (George Gordon).” poetryfoundation.org. Poetry Foundation, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/lord-byron>.

In-Text: (“Lord Byron (George Gordon)”)

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APA Citation:

Lord Byron (George Gordon). (n.d.). Poetry Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/lord-byron

In-Text: (Lord Byron (George Gordon))

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.urop.uci.edu/journal/journal06/05_sessler.pdf

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Sample:

“The relationship between the British Romantic poets William Wordsworth and Lord Byron has been the topic of many critical studies. For most critics, the poets’ objectives are separated by a clear generational and ideological gap. Wordsworth, an architect of first generation Romantic ideology, creates and implements a poetic program that Byron reads, reacts to, and ultimately refutes. This research project enters the existing critical debate by suggesting that the gap dividing the two poets is not as wide as has been previously thought. By focusing exclusively on the poetry of these seemingly opposed figures, I reconstruct their formal relationship to expose an underlying commonality. Through a close reading of Wordsworth’s “Ode: Intimations of Immortality” and Cantos I and II of Byron’s Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, I show that Byron comes away from Wordsworth’s work with a specific understanding of the goals of his poetic predecessor. I argue that Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage represents Byron’s frustrated attempt to implement his own understanding of Wordsworthian ideology. This new approach suggests that Byron’s work should be seen as a negotiation of Wordsworth’s poetic enterprise and first generation Romantic thought.”

MLA Citation:

Sessler, Randall Adam. “Intimations of Romantic Transcendence: Reexamining Lord Byron’s Negotiation of the Poetics of William Wordsworth in Cantos I and II of Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage.” urop.uci.edu. University of California, Irvine, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.urop.uci.edu/journal/journal06/05_sessler.pdf>.

In-Text: (Sessler)

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APA Citation:

Sessler, R.A. (n.d.). Intimations of Romantic Transcendence: Reexamining Lord Byron’s Negotiation of the Poetics of William Wordsworth in Cantos I and II of Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage. University of California, Irvine. Retrieved from http://www.urop.uci.edu/journal/journal06/05_sessler.pdf

In-Text: (Sessler)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.messolonghibyronsociety.gr/index.php/en/lord-byron/timeline.html

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Sample:

1812 On February 27th Byron delivers his first speech in the House of Lords, opposing the death-penalty for industrial sabotage by starving Nottinghamshire workers – the Frame Breakers Bill. He gives two more speeches, then ceases all parliamentary activity. Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage I & II is published on March 10th, and he is famous instantly. On March 25th he sees Annabella Milbanke for the first time. Has his brief – and most notorious – love affair, with Lady Caroline Lamb. Meets Lady Melbourne, who is to become his preceptress and confidante. He tries to sell Newstead Abbey on August 14th, but it fails to reach its reserve price at the auction, and for the next six years his finances remain insecure. He is commissioned by the Drury Lane Committee to write an Address for the opening of their new theatre. He also writes Waltz, which is published anonymously. At the end of the year, is deep into an affair with Elizabeth, Countess of Oxford.”

MLA Citation:

Cochran, Peter and Maria Schoina. “Timeline.” messolonghibyronsociety.gr. The Messolonghi Byron Society, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.messolonghibyronsociety.gr/index.php/en/lord-byron/timeline.html>.

In-Text: (Cochran and Schoina)

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APA Citation:

Cochran, P., & Schoina, M. (n.d.). Timeline. The Messolonghi Byron Society. Retrieved from http://www.messolonghibyronsociety.gr/index.php/en/lord-byron/timeline.html

In-Text: (Cochran & Schoina)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.newsteadabbeybyronsociety.org/life.htm

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Sample:

“If Byron had been an ordinary nobleman in ordinary times, the Grand Tour would have had him going around France and Italy, perhaps Germany, and certainly to Vienna, on a post-university tour financed by his father, and in the company of a wise, experienced, but socially inferior tutor. But Byron had no father to finance him, no wise tutor to accompany him; and France, Italy, Germany and Vienna were all out of the question because of the Napoleonic wars.

So instead he borrowed £4,800 from Scrope Davies, and, accompanied by Hobhouse – no wiser than he – and William Fletcher, his faithful valet, went to Portugal, Spain, Albania, Greece and Turkey instead. Portugal they found dirty and depraved, and were nearly mugged there; Byron at least swam the Tagus – the first of his three major swimming feats. They then rode over the border and through Spain via Seville and Cadiz to Gibraltar. At Seville their landlady offered herself to Byron, who, unused to such forwardness from a bourgeoise, failed to respond. She laughed at him. At Cadiz, Hobhouse caught the clap. They saw a bullfight.”

MLA Citation:

“Life of Byron.” newsteadabbeybyronsociety.org. The Newstead Abbey Byron Society, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.newsteadabbeybyronsociety.org/life.htm>.

In-Text: (“Life of Byron”)

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APA Citation:

Life of Byron. (n.d.). The Newstead Abbey Byron Society. Retrieved from http://www.newsteadabbeybyronsociety.org/life.htm

In-Text: (Life of Byron)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/lord-byron-19thcentury-bad-boy

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Sample:

“Although in his letters Byron confessed to having no interest in society – ‘I only go out to get me a fresh appetite for being alone,’ – his exploits and writings drew attention, at times adoring and at others deeply critical. It was in 1812 after the publication of the first part of his long narrative poem about a young aristocrat’s travels, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, that Byron became widely known, a celebrity in fashionable circles. With a noticeable limp due to a club-foot – a disability he had suffered with from birth – and a striking face, Byron’s physical presence also commanded attention. His fellow English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge commented in a letter on 10 April 1816 that Byron’s face was ‘so beautiful, a countenance I scarcely ever saw’ and ‘his eyes the open portals of the sun—things of light, and for light’. During his lifetime, Byron was notoriously protective of his image and directed his publisher John Murray to destroy any engravings of himself that he disliked. One portrait he endorsed was completed in 1813 by the artist Thomas Phillips.”

MLA Citation:

Drummond, Clara. “Lord Byron, 19th-century bad boy.” bl.uk. The British Library, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/lord-byron-19thcentury-bad-boy>.

In-Text: (Drummond)

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APA Citation:

Drummond, C. (n.d.). Lord Byron, 19th-century bad boy. The British Library. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/lord-byron-19thcentury-bad-boy

In-Text: (Drummond)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/achilles

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Sample:

“When he was 9 years old, a seer predicted that Achilles would die heroically in battle against the Trojans. When she heard about this, Thetis disguised him as a girl and sent him to live on the Aegean island of Skyros. To be a great warrior was Achilles’ fate, however, and he soon left Skyros and joined the Greek army. In a last-ditch effort to save her son’s life, Thetis asked the divine blacksmith Hephaestus to make a sword and shield that would keep him safe. The armor that Hephaestus produced for Achilles did not make him immortal, but it was distinctive enough to be recognized by friend and foe alike.”

MLA Citation:

“Achilles.” History.com. A+E Networks, 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/achilles>.

In-Text: (“Achilles”)

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APA Citation:

Achilles. (2011).  A+E Networks. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/achilles

In-Text: (Achilles)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.newyorker.com/culture/richard-brody/why-the-great-gatsby-endures

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Sample:

“Gatsby, returning stateside after five months in a program at Oxford reserved for American officers, spent three years doing the things that made him fabulously wealthy—bootlegging, maybe some gambling, maybe some shady financial dealings, maybe some oil business—and doing it apparently by design, in the hope of impressing and wooing Daisy. “

MLA Citation:

Broody, Richard. “Why ‘The Great Gatsby’ Endures.” newyorker.com. Conde Naste,  29 April 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.newyorker.com/culture/richard-brody/why-the-great-gatsby-endures>.

In-Text: (Broody)

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APA Citation:

Broody, R. (2013, April 29). Why The Great Gatsby Endures. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/culture/richard-brody/why-the-great-gatsby-endures

In-Text: (Broody, 2013)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.loc.gov/folklife/Symposia/Burns/AboutBurns.html

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Sample:

“Few poets have moved as easily between the worlds of rural folk poetry and urban literary circles as Robert Burns. A talented poet in both Scots and English, Burns was also a dedicated collector of folk songs and tunes, an able musician, and a gifted lyricist. “

MLA Citation:

“Robert Burns at 250: Poetry, Politics, and Performance”. The American Folklife Center. The Library of Congressman, n.d. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.loc.gov/folklife/Symposia/Burns/AboutBurns.html>.

In-Text: (Robert Burns at 250)

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APA Citation:

Robert Burns at 250: Poetry, Politics, and Performance. n.d. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/folklife/Symposia/Burns/AboutBurns.html

In-Text: (Robert Burns at 250)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.ijsl.stir.ac.uk/issue6/andrews.htm

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Sample:

“Despite its lack of biographical veracity, Thomson’s testimony of Burns’ ‘genius’ set the standard for critical responses to the poet and his works beginning immediately after his death. This essay provides a survey of these responses from 1796 to1828, revealing a consistent pattern of critical reception.”

MLA Citation:

Andrews, Corey E. “The Genius of Scotland: Robert Burns and His Critics , 1796-1828.” Internation Journal of Literature. Issue Six (2010): PAGES HERE. International Journal of Scottish Literature. <http://www.boston.com/jobs/news/jobdoc/2014/10/creating_landmark_research-bas.html>.

In-Text: (Andrews)

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APA Citation:

Andrews, Corey E. (2010). The Genius of Scotland: Robert Burns and His Critics. International Journal of Scottish Literature, Issue Six, PAGES HERE. Retrieved DATE OF ACCESS from http://www.ijsl.stir.ac.uk/issue6/andrews.htm

In-Text: (Andrews, 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://drb.lifestreamcenter.net/Lessons/RomJul/index.htm

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Sample:

“Drama is a literary composition involving conflict, action crisis and atmosphere designed to be acted by players on a stage before an audience. This definition may be applied to motion picture drama as well as to the traditional stage.

Apply these questions to a recent movie you have seen or a radio or television drama,

Conflict

What did the leading character want? What stood in his way? (People – environment- personality, etc,) What was the high point of tension or the crisis? (This is where the leading character must make a crucial decision that will effect the outcome of the play.)”

MLA Citation:

Burleson, Dr. Carolyn. “Drama”. drb.lifestreamcenter.com. Dr. Carolyn Burleson, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://drb.lifestreamcenter.net/Lessons/RomJul/index.htm>.

In-Text: (Burleson)

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APA Citation:

Burleson, Dr. C. (n.d.). Drama. Retrieved from http://drb.lifestreamcenter.net/Lessons/RomJul/index.htm

In-Text: (Burleson)

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URL:

http://www.shakespeare-literature.com/l_biography.html

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Sample:

“SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM (1564—1616), English poet, player and playwright, was baptized in the parish church of Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire on the 26th of April. Birth 1564. The exact date of his birth is not known. 18th-century antiquaries, William Oldys and Joseph Greene, gave it as April 23, but without quoting authority for their statements, and the fact that April 23 was the day of Shakespeare’s death in 1616 suggests a possible source of error. In any case his birthday cannot have been later than April 23, since the inscription upon his monument is evidence that on April 23, 1616, he had already begun his fifty-third year. His father, John Shakespeare, was a burgess of the recently constituted corporation of Stratford, and had already filled certain minor municipal offices. From 1561 to 1563 he had been one of the two chamberlains to whom the finance of the town was entrusted. By occupation he was a glover, but he also appears to have dealt from time to time in various kinds of agricultural produce, such as barley, timber and wool. Aubrey (Lives, 1680) spoke of him as a butcher, and it is quite possible that he bred and even killed the calves whose skins he manipulated. He is sometimes described in formal documents as a yeoman, and it is highly probable that he combined a certain amount of farming with the practice of his trade. He was living in Stratford as early as 1552, in which year he was fined for having a dunghill in Henley Street, but he does not appear to have been a native of the town, in whose records the name is not found before his time; and be may reasonably be identified with the John Shakespeare of Snitterfield, who administered the goods of his father, Richard Shakespeare, in 1561.”

MLA Citation:

“William Shakespeare Biography”. shakeseare-literature.com. Shakespeare-literature.com, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.shakespeare-literature.com/l_biography.html>.

In-Text: (“William Shakespeare Biography”)

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APA Citation:

William Shakespeare Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.shakespeare-literature.com/l_biography.html

In-Text: (William Shakespeare Biography)

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URL:

http://www.bardweb.net/man.html

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Sample:

“For all his fame and celebration, William Shakespeare remains a mysterious figure with regards to personal history. There are just two primary sources for information on the Bard: his works, and various legal and church documents that have survived from Elizabethan times. Naturally, there are many gaps in this body of information, which tells us little about Shakespeare the man.”

MLA Citation:

Pressley, J.M. “Shakespeare’s Biography”. barbweb.net. The Shakespeare Resource Center, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bardweb.net/man.html>.

In-Text: (Pressley)

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APA Citation:

Pressley, J. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bardweb.net/man.html

In-Text: (Pressley)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/122

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Sample:

“William Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564, in Stratford-on-Avon. The son of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden, he was probably educated at the King Edward IV Grammar School in Stratford, where he learned Latin and a little Greek and read the Roman dramatists. At eighteen, he married Anne Hathaway, a woman seven or eight years his senior. Together they raised two daughters: Susanna, who was born in 1583, and Judith (whose twin brother died in boyhood), born in 1585.”

MLA Citation:

“William Shakespeare”. poets.org. Academy of American Poets, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/122>.

In-Text: (“William Shakespeare”)

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APA Citation:

William Shakespeare. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/122

In-Text: (William Shakespeare)

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URL:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/nov/18/yossarian-slept-here-erica-heller-review?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487

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Sample:

“Heller owed it all to one novel, published by Simon & Schuster on 10 October 1961; copies cost $5.95, in a print run of 7,500. Erica Heller, in her memoir of her father, calls it simply “the book”. Tracy Daugherty, in his biography (Just One Catch: The Passionate Life of Joseph Heller, Robson Press, £25), traces the trajectory towards its publication: how Catch-22 became catch-22. Erica is concerned more with the consequences: how Catch-22 became a catch-22.”

MLA Citation:

Sanson, Ian. “Yossarian Slept Here by Erica Heller — Review”. guardian.co.uk. The Guardian, 18 Nov. 2011. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/nov/18/yossarian-slept-here-erica-heller-review?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487>.

In-Text: (Sanson)

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APA Citation:

Sanson, I. (18 Nov 2011). Yossarian Slept Here by Erica Heller — Review. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/nov/18/yossarian-slept-here-erica-heller-review?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487

In-Text: (Sanson)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/10/catch-22-50-years-joseph-heller

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Sample:

“The Catch-22 itself is a bureaucratic idiocy so sublime it leaves you staring out the window with wonder. As many of you will already know, the novel is set on a made-up island off the coast of Italy during the second world war, where an American bombing group is stationed. Desperate to impress his superiors, Colonel Cathcart keeps raising the number of missions his men have to fly. Our hero, Yossarian, has flown 50. Driven half-mad by his will to live, he wants out. But he’s thwarted by Catch-22, a clause which states that pilots don’t have to fly if they are certified as insane, but that being driven mad by fear is fundamentally rational. As it’s described in the novel: “Orr would be crazy to fly more missions and sane if he didn’t, but if he was sane he had to fly them. If he flew them he was crazy and didn’t have to; but if he didn’t want to he was sane and had to.” The result, put simply, is that no one can get off the ride.”

MLA Citation:

Cox, Chris. “Catch-22: 50 Years Later”. guardian.co.uk. The Guardian, 10 Oct. 2011. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/10/catch-22-50-years-joseph-heller>.

In-Text: (Cox)

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APA Citation:

Cox, Chris. (10 Oct, 2011). Catch-22: 50 Years Later. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), fromhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/10/catch-22-50-years-joseph-heller

In-Text: (Cox, 2011)

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URL:

http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/09/04/joseph-heller-catch-22-50th-anniversary-how-the-novel-changed-america.html

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Sample:

“Most books disappear quickly down the memory hole. Even powerful literary works rarely outlast their generation. The world moves on and last year’s sensation can seem as dated as yesterday’s papers. For a book to survive half a century it must excite passion in individual readers and touch a nerve in the national psyche. Joseph Heller’s much-loved 1961 novel Catch-22 is just such a book, as unkillable as Yossarian, its stubbornly nay-saying anti-hero. The novel did not take off immediately, despite the publisher’s brilliantly conceived roll-out, but it broke through the following year as a mass-market paperback when young people could afford to buy it. Mixed reviews showed that its farcical deflation of a Mediterranean bombing campaign late in the “good war,” and especially its cartoonish technique, could make it a closed book to many older readers. But word-of-mouth and changing times soon made it a classic.”

MLA Citation:

Dickstein, Morris. “The Catch in ‘Cathc-22′”. thedailybeast.com. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Company LLC, 4 Sep. 2011. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/09/04/joseph-heller-catch-22-50th-anniversary-how-the-novel-changed-america.html>.

In-Text: (Dickstein)

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APA Citation:

Dickstein, M. (4 Sep, 2011). The Catch in “Catch-22”. Retrieved (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE), from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/09/04/joseph-heller-catch-22-50th-anniversary-how-the-novel-changed-america.html

In-Text: (Dickstein, 2011)

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URL:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/booksblog/2013/jan/30/rereading-stephen-king-christine

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Sample:

“Christine is the story of Arnold “Arnie” Cunningham (a name taken from two Happy Days characters), a shortsighted bookish type (a “loser”) who has only one friend and not much of a life. He’s an aching stereotype, but that’s not always a bad thing – as King had shown before – particularly when the stereotype breaks their mould and becomes the hero. So, we accept that he is somewhat nerdy; we accept that his one friend, Dennis, is one of the most hollow characters King has ever written, seemingly existing only to tell Arnie to be careful (and given that he’s the narrator of the book, that’s some going); and we accept that Arnie would see a battered, ruined 1958 Plymouth Fury on his way home from school and just buy it. No ifs or buts: he’s taken in, wanting to be cool, and he falls in love.”

MLA Citation:

Smythe, James. “Rereading Stephen King: week 15 – Christine”. guardian.co.uk. The Guardian, 30 Jan. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/booksblog/2013/jan/30/rereading-stephen-king-christine>.

In-Text: (Smythe)

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APA Citation:

Smythe, J. (30 Jan, 2013). Rereading Stephen King: week 15 – Christine. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/booksblog/2013/jan/30/rereading-stephen-king-christine

In-Text: (Smythe)

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URL:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/jun/22/rereading-stephen-king-the-shining

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Sample:

“The Shining is the story of Jack Torrance, who is employed as the caretaker of the gargantuan Overlook Hotel in Colorado one winter. Moving his wife, Wendy, and their son, Danny, into it for the season, he hopes to find peace: to finish his writing project, to escape his latent alcoholism, and to stich his fractured family unit together. But when they’re alone, Jack appears to go insane, pushed into fantasy – or hallucination. Eventually, he attacks his family, attempting to kill them in a twisted mirroring of the awful events that, it transpires, occurred in the hotel’s past. This is the story of both King’s 1977 novel and Stanley Kubrick’s film adaptation three years later, but they’re vastly distinctive beasts. For the King fan, however, it’s hard to think of one without the other. The Shining is two stories, both the same, but somehow very different.”

MLA Citation:

Smythe, James. “Rereading Stephen King: week three – The Shining”. gaurdian.co.uk. The Gaurdian, 22 Jun. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/jun/22/rereading-stephen-king-the-shining>.

In-Text: (Smythe)

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APA Citation: 

Smythe, J. (22 Jun, 2012). Rereading Stephen King: week three – The Shining. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/jun/22/rereading-stephen-king-the-shining

In-Text: (Smythe)

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URL:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/may/24/rereading-stephen-king-carrie

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Sample:

“Structurally it’s a really weird one, with a standard Kingian third-person narrative voice interspersed with extracts from other media: newspaper reports, autobiographies of characters, transcripts of police interviews, that sort of thing. It’s not a structure that entirely works, as the extracts are still slightly too close to King’s standard narrative voice, and are often the worst (read: slowest) parts of the novel. While still reeling from the excitement of some of the third-person sections – particularly the classic prom scene – being dragged somewhere else entirely and presented with an often less-interesting viewpoint isn’t always ideal. (In particular, there’s a series of extracts from Susan Snell’s fake biography; none are very interesting. Apart from anything else, they don’t read like biography: they read like monologues.)”

MLA Citation:

Smythe, James. “Rereading Stephen King: week one – Carrie”. gaurdian.co.uk. The Gaurdian, 24 May. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/may/24/rereading-stephen-king-carrie>.

In-Text: (Smythe)

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APA Citation:

Smythe, J. (24 May, 2012). Rereading Stephen King: week one – Carrie. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/may/24/rereading-stephen-king-carrie

In-Text: (Smythe)

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URL:

http://absoluteshakespeare.com/guides/hamlet/characters/characters.htm

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Sample:

“Claudius: The present King of Denmark, King Claudius took Queen Gertrude whom he loves as his queen and wife, much to the consternation of Hamlet who believes his mother has betrayed him and his father’s memory by doing so. Cautious and suspicious, Claudius has courtiers Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and Hamlet’s love interest Ophelia spying on Hamlet for him since as he says, the great ones must be watched. Distrustful of Hamlet and his “madness”, King Claudius has Hamlet deported to England to be killed when he fears he has become a threat.”

MLA Citation:

“Hamlet, Prince of Denmark Characters”. absoluteshakespeare.com. AbsoluteShakespeare.com, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://absoluteshakespeare.com/guides/hamlet/characters/characters.htm>.

In-Text: (“Hamlet, Prince of Denmark”)

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APA Citation:

Hamlet, Prince of Denamrk Characters. (n.d.). Absoluteshakespeare.com. Retrieved from http://absoluteshakespeare.com/guides/hamlet/characters/characters.htm

In-Text: (Absoluteshakespeare.com)

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URL:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/9934731/They-could-be-savage-and-sensual.html

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Sample:

“Nor the documentary suggests were they quite the blushing virgins we imagine. When Charlotte and Emily stayed in Brussels to improve their French, the former fell passionately in love with her married tutor, Constantin Heger. Although unlikely that the love was consummated, the British Library holds parchment letters ripped up by Heger to avoid detection and carefully sewn back together by his nosy wife, in which Charlotte makes her ardour plain.”

MLA Citation:

Lockyer, Daphne. “‘They could be savage and sensual'”. telegraph.co.uk. Telegraph Media Group, 17 Mar. 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/9934731/They-could-be-savage-and-sensual.html>.

In-Text: (Lockyer)

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APA Citation:

Lockyer, Daphne. (17 Mar, 2013). They could be savage and sensual. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/9934731/They-could-be-savage-and-sensual.html

In-Text: (Lockyer, 2013)

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Read More Comments Off on Bronte Sisters, Documentary

CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/bronte_sisters.shtml

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Sample:

“Charlotte was born on 21 April 1816, Emily on 30 July 1818 and Anne on 17 January 1820 all in Thornton, Yorkshire. They had two sisters, both of whom died in childhood and a brother, Branwell. Their father, Patrick, was an Anglican clergyman who was appointed as the rector of the village of Haworth, on the Yorkshire moors. After the death of their mother in 1821, their Aunt Elizabeth came to look after the family.”

MLA Citation:

“The Brontë Sisters (1818-1855)”. bbc.co.uk. BBC, 2013.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/bronte_sisters.shtml>.

In-Text: (“The Brontë Sisters (1818-1855)”)

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APA Citation:

The Brontë Sisters (1818-1855). 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/bronte_sisters.shtml

In-Text: (The Brontë Sisters (1818-1855), 2013)

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URL:

http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1027439,00.html

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Sample:

“There was another struggle in Miller, who died today at 89: between the polemicist’s need to blame society for its ills and the artist’s gift for discovering shadings, ambiguities, in the best or worst of men — for fleshing caricature into character. Blame runs through Miller’s two early Broadway hits, All My Sons (1947) and Death of a Salesman(1949) like toxic waste in a sylvan stream. Joe Keller, the munitions manufacturer in the first play, fudges the specs on airplane cylinders; to do otherwise would doom his company and, he thinks, his family. Because of his shortsightedness, other men’s sons die, and Joe pins the crime on his partner. Blame blame, shame shame. Willy Loman is not so black-and-white a figure — at least, not so black — but his compulsion to be accepted, along with his adulteries on the road and his inability to understand his sons, certainly set him up for the audience’s disapproval.”

MLA Citation:

Corliss, Richard. time.com. Time Inc., 11 Feb. 2005.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1027439,00.html>.

In-Text: (Corliss)

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APA Citation:

Corliss, R. (11 Feb, 2005). Death of The Salesman. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1027439,00.html

In-Text: (Corliss, 2005)

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URL:

http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/quotations/famous-quotations-and-stories

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Sample:

” “Never Surrender”

“We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air. We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing-grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender!”

—House of Commons, 4 June 1940, following the evacuation of British and French armies from Dunkirk as the German tide swept through France.”

MLA Citation:

“Famous Quotations and Stories”. winstonchurchill.org. The Churchill Centre and Museum at the Churchill War Rooms, 8 Oct. 2012.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/quotations/famous-quotations-and-stories>.

In-Text: (Famous Quotations and Stories)

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APA Citation:

Famous Quotations and Stories. (8 Oct, 2012). Retrieved from http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/quotations/famous-quotations-and-stories

In-Text: (Famous Quotations and Stories)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

 

URL:

http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/biography/biography

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Sample:

“He won early fame as a war correspondent, covering the Cuban revolt against Spain (1895), and British campaigns in the Northwest Frontier of India (1897), the Sudan (1898) and South Africa during the Boer War (1899).”

MLA Citation:

Hayward, Steven. “Chart of Achievements.” winstonchurchill.org. The Churchill Centre and Museum at the Churchill War Rooms, 12 May. 2011, http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/biography/biography. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE).

In-Text: (Hayward)

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APA Citation:

Hayward, S. (12 May, 2011). Chart of achievements. The Churchill Centre and Museum at the Churchill War Rooms. Retrieved from http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/biography/biography

In-Text: (Hayward, 2011)

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Read More Comments Off on Winston Churchill, Chart of Achievements, Life and Career – WinstonChurchill.org

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URL:

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1953/churchill-bio.html

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Sample:

“The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965), the son of Lord Randolph Churchill and an American mother, was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst. After a brief but eventful career in the army, he became a Conservative Member of Parliament in 1900. He held many high posts in Liberal and Conservative governments during the first three decades of the century. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty – a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915. In May, 1940, he became Prime Minister and Minister of Defence and remained in office until 1945. He took over the premiership again in the Conservative victory of 1951 and resigned in 1955. However, he remained a Member of Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election. Queen Elizabeth II conferred on Churchill the dignity of Knighthood and invested him with the insignia of the Order of the Garter in 1953. Among the other countless honours and decorations he received, special mention should be made of the honorary citizenship of the United States which President Kennedy conferred on him in 1963.”

MLA Citation:

“The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953”. nobelprize.org. The Nobel Foundation, 1969.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1953/churchill-bio.html>.

In-Text: (The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953)

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APA Citation:

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953. (1969). Retrieved from http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1953/churchill-bio.html

In-Text: (The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953)

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URL:

http://shakespearean.org.uk/ham1-haz.htm

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Sample:

“Hamlet is a name; his speeches and sayings but the idle coinage of the poet’s brain. What then, are they not real? They are as real as our own thoughts. Their reality is in the reader’s mind. It is we who are Hamlet. This play has a prophetic truth, which is above that of history. Whoever has become thoughtful and melancholy through his own mishaps or those of others; whoever has borne about with him the clouded brow of reflection, and thought himself “too much i’ th’ sun;” whoever has seen the golden lamp of day dimmed by envious mists rising in his own breast, and could find in the world before him only a dull blank with nothing left remarkable in it; whoever has known “the pangs of despised love, the insolence of office, or the spurns which patient merit of the unworthy takes;” he who has felt his mind sink within him, and sadness cling to his heart like a malady, who has had his hopes blighted and his youth staggered by the apparitions of strange things; who cannot well be at ease, while he sees evil hovering near him like a spectre; whose powers of action have been eaten up by thought, he to whom the universe seems infinite, and himself nothing; whose bitterness [75] of soul makes him careless of consequences, and who goes to a play as his best resource is to shove off, to a second remove, the evils of life by a mock representation of them – this is the true Hamlet.”

MLA Citation:

Hazlitt, William. “Characters of Shakespeare’s Plays”. shakespearean.org.uk. n.p., n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://shakespearean.org.uk/ham1-haz.htm>.

In-Text: (Hazlitt)

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APA Citation:

Hazlitt, William. (n.d.). Characters of Shakespear’s Plays. Retrieved from http://shakespearean.org.uk/ham1-haz.htm

In-Text: (Hazlitt, n.d.)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://www.bartleby.com/200/sw9.html

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Sample:

“FEW critics have even admitted that Hamlet the play is the primary problem, and Hamlet the character only secondary. And Hamlet the character has had an especial temptation for that most dangerous type of critic: the critic with a mind which is naturally of the creative order, but which through some weakness in creative power exercises itself in criticism instead. These minds often find in Hamlet a vicarious existence for their own artistic realization. Such a mind had Goethe, who made of Hamlet a Werther; and such had Coleridge, who made of Hamlet a Coleridge; and probably neither of these men in writing about Hamlet remembered that his first business was to study a work of art. The kind of criticism that Goethe and Coleridge produced, in writing of Hamlet, is the most misleading kind possible. For they both possessed unquestionable critical insight, and both make their critical aberrations the more plausible by the substitution—of their own Hamlet for Shakespeare’s—which their creative gift effects. We should be thankful that Walter Pater did not fix his attention on this play.”

MLA Citation:

Eliot, T.S. Hamlet and His Problems (1921). bartleby.com. Bartleby.com, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.bartleby.com/200/sw9.html>.

In-Text: (Eliot)

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APA Citation:

Eliot, T.S. (1921). Hamlet and His Problems. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/200/sw9.html

In-Text: (T.S. Eliot, 1921)

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URL:

http://www.pastemagazine.com/articles/2010/07/the-booky-man-revisiting-to-kill-a-mockingbird-on.html

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Sample:

“After nearly 50 years in print, Mockingbird is surely the most widely read work of fiction about race relations ever printed. The book still sells a million copies a year, a staple of the syllabus of high schools and universities all over the world. Harper Lee still lives in the little town of Monroeville, in the Black Belt of Alabama, where she firmly turns down nearly every interview and PR opportunity, as she has since shortly after the book came out. Lee has friends, lots of them, and a social life. But the reporter’s notebook and the unblinking eye of the TV camera never suited her.”

MLA Citation:

McNair, Charles. pastemagazine.com. Paste Media Group, 15 Jul. 2010.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.pastemagazine.com/articles/2010/07/the-booky-man-revisiting-to-kill-a-mockingbird-on.html>.

In-Text: (McNair)

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APA Citation:

McNair, C. (15 Jul, 2010). The Booky Man: Revisiting ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ on Its 50th Anniversary. Retrieved from http://www.pastemagazine.com/articles/2010/07/the-booky-man-revisiting-to-kill-a-mockingbird-on.html

In-Text: (McNair, 2010)

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Read More Comments Off on To Kill a Mockingbird, Review, Harper Lee

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