Credible Sources for Alcoholism

CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827719/

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Sample:

“Alcohol hangovers are not limited to students and young adults. Hangovers are also common in the workplace. Frone [10] found that 9.23% (11.6 million workers) of the US workforce reported to work with a hangover in the past year, making it the most common form of alcohol-related workplace impairment in the survey. There is a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and next-day workplace absenteeism. A survey among 280 employees revealed a two-fold increased likelihood of absenteeism the day after alcohol consumption [11]. From the 173 days of absenteeism (of 5493 days at ‘risk’), 74 days (43%) occurred the day after alcohol consumption. Interviews by Ames and colleagues [12] revealed that about half of interviewed workers reported being at work while having a hangover. During hangover, workers felt significantly sicker, had conflicts or fights with co-workers and their supervisor, problems in completing the job, and fell asleep at work. Reduced productivity is common when having a hangover at work. A recent Norwegian study [13] concluded that alcohol hangover is the largest substance abuse problem at the workplace. Employees reported that during the past year hangovers had resulted at least once in inefficient work (24.3%) and absence (6.2%).”

MLA Citation:

Verster, Joris C. et al. “The Alcohol Hangover Research Group Consensus Statement on Best Practice in Alcohol Hangover Research.” Current drug abuse reviews 3.2 (2010): 116–126. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827719/>.

In-Text: (Verster et al.)

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APA Citation:

Verster, J. C., Stephens, R., Penning, R., Rohsenow, D., McGeary, J., Levy, D., … Young, M. (2010). The Alcohol Hangover Research Group Consensus Statement on Best Practice in Alcohol Hangover Research. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 3(2), 116–126. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827719/

In-Text: (Verster et al., 2010)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://alcalc.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/2/124

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Sample:

“Many people favour the (unproven) popular belief that dehydration is the main cause of alcohol hangover symptoms. However, taking a closer look at the present research on biological changes during alcohol hangovers suggests otherwise. A limited number of experiments have studied biological changes that are present the day after excessive drinking (for a review, see Ylikahri and Huttunen, 1977). Significant changes were reported on endocrine parameters (increased concentrations of vasopressin, aldosterone, and renin) and metabolic acidosis (reduced blood pH values due to increased concentrations of lactate, ketone bodies, and free fatty acids). These effects are related to dehydration and cause symptoms such as dry mouth and thirst. In addition, changes in immune system parameters (increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokine [IL-12] and interferon-gamma [IFNγ]) have been reported (Kim et al., 2003). It is likely that these changes in immune system parameters cause the more ‘cognitive’ alcohol hangover effects such as memory impairment and mood changes. Moreover, these findings suggest that alcohol hangover and dehydration are two independent yet co-occurring processes that have different underlying mechanisms. The idea that alcohol hangover symptoms (i.e. memory impairment) are related to immune system activation is strengthened by a relatively new discovery that the immune system and central nervous system (CNS) operate in close communication with each other (Maier and Watkins, 1998; Maier, 2003).”

MLA Citation:

Verster, Joris. “The alcohol hangover–a puzzling phenomenon.” Alcohol and Alcoholism 43.2 (Mar. 2008): 124-126. (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://alcalc.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/2/124>.

In-Text: (Verster)

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APA Citation:

Verster, J. (2008, Mar.). The alcohol hangover–a puzzling phenomenon. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 43(2), 124-126. DOI: 10.1093/alcalc/agm163

In-Text: (Verster, 2008)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh22-1/54-60.pdf

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Sample:

“Hangovers are a frequent, though unpleasant, experience among people who drink to intoxication. Despite the prevalence of hangovers, however, this condition is not well understood scientifically. Multiple possible contributors to the hangover state have been investigated, and researchers have produced evidence that alcohol can directly promote hangover symptoms through its effects on urine production, the gastrointestinal tract, blood sugar concentrations, sleep patterns, and biological rhythms. In addition, researchers postulate that effects related to alcohol’s absence after a drinking bout (i.e., withdrawal), alcohol metabolism, and other factors (e.g., biologically active, nonalcohol compounds in beverages; the use of other drugs; certain personality traits; and a family history of alcoholism) also may contribute to the hangover condition. Few of the treatments commonly described for hangover have undergone scientific evaluation. KEY WORDS: post AOD intoxication state; symptom; urinalysis; gastrointestinal disorder; hypoglycemia; sleep disorder; circadian rhythm; ethanol metabolite; disorder of fluid or electrolyte or acid-base balance; nutrient intake; headache; vomiting; neurotransmitter receptors; congenors; multiple drug use; personality trait; family AODU (alcohol and other drug use) history; drug therapy; literature review”

MLA Citation:

Swift, Robert, and Dena Davidson. “Alcohol Hangover.” Alcohol Health and Research World 22.1 (1998): 54-60.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh22-1/54-60.pdf>.

In-Text: (Swift and Davidson)

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APA Citation:

Swift, R., & Davidson, D. (1998). Alcohol hangover. Alcohol Health and Research World, 22, 54-60. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh22-1/54-60.pdf

In-Text: (Swift & Davidson, 1998)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2011/p1017_alcohol_consumption.html

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Sample:

“Excessive alcohol consumption, or heavy drinking, is defined as consuming an average of more than one alcoholic beverage per day for women, and an average of more than two alcoholic beverages per day for men, and any drinking by pregnant women or underage youth.

Researchers found the costs largely resulted from losses in workplace productivity (72 percent of the total cost), health care expenses for problems caused by excessive drinking (11 percent of the total cost), law enforcement and other criminal justice expenses related to excessive alcohol consumption (9 percent of the total cost), and motor vehicle crash costs from impaired driving (6 percent of the total cost). The study did not consider a number of other costs such as those due to pain and suffering by the excessive drinker or others who were affected by the drinking, and thus may be an underestimate. Researchers estimated that excessive drinking cost $746 per person in the United States in 2006.”

MLA Citation:

“CDC reports excessive alcohol consumption cost the U.S. $224 billion in 2006.” cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 17 Oct. 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2011/p1017_alcohol_consumption.html>.

In-Text: (“CDC reports excessive alcohol consumption cost the U.S. $224 billion in 2006”)

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APA Citation:

CDC reports excessive alcohol consumption cost the U.S. $224 billion in 2006. (2011, Oct. 17). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2011/p1017_alcohol_consumption.html

In-Text: (“CDC reports excessive alcohol consumption cost the U.S. $224 billion in 2006”, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/in-search-of-a-cure-for-the-dreaded-hangover/

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Sample:

“But what do scientists say? After all, hangovers cost the U.S. alone some $224 billion a year in workplace productivity declines, drinking-related health care expenses, law enforcement, and motor vehicle accident and fatality costs, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control.

Beyond the fiscal damage, scientists take the hangover seriously for more reasons than helping postdrinking pain. “Studying alcohol can tell us how the body works in its normal fashion,” says Michael Oshinsky, director of preclinical research at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia, who studies hangovers to better understand migraines. When the body is pushed to its physical limits to metabolize alcohol, it helps show what causes headaches—one of the common components of the hangover.”

MLA Citation:

Minnick, Fred. “In Search of a Cure for the Dreaded Hangover.” scientificamerican.com. Scientific American, 17 Mar. 2014.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/in-search-of-a-cure-for-the-dreaded-hangover/>.

In-Text: (Minnick)

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APA Citation:

Minnick, F. (2014, Mar. 17). In search of a cure for the dreaded hangover. Scientific American. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/in-search-of-a-cure-for-the-dreaded-hangover/

In-Text: (Minnick, 2014)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.wired.com/2014/05/hangover-cure/

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Sample:

“Over the past five years, AHRG has put out research to reveal that pretty much everything anyone has ever told you about the causes of hangover is wrong—or at least unproven.

Take dehydration. Sure, it makes sense: Alcohol suppresses the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, which ordinarily keeps you from peeing too much. Plus, if you’re drinking booze, you’re probably not drinking water. But in dehydrated people with hangovers, levels of electrolytes don’t differ too much from baseline controls—and when they do, they don’t correlate with hangover severity.”

MLA Citation:

Rogers, Adam. “Everything Science Knows About Hangovers—And How to Cure Them.” wired.com. Wired Magazine, 20 May 2014.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.wired.com/2014/05/hangover-cure/>.

In-Text: (Rogers)

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APA Citation:

Rogers, A. (2014, May 20). Everything science knows about hangovers—And how to cure them. Wired Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/2014/05/hangover-cure/

In-Text: (Rogers, 2014)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Hangovers/beyondHangovers.pdf

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Sample:

“A brightly colored cosmopolitan is the drink of choice for the glamorous characters in Sex and the City. James Bond depends on his famous martini—shaken, not stirred—to unwind with after confounding a villain. And what wedding concludes without a champagne toast? Alcohol is part of our culture—it helps us celebrate and socialize, and it enhances our religious ceremonies. But drinking too much—on a single occasion or over time—can have serious consequences for our health. Most Americans recognize that drinking too much can lead to accidents and dependence. But that’s only part of the story. In addition to these serious problems, alcohol abuse can damage organs, weaken the immune system, and contribute to cancers.”

MLA Citation:

“Beyond Hangovers.” pubs.niaaa.nih.gov. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Oct. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Hangovers/beyondHangovers.pdf>.

In-Text: (“Beyond Hangovers”)

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APA Citation:

Beyond hangovers. (2015, Oct.). National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Hangovers/beyondHangovers.pdf

In-Text: (“Beyond hangovers”, 2015)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/alcohols-effects-body

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Sample:

Heart: Drinking a lot over a long time or too much on a single occasion can damage the heart, causing problems including:

  • Cardiomyopathy – Stretching and drooping of heart muscle
  • Arrhythmias – Irregular heart beat
  • Stroke
  • High blood pressure

Research also shows that drinking moderate amounts of alcohol may protect healthy adults from developing coronary heart disease.”

MLA Citation:

“Alcohol’s Effects on the Body.” niaaa.nih.gov. National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, n.d.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/alcohols-effects-body>.

In-Text: (“Alcohol’s Effects on the Body”)

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APA Citation:

Alcohol’s effects on the body. Retrieved from http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/alcohols-effects-body

In-Text: (“Alcohol’s Effects on the Body”)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.htm

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Sample:

“Under DSM–IV, the diagnostic criteria for abuse and dependence were distinct: anyone meeting one or more of the “abuse” criteria (see items 1 through 4) within a 12-month period would receive the “abuse” diagnosis. Anyone with three or more of the “dependence” criteria (see items 5 through 11) during the same 12-month period would receive a “dependence” diagnosis.

Under DSM–5, anyone meeting any two of the 11 criteria during the same 12-month period would receive a diagnosis of AUD. The severity of an AUD—mild, moderate, or severe—is based on the number of criteria met.”

 

MLA Citation:

“Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5.” pubs.nih.niaa.gov. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Jul. 2015.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.htm>.

In-Text: (“Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5”)

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APA Citation:

Alcohol Use Disorder: A comparison between DSM–IV and DSM–5. (2015, Jul.). National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.htm

In-Text: (“Alcohol Use Disorder: A comparison between DSM–IV and DSM–5”, 2015)

Note: You can shorten the in-text citation to just the first few words when citing a long title, but may not want to if you have similarly titled references you will be citing in-text. As long as it is still clear which reference you are citing from your bibliography you can shorten the in-text citation. The in-text citation MUST always start the same way the citation on your reference page or bibliography does. 

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm

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Sample:

“Clear, accurate definitions of medical conditions and disorders are important for research and clinical practice. The most widely used definitions for alcohol use disorders are found in two major classification systems of disease: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals of Mental Disorders (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Research on treatment, human genetics, and epidemiology relies on these sets of criteria to define alcohol abuse and dependence diagnoses. For example, alcoholism treatment studies often use definitions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM–IV) (APA 1994) to define inclusion criteria for subjects. Genetics studies use definitions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM–III–R) (APA 1987); the DSM–IV; or the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) (WHO 1993) to define sets of alcohol–related characteristics (i.e., phenotypes) under study. Epidemiologic research relies on DSM–IV definitions to define the alcohol use disorders enumerated in the general population and in various population subgroups. In addition, clinicians use DSM or ICD definitions as a common language in their communication about patients. DSM and ICD systems also serve an important educational function because they are used as introductory material on alcoholism for students and trainees from a variety of disciplines. As such, the concepts and definitions of DSM and ICD alcohol diagnoses form a unifying framework that underlies research and discussion of alcoholism in the United States and in other countries.”

MLA Citation:

Hasin, Deborah. “Classification of Alcohol Use Disorders.” pubs.niaaa.nih.gov. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Dec. 2003.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm>.

In-Text: (Hasin)

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APA Citation:

Hasin, D. (2003, Dec.). Classification of alcohol use and disorders. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm

In-Text: (Hasin)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE

URL:

https://www.k-state.edu/counseling/student/aodes_news/sp11vol54.pdf

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Sample:

“Personality traits are part inherited and part learned. Scientists have not been able to identifu a specific personality type that is more prone to alcohol dependency, although certain traits may be associatedwith high alcohol use. Low self-esteem is sometimes correlated with alcohol dependency, as is risk-taking or poor impulse control. Individuals who experience depression, anxiety, or phobias are also often at higher risk for developing alcohol dependence. Debate continues, however, over which comes first! Is a depressed or anxious person more likely to use alcohol to relieve their symptoms? Or, is a person who abuses alcohol more likely to become depressed and anxious? These are questions that researchers haven’t definitively answered.”

MLA Citation:

“Alcoholism: Nature vs. Nurture”. k-state.edu. KSU Alcohol and Other Drug Education Service, 2011.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <https://www.k-state.edu/counseling/student/aodes_news/sp11vol54.pdf>.

In-Text: (“Alcoholism: Nature vs Nurture”)

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APA Citation:

Alcoholism: Nature vs. nurture. (2011). KSU Alcohol and Other Drug Education Service. Retrieved from https://www.k-state.edu/counseling/student/aodes_news/sp11vol54.pdf

In-Text: (Alcoholism: Nature vs. nurture, 2011)

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CREDIBLE SOURCE:

 

URL:

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm

Sorry to bother you but you should probably sell your old books…

Samples:

“Difficulty walking, blurred vision, slurred speech, slowed reaction times, impaired memory: Clearly, alcohol affects the brain. Some of these impairments are detectable after only one or two drinks and quickly resolve when drinking stops. On the other hand, a person who drinks heavily over a long period of time may have brain deficits that persist well after he or she achieves sobriety. Exactly how alcohol affects the brain and the likelihood of reversing the impact of heavy drinking on the brain remain hot topics in alcohol research today.”

“Blackouts are much more common among social drinkers than previously assumed and should be viewed as a potential consequence of acute intoxication regardless of age or whether the drinker is clinically dependent on alcohol (2). White and colleagues (3) surveyed 772 college undergraduates about their experiences with blackouts and asked, “Have you ever awoken after a night of drinking not able to remember things that you did or places that you went?” Of the students who had ever consumed alcohol, 51 percent reported blacking out at some point in their lives, and 40 percent reported experiencing a blackout in the year before the survey. Of those who reported drinking in the 2 weeks before the survey, 9.4 percent said they blacked out during that time. The students reported learning later that they had participated in a wide range of potentially dangerous events they could not remember, including vandalism, unprotected sex, and driving.”

MLA Citation:

“Alcohol’s Damaging Effects on the Brain”. pubs.niaaa.nih.gov. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Oct. 2004.  (PUT DATE OF ACCESS HERE). <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm>.

In-Text: (“Alcohol’s Damaging Effects on the Brain”)

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APA Citation:

Alcohol’s Damaging Effects on the Brain. (Oct, 2004). Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm

In-Text: (Alcohol’s Damaging Effects on the Brain)

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